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Adam Sedbergh

(c. 1502 - 1537) [VCH Yorkshire, vol. 3 (1974) pp. 138-42; ODNB]

Cistercian monk; deacon of York 1527; last abbot of Jervaulx (1533 - 37); threatened by rebels, joined the Pilgrimage of Grace 1536; condemned for treason, executed. The abbey and possessions reverted to the Crown.

Adam Sedbergh and other rebels were executed in 1537. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

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Charles Brandon

(c. 1484 - 1545) [ODNB]

1st duke of Suffolk (1514 - 45); courtier and soldier; married Margaret, Henry VIII's sister, widow of Louis XII

When reaction in Suffolk to Cardinal Wolsey's exactions threatened to turn violent, the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk calmed the people. 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

The duke of Suffolk tested the basin of water for Cardinal Wolsey when Henry VIII attended mass after receiving the papal bull granting him the title of defender of the faith. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Thomas Wolsey was indicted for praemunire, his goods were confiscated, and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk were sent to remove from him the great seal. They were then assigned to hear causes in the Star Chamber. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

The duke of Suffolk was sent to Catherine of Aragon after her divorce from the king to reduce the size of her household, removing those who refused to serve her as princess rather than queen. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

The duke of Suffolk walked on the left side of the dowager duchess of Norfolk, godmother to Princess Elizabeth, at the christening of the princess. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

The king sent the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the marquess of Exeter and the earl of Shrewsbury into Yorkshire to put down the Pilgrimage of Grace. 1570, pp. 1237-38; 1576, pp. 1059-60; 1583, pp. 1086-87.

The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Thomas Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Geoffrey Loveday was charged with supplying money to Adam Damplip in Calais. He was able to prove that he had been in Paris at the time, seeing to the affairs of the duke of Suffolk. 1563, p. 663; 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

The duke of Suffolk was one of those appointed commissioner for Calais in 1540. 1563, p. 664; 1570, p. 1404; 1576, p. 1197; 1583, p. 1226.

The duke of Suffolk's chaplain, Alexander Seton, was presented in London in 1541 for a sermon he had preached. 1570, p. 1379; 1576, p. 1177; 1583, p. 1205.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

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Edward Hall

(1497 - 1547) [ODNB]

Lawyer and historian; BA Cambridge 1518; entered Gray's Inn by 1521; among those invited to Bridewell to hear Henry VIII's oration on his divorce; MP Much Wenlock 1529, 1536; MP (unknown) 1539; MP Bridgnorth 1542

When Queen Catherine learned from the legates that they had been deputed to determine the matter of a divorce between the king and her, she composed an answer to them. Campeggi wrote down her answer in French, which was then translated by Edward Hall. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, pp. 1193-94; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

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Edward Hall reported that Pavier, the town clerk of the city of London, had said that if the king sanctioned an English edition of the scriptures and allowed people to read it, he (Pavier) would cut his throat. He later hanged himself. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

Hall included an account of Sir Thomas More in his chronicle. 1570, p. 1217; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1069.

Hall spoke in favour of the Act of Six Articles in parliament. 1563, p. 660.

Edward Hall was named in a commission from Henry VIII to Edmund Bonner as one who was required to execute the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1375; 1576, p. 1173; 1583, p. 1202.

After Anne Askew had been examined by Bonner and Wymmesley, Christopher Brittayn brought Edward Hall and others, and Bonner urged them, as her friends, to get her to speak fully. 1563, p. 671; 1570, p. 1415; 1576, p. 1205; 1583, p. 1235.

Hall witnessed Anne Askew's confession. 1563, p. 673; 1570, p. 1416; 1576, p. 1207; 1583, p. 1237.

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Edward Kirkby

(d. by 1557) []

Cistercian monk; BTh Oxford 1525; abbot of Rievaulx Abbey (1530 - 33); forced by a royal commission to confess to charges and resign; resignation opposed by most of the monks. He retired to Jervaulx Abbey and became involved in the Pilgrimage of Grace; sentenced to death but later reprieved; vicar of Newport, Essex (1539-46); rector of St Nicholas Olave, London 1546

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Foxe says that the abbot of Rievaulx and other rebels were executed in 1537. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

[The abbot of Rievaulx in 1536-37 was Roland Blyton, a royal appointee, who was not involved in the rebellion.]

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George Lumley

(d. 1537) [ODNB]

Rebel: involved in the 2nd phase of the Pilgrimage of Grace led by Sir Francis Bigod. Hanged, drawn, quartered

[Foxe calls him William Lomley]

Lumley and other rebels were executed in 1537. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

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George Talbot

(1468 - 1538) [ODNB]

4th earl of Shrewsbury (1473 - 1538) and 4th earl of Waterford; magnate; great steward of the king's household

The earl of Northumberland was given a commission by the king to arrest Thomas Wolsey at Cawood Castle and turn him over to the earl of Shrewsbury. Although Wolsey protested, he submitted to the arrest. 1570, p. 1132; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

The king sent the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the marquess of Exeter and the earl of Shrewsbury into Yorkshire to put down the Pilgrimage of Grace. 1570, pp. 1237-38; 1576, pp. 1059-60; 1583, pp. 1086-87.

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Henry Courtenay

(1498/9 - 1538) [ODNB]

Marquess of Exeter (1525 - 38); courtier

The marquess of Exeter carried the wax candle at the christening of Princess Elizabeth. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

The king sent the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the marquess of Exeter and the earl of Shrewsbury into Yorkshire to put down the Pilgrimage of Grace. 1570, pp. 1237-38; 1576, pp. 1059-60; 1583, pp. 1086-87.

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James V of Scotland

(1512 - 1542) [ODNB]

King of the Scots (1513 - 42)

James Hamilton, Katherine Hamilton, David Straiton, a woman of Leith, and Norman Gourlay were summoned to appear in the abbey church of Holyrood House, Edinburgh, by James Hay, commissioner to the archbishop of St Andrews, in the presence of King James V, who was dressed entirely in red. 1570, p. 1117; 1576, p. 955; 1583, p. 982.

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King James advised James Hamilton not to appear, since he could not help him if he did. Hamilton fled, was convicted of heresy and had his goods confiscated. The king encouraged the others to recant. 1570, p. 1117; 1576, p. 956; 1583, p. 982.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Ralph Sadler was sent to James V, king of the Scots. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

François I of France married his daughter to James V, breaking an agreement with Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

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John Hussey

(1465/6 - 1537) [ODNB]

Baron Hussey of Sleaford 1529; diplomat; administrator; sheriff of Lincolnshire 1493, 1494; JP Lincolnshire 1495, 1497, 1501; chamberlain to Princess Mary by 1530; alleged rebel; executed after the Pilgrimage of Grace

Lord Hussey helped to carry the canopy over Princess Elizabeth at her christening. 1563, p. 510; 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

John Hussey received a letter from Sir William Paulet which he showed to Princess Mary. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1395.

Hussey and other rebels were executed in 1537. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

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Nicholas Tempest

(d. 1537) [ODNB sub Tempest family]

Rebel; joined the Pilgrimage of Grace; executed at Tyburn

Tempest and other rebels were executed in 1537. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

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Robert Granceter

Merchant; accused with Sir Thomas Dingley of going to foreign princes and persuading them to wage war against Henry VIII [Catholic Encyclopedia sub Thomas Dingley]

François I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

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Sir Francis Bigod

(1507 - 1537) [ODNB]

of Mulgrave Castle. Rebel; initially opposed the Pilgimage of Grace; joined after capture; led second rising

Sir Francis Bigod and other rebels were executed in 1537. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

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Sir John Bulmer

(d. 1537) [Sara Warneke, Review, Sixteenth Century Journal, vol. 29, no. 1 (Spring, 1998) pp. 262-63]

Rebel in the Pilgrimage of Grace

Sir John Bulmer, his wife and other rebels were executed in 1537. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

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Sir Robert Constable

(1478? - 1537) [ODNB]

Rebel, of Flamborough, East Riding; participated in the Pilgrimage of Grace; accepted royal pardon; executed for alleged offences after

Sir Robert Constable and other rebels were executed in 1537. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

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Sir Stephen Hamerton

(d. 1537) [ODNB sub Tempest family]

Rebel in the Pilgrimage of Grace; one of the gentry captured by the north Craven commons 21 October 1536; executed at Lancaster

Sir Stephen Hamerton and other rebels were executed in 1537. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

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Sir Thomas Percy

(after 1502 - 1537) [ODNB sub Thomas Percy, 7th earl of Northumberland]


Sir Thomas Percy and other rebels were executed in 1537. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

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Thomas Darcy

(in or before 1467 - 1537) [ODNB]

Baron Darcy of Darcy; soldier and rebel; involved in the Pilgrimage of Grace; found guilty of alleged offences after the uprising; beheaded at Tower Hill

Darcy and other rebels were executed in 1537. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

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NGR: SU 967 768

A borough, market town and parish having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Ripplesmere, county of Berkshire. 20 mile east by north from Reading, 22.5 miles west by south from London. The castle, built by Henry I, occupies more than 12 acres of ground, comprising upper, lower and middle wards. A principal royal residence in Tudor times. The living [of the town] is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Berkshire, Diocese of Salisbury.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1111 [1087]

K. Henry. 8 The rising of Lincolnshire, and Yorkeshire agaynst the king.

ring vs in hande, that yee be as louing subiectes to vs as may be, yee can not finde in your hearts, that your Prince and soueraigne Lord should haue any part therof (and yet it is nothing preiudiciall vnto you our commons) but doe rebel and vnlawfully rise against your Prince, contrary to the duety of allegiaunce & Gods commaundement. Syrs, remember your follies and traiterous demeanours, and shame not your natiue country of England, nor offend no more so greuously your vndoubted king & natural prince, which alwayes hathe shewed him selfe more louinge vnto you, and remember your duetie of allegiance, and that yee are bound to obey vs your king, both by Gods commandement, and lawe of nature.

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Wherfore we charge you eftsoones vppon the foresayde bondes and paines, that yee wythdrawe your selues to your owne houses euery manne, and no more to assemble contrary to our lawes and your allegiaunces, and to cause the prouokers of you to thys mischiefe, to de deliuered to our Lieutenaunts handes or ours, and you your selues to submitte you to suche condigne punishment, as wee and our nobles shal thinke you worthy: for doubt you not els, that we & our nobles can nor wil suffer this iniury at your hands vnreuēged, if ye geue not place to vs of soueraignetie, & shew your selues as bounden and obedient subiects, and no more to entermeddle your selues from hencefoorth wyth the waightie affaires of the Realme, the direction whereof onely appertaineth to vs your king, and such noble men and counsailours, as we list to electe and choose to haue the ordering of the same.

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And thus wce pray vnto almightie God, to geue you grace to doe your duties, to vse your selues towardes vs like true and faithfull subiectes, so as wee may haue cause to order your therafter: and rather obediently to consent amongest you, to deliuer into the hands of our Lieutenant, a hundreth persons to be ordered according to their demerites, at our will and pleasure, then by your obstinacie and wilfulnes, to put your selues, your wiues, children, lands, goodes and cattels, beside the indignation of God, in the vtter aduenture of total destruction, & vtter ruine, by force and violence of the sword.

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MarginaliaThe commotion of Lyncolnshire asswaged.After the Lyncolneshyre menne had receiued thys the Kynges aunswere aforesayd, made to theyr petitions, eche mistrusting other who shoulde be noted to be the greatest meddler, euen very sodeinly they began to shrinke and out of hand, they were all deuided, and euery man at home in his owne house in peace: but the Captaines of these rebels escaped not all cleare, but were after apprehended, and had as theyr deserued. Ex Edw. Hallo.

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MarginaliaA Popishe insurrection in yorkshire.After thys, immediately wythin sixe dayes, vpon the same, followed a new insurrection in Yorkeshire for the same causes, through the instigation and lying tales of seditious persons, especially Monkes and Priests, making them beleeue, that their siluer chalices, crosses, iewels, and other ornaments shoulde be taken out of their Churches, and that no man should be maried, or eate any good meate in his house, but should geue tribute therfore to the King: but their speciall malice was against Cromwell, and certaine other Counsailours.

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MarginaliaThe badges of the rebels.The number of these rebelles were neare about 40. M. hauing for their badges the 5. woundes, wyth the signe of the Sacrament, and Iesus wrytten in the middest.

This their deuilish rebellion, they termed by the name of a holy pilgrimage, MarginaliaA holy Pilgrimage. but they serued a wrong and a naughty Saint. They had also in the field their streamers and banners, whereuppon was painted Christ hanging vpon the Crosse on the one side, and a chalice with a painted cake in it, on the other side, with other such ensignes of like hypocrisie and fayned sanctitie, pretending thereby to fight for the faith, and right of holy Church.

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MarginaliaThe kinges power agaynst the rebels in the North.As soone as the king was certified of this newe seditious insurrection, hee sent with all speede against them, the Duke of Northfolke, Duke of Suffolke, Marques of Excetor, Earle of Shrewsbury & other, wyth a great armye, forthwith to encounter with the rebels.

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These noble Captaines and Counsailours thus well furnished with habilement of warre, approching towarde the rebels, and vnderstāding both their number, and howe they were ful bent to battaile, first with policy went about to assay and practise how to appease all without bloudsheding: MarginaliaThe blinde stubburnnes of superstitious people, rebelling where they haue no cause.but the Northern men stoutly and sturdely standing to their wicked cause and wretched enterprise, wold in no case relent frō their attempts. Which when the nobles perceiued, & saw no other way to pacifie their furious mindes vtterly sette on mischiefe, determined vppon a battel. The place was appoynted, the day assigned, and the houre set, but see þe wonderous worke of Gods gracious prouidēce.

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MarginaliaA great miracle of God in defēding the cause of his Gospell.The night before the day of battaile came (as testifieth Edward Hall) fell a small raine, nothing to speake of: but yet, as it were by a great miracle of God, the water which was but a very small forde, and that men, in maner þe day before, might haue gone drishod ouer, sodenly rose of suche a height, deepenes, and breadth, that the like no man that there did inhabite, could tell that euer they sawe afore: so þt the day, euen when the houre of battayle shoulde come, it was impossible for one army to come at the other.

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After this, þe appoyntment made betweene both þe armies being thus disappoynted, as it is to be thought, onely by God (who extended his great mercye, and had compassion on the great number of innocent persons, that in that deadly slaughter had like to haue bene murthered) could take no place: then by the great wisedome and pollicie of þe said Captaines, a communication was had, & a pardon of the kings Maiestie obteined, for al the captayns and chiefe doers of this insurrection, and they promised þt such thinges as they found themselues agreeued with all they shoulde gently be heard, and theyr reasonable peticions graunted, & that their articles shoulde be presented to the king, that by his highnesse authoritie, and wisedome of his Counsayle, all thinges shoulde be brought to good order and conclusion: and with this order euery man quietly departed, and those which before were bent as hote as fire, to fight, being letted therof by God, went now peaceably to their houses, and were as cold as water. A Domino factum est istud.

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MarginaliaPopishe priestes rebelling against the king.In the same time of this ruffle in Yorkeshyre, and the king lying the same time at Windsore there was a Butcher dwelling within 5. miles of the saide towne of Windsore, whiche caused a Priest to preach, that all they that tooke part with the Yorkshire men, whom he called Gods people did fight in Gods quarrell: for the whiche both he and the priest were apprehended, and executed.

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Diuers other priestes also, with other, about the same tyme committing in like sorte treason agaynst the king, suffered the like execution. Such a busines had the Kyng then to ridde the realme from the seruitude of the Romish yokes.

Tantæ molis erat Romanam euertere sedem.

But Gods hād did still worke with all, in vpholding hys Gospell and troden truth, against all seditious sturres, cōmotions, rebellions, and what soeuer was to the contrary as both by these storyes aforepassed, and by suche also as hereafter follow, may notoriously appeare.

MarginaliaAnno. 1537.The yere next after this, which was of the Lord. 1537. after that great execution had bene done vpon certayne rebellious Priestes and a fewe other lay men, with certayne noble persons also and gentlemen, amongest whome was the Lord Darcy, the Lorde Hussy, Syr Robert Constable Syr Thomas Percy, Syr Frances Bygot, Syr Stephen Hamelton, Syr Iohn Bulmer, and his wife, William Lomeley, Nicholas Tempest, with the Abbottes of Gerney, and of Riuers. &c. in the month of October, the same yeare following, was borne Prince Edward. MarginaliaPrince Edward borne. Shortly after whose birth, Queene Iane his mother, the second daye after, dyed in childbed, MarginaliaQueene Iane dyed in childebed. & left the king agayne a widower, which so continued the space of two yeres together. Vpon the death of whiche Queene Iane, and vppon the birth of prince Edward her sonne, these two verses were made which follow.

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Phœnix Iana iacet nato Phœnice, dolendum

Secula Phœnices nulla tulisse duas.
MarginaliaThese verses were thought to be made by M. Armigyl Wade.

Here is by the waye to be vnderstand, that during all this season, since the time that the king of Englande had reiected the pope out of the Realme, both the Emperour, þe French king, and the king of Scottes, with other forreine potentates (which were yet in subiection vnder the Pope) bare to him no great good fauour inwardly, what soeuer outwardly they pretended. Neither was here lacking pryuy setters on, nor secret working among themselues, how to compasse vngracious mischiefes, if God by cōtrary occasions had not stopped their intended deuises. MarginaliaThe Pope stirreth warre a gaynst England by Cardinall Poole.For first þe Pope had sent Cardinall Poole to the French king, to stir him to warre agaynst the realme of England.

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Secondly where as the Frenche king, by treaty of perpetuall peace, was bound yearly to paye to the king of England at the first dayes of May, and Nouember about xcv. thousand crownes of the summe, and odde mony, and ouer, that 10000. crownes at þe sayd ij. termes, for recōpēce of salt due, as the treates therof did purporte: that pension remayned now vnpayd iiij. yeares and more.

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MarginaliaThe Emperour, the French king, and the king of Scottes, set agaynst the king of England.Furthermore, the Emperour and the Frenche K. both reteined Grancetor a traiterous rebell against the king, & condemned by Act of Parliament, with certayn other traitors moe, and yet would not deliuer him to the king at his earnest suite and request.

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