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Adam Damplip (Damlip) (George Bucker)

(d. 1543) [ODNB]

Religious radical accused of preaching heresy in Calais; attainted of treason for contacts with Pole; imprisoned in Marshalsea, sent back to Calais and hanged, drawn and quartered

Adam Damplip is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

Damplip had been a religious conservative and chaplain to John Fisher, bishop of Rochester. After Fisher's death, Damplip travelled through France, the Netherlands and Italy and conversed with learned men. 1570, p. 1400; 1576, pp. 1193-94; 1583, p. 1223.

At Rome, Damplip found corruption and abuses in the church. Pole urged him to stay in Rome to deliver lectures, but he refused. Pole gave him a French crown when he left. 1563, p. 656; 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1223.

As Damplip was returning to England from Rome, he passed through Calais and met William Stevens and Thomas Lancaster, who urged him to stay for a while to preach to the people there. He agreed, but only if he obtained licence. He was taken to Lord Lisle, who asked him to stay and preach three or four times a week. Lord Lisle offered him a room in his house and meals at his own table, but Damplip asked only for a room in the town where he could study, and so lodged with William Stephens. 1563, p. 656; 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1223.

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Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. The next day, warned by Cranmer that he was likely to be imprisoned and burnt, he fled to the West Country. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Damplip taught school in the West Country for about a year when he was charged under the Six Articles and taken to London, where he was imprisoned in the Marshalsea for about two years. He was confessor to the prisoners there. During this time John Marbeck was also put into the Marshalsea, and the two became acquainted. 1570, p. 1406; 1576, p. 1199; 1583, p. 1228.

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Damplip was imprisoned in the Marshalsea with John Marbeck. On the orders of Stephen Gardiner, John Massie took Damplip to Calais. 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1193; 1583, p. 1223.

Damplip was sent to the mayor's prison in Calais along with John Butler and the curate Daniel. 1570, p. 1407; 1576, p. 1199; 1583, p. 1229.

Damplip was initially to be tried for heresy, but because his offences occurred before the passage of the Six Articles he was pardoned by act of parliament. He was found guilty of treason because of the French crown he had received from Cardinal Pole and hanged, drawn and quartered. He was not allowed to make a declaration at his execution. 1563, pp. 665-66; 1570, p. 1407; 1576, p. 1199; 1583, p. 1229.

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Anne Boleyn

(c. 1500 - 1536) [ODNB]

Queen of England (1533 - 36); 2nd wife of Henry VIII; beheaded

While considering the question of the king's divorce, Cardinal Wolsey became aware that King Henry favoured Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Anne Boleyn was sent a copy of Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars. At the urging of her brother, she showed the book to the king. 1570, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 956; 1583, p. 1014.

Parliament approved Thomas Cranmer's separation of Henry and Catherine and his marriage to Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Henry married Anne Boleyn. She, her father and her brother maintained many learned men at Cambridge. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, pp. 1025-26; 1583, p. 1054.

Anne was crowned and soon after gave birth to a daughter. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Anne had Hugh Latimer placed in the bishopric of Worcester and Nicholas Shaxton in the bishopric of Salisbury. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

In 1536 parliament declared the marriage of the king and Queen Anne illegitimate and accused the queen of carnal relations with her brother and other men. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Anne was imprisoned in the Tower with her brother and others. She was beheaded, delivering a short address before. 1563, p. 526; 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Catherine of Aragon died in the same year in which Anne Boleyn and William Tyndale were executed. 1570, p. 1232; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Anne Boleyn is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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Anne of Cleves

(1515 - 1557) [ODNB]

Queen of England (1540); 4th consort of Henry VIII; marriage annulled

Thomas Cromwell arranged the marriage between the king and Anne of Cleeves. 1570, p. 1295; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1134.

Henry VIII repudiated Anne of Cleves, divorced her and married Katherine Howard at the time of the execution of Cromwell. 1570, pp. 1361, 1385; 1576, pp. 1161, 1181; 1583, pp. 1190, 1210.

Not long before the king's death, Anne of Cleves, along with the king and Queen Katherine Parr and other noblewomen, attended a grand banquet for the French ambassador. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

 
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Charles Brandon

(c. 1484 - 1545) [ODNB]

1st duke of Suffolk (1514 - 45); courtier and soldier; married Margaret, Henry VIII's sister, widow of Louis XII

When reaction in Suffolk to Cardinal Wolsey's exactions threatened to turn violent, the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk calmed the people. 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

The duke of Suffolk tested the basin of water for Cardinal Wolsey when Henry VIII attended mass after receiving the papal bull granting him the title of defender of the faith. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Thomas Wolsey was indicted for praemunire, his goods were confiscated, and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk were sent to remove from him the great seal. They were then assigned to hear causes in the Star Chamber. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

The duke of Suffolk was sent to Catherine of Aragon after her divorce from the king to reduce the size of her household, removing those who refused to serve her as princess rather than queen. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

The duke of Suffolk walked on the left side of the dowager duchess of Norfolk, godmother to Princess Elizabeth, at the christening of the princess. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

The king sent the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the marquess of Exeter and the earl of Shrewsbury into Yorkshire to put down the Pilgrimage of Grace. 1570, pp. 1237-38; 1576, pp. 1059-60; 1583, pp. 1086-87.

The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Thomas Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Geoffrey Loveday was charged with supplying money to Adam Damplip in Calais. He was able to prove that he had been in Paris at the time, seeing to the affairs of the duke of Suffolk. 1563, p. 663; 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

The duke of Suffolk was one of those appointed commissioner for Calais in 1540. 1563, p. 664; 1570, p. 1404; 1576, p. 1197; 1583, p. 1226.

The duke of Suffolk's chaplain, Alexander Seton, was presented in London in 1541 for a sermon he had preached. 1570, p. 1379; 1576, p. 1177; 1583, p. 1205.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

 
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Edward II (Edward of Caernarvon)

(1284 - 1327) [ODNB]

Only surviving son of Edward I; prince of Wales (1301 - 07)

King of England (1307 - 27); deposed

Edward II is given as an example of a king wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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Edward Seymour

(c. 1500 - 1552) [ODNB]

Soldier; viscount Beauchamp of Hache 1536; earl of Hertford 1537

Lord high admiral 1542; lord great chamberlain 1543

Duke of Somerset 1547; lord protector 1547; lord treasurer 1547; earl marshal 1547; beheaded

Because Edward VI was only young when he came to the throne, his uncle Edward Seymour was assigned as overseer and protector of both the king and the commonwealth. He abolished the Six Articles and brought into the country learned reformers. He replaced some of the unlearned clergy with preachers. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1259; 1583, p. 1296.

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Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Seymour granted a pardon to Thomas Dobbe, but Dobbe died in prison before it could reach him. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

He was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Seymour wrote a reply to a letter of Stephen Gardiner objecting to the destruction of images in Portsmouth. 1563, p. 730-31; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1298; 1583, p. 1331.

Seymour was in regular correspondence with Stephen Gardiner while he was imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 730-54; 1570, pp. 1519-25; 1576, pp. 1298-1300; 1583, pp. 1331-50.

Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, p. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

After the victorious return of John Dudley, earl of Warwick, from Norfolk, he fell into dispute with Edward Seymour. He and other dissatisfied nobles met together to plan to remove the king from the Lord Protector. John Russell replied, hoping for a reconciliation between the Lord Protector and his adversaries. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, pp. 1317-18; 1583, pp. 1367-68.

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Edward Seymour wrote to John Russell, describing the conspiracy against him and asking him to bring forces to Windsor. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, p. 1317; 1583, p. 1367.

The king sent a letter to the lord mayor of London, Henry Amcottes; the mayor-elect, Sir Rowland Hill; the aldermen and common council, directing that 1000 troops be mustered to defend the Lord Protector. The lords opposing the Lord Protector sent a letter on the same day directing the mayor and council not to obey any instructions coming from him. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

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The lords opposed to the Lord Protector sent Sir Philip Hoby to put their case to the king. As a result, the Lord Protector was imprisoned in Windsor Castle and then taken to the Tower. Shortly after, he was released. 1570, pp. 1548-49; 1576, p. 1320; 1583, p. 1370.

Seymour was imprisoned again in 1551 and charged with treason and felony. He was acquitted of treason, but condemned for felony, intending the death of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, and others. On 22 January 1552 he was taken to Tower Hill and beheaded. 1570, pp. 1549-50; 1576, p. 1321; 1583, p. 1371.

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Foxe compares the story of Edward Seymour with that of Humphrey of Lancaster, dealing with his enemy Bishop Beaufort. 1563, pp. 882-84; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Edward Seymour is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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Edward Stafford

(1478 - 1521) [ODNB]

3rd duke of Buckingham (1485 - 1521); executed for treason

Edward Stafford is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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George Brooke

(1497? - 1558) [ODNB]

9th Baron Cobham (1529 - 58)

Soldier; JP Kent; lieutenant-general for the invasion of Scotland 1544; deputy of Calais (1544 - 50)

Lord Cobham was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 826-27.

Lord Cobham is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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George Eagles (Trudgeover, sive Trudgeon, aut. Trudgeover the World)

Tailor; itinerant preacher; from the Colchester area; tried for treason in 1556; hanged, decapitated[Fines]

George Eagles is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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Henry Beaufort

(1375? - 1447) [ODNB]

2nd illegitimate son of John of Gaunt; chancellor of Oxford 1397

Bishop of Lincoln (1399 - 1404); privy councillor 1402; chancellor (1403 - 05, 1413 - 17, 1424 - 26); bishop of Winchester (1404 - 47); cardinal (1417 - 47)

Foxe compares the story of Edward Seymour with that of Humphrey of Lancaster, dealing with his enemy Bishop Beaufort. 1563, pp. 882-84; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

 
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Humphrey of Lancaster (called Good Duke Humphrey)

(1390 - 1447) [ODNB]

Youngest son of Henry IV; duke of Gloucester (1414 - 47) and earl of Pembroke (1414 - 47); prince, soldier, literary patron; protector in the minority of his nephew Henry VI (1422 - 29)

Foxe compares the story of Edward Seymour with that of Humphrey of Lancaster, dealing with his enemy Bishop Beaufort. 1563, pp. 882-84; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Both Sir Thomas More and William Tyndale related the story of how Humphrey proved the miracle of the blind man regaining his sight at St Albans to be fraudulant. 1563, p. 883.

Humphrey is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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Reginald Pole

(1500 - 1558) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1515; dean of Exeter (1527 - 37); cardinal 1536; legate 1537

Archbishop of Canterbury (1555 - 58)

In a sermon delivered by Cuthbert Tunstall, Reginald Pole was described as a traitor, sent by the pope to provoke war against England. 1570, p. 1210; 1576, p. 1036; 1583, p. 1063.

Reginald Pole fled to Rome and was created cardinal. While in Rome, he was sent a letter from Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Cardinal Pole and Paolo Giovio both wrote adversely of Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

Paul III sent Cardinal Pole to the French king to stir him to war against Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

In a letter to Henry VIII, Philip Melancthon complained of Cardinals Contarini, Sadoleto and Pole working to cover up the corruption in Rome. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1145; 1583, p. 1173.

Pole urged Adam Damplip to stay in Rome to deliver lectures, but he refused. Pole gave him a French crown when he left. 1563, p. 656; 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1223.

The Western rebels in 1549, especially their priests, called for Pole's restoration. 1570, p. 1496; 1576, p. 1268; 1583, p. 1305.

In a letter to the Lord Protector, Stephen Gardiner referred to Pole as his old master. 1563, p. 741.

 
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Richard II

(1367 - 1400) [ODNB]

Prince of Wales 1376; king of England 1377; deposed, died in Pontefract castle in 1400

Richard II is given as an example of a king wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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Sir Roger Acton

(d. 1414) Martyr

Originally of Shrewsbury; [ODNB sub John Oldcastle; Thomson] of Sutton nr Tenbury. Soldier in the Welsh wars of Henry IV; John Oldcastle's principal lieutenant; executed after Oldcastle's rising

Sir Roger Acton is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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Thomas Seymour

(c. 1509 - 49) [ODNB]

Lord admiral (1547 - 49); MP Wiltshire 1545; privy councillor (1547 - 49); JP Berkshire, Devon, Essex, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Kent, Middlesex, Shropshire, Sussex, Wiltshire, Worcestershire 1547

Brother of Jane and Edward, duke of Somerset. Executed for treason

Thomas Seymour was a signatory to a letter to the king's commissioners relating Bishop Bonner's recantation of his protestation. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 1310.

Thomas Seymour was one of the signatories of the letter of the council addressed to Thomas Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. 1563, p. 692; 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Thomas Seymour worked in harmony with his brother Edward, but his marriage to Katherine Parr produced ill feeling between them. He was accused of planning to secure the crown for himself and was beheaded on Tower Hill. 1563, p. 880; 1570, p. 1545; 1576, p. 1317; 1583, p. 1367.

Thomas Seymour is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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Thomas Wolsey

(1470/71 - 1530) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1486; MA 1497; dean of divinity 1500

Dean of York 1513; bishop of Lincoln 1514

Lord chancellor (1515 - 29); archbishop of York (1514 - 30); cardinal (1515 - 30); arrested and died on his way to the Tower

Thomas Wolsey sent delegates to greet Cardinal Campeggi, the newly appointed legate to England, in Calais, hoping to get himself appointed fellow legate. Campeggi complied, and within 30 days a papal bull had arrived in Calais with Wolsey's commission. Wolsey set up a special legate's court in England, richly furnished. 1563, p. 418; 1570, pp. 1120-21; 1576, pp. 959-60; 1583, pp. 986-87.

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Wolsey was sent as ambassador to the emperor at Brussels, taking with him the great seal of England, and behaved like a prince. He enriched himself at the expense of the religious houses and commons. 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

In England, Wolsey lived in great luxury. He leased Hampton Court, and then gave the lease to the king. He lodged at times at the king's manor at Richmond. 1570, pp. 1121-22; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

Wolsey suspected that his failure to be selected pope after the death of Adrian VI was due to Richard Pace's lack of effort on his behalf. He turned the king against Pace, causing Pace to go mad. Pace recovered, but Wolsey brought charges against him and he was imprisoned in the Tower for nearly two years, leaving him in a worse mental state than before. 1570, pp. 1124-25; 1576, p. 963; 1583, pp. 989-90.

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Wolsey founded Cardinal College at Oxford, and began to build in sumptuous style. He invited the best scholars to join, many of them from Cambridge. He did not live long enough to see it completed. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

Wolsey opposed the emperor because the emperor refused to support his desire to be made pope. 1563, p. 440; 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Having fallen out with the emperor, Wolsey encouraged Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Wolsey attempted to confiscate all copies of Supplication for the Beggars and discovered that the king had a copy. He was determined to forbid the reading of English books, specifically this book and Tyndale's translation of scripture. 1563, p. 449; 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

After Clement VII had been taken prisoner by imperial forces, Wolsey urged Henry VIII to go to the pope's assistance. The king refused to send troops, but allowed Wolsey to take money out of the treasury to help. Wolsey then went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army.1563, p. 439; 1570, pp. 1123; 1576, pp. 961-62; 1583, p. 988.

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Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. 1570, pp. 1125-29; 1576, pp. 963-67; 1583, pp. 990-93.

Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggi had a legatine commission to consider the matter of the king's divorce. Henry began to suspect that Wolsey was not fully supportive. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

When Queen Catherine learned from the legates that they had been deputed to determine the matter of a divorce between the king and her, she composed an answer to them. She blamed Wolsey as the cause of the proposed divorce. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, pp. 1193-94; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

Wolsey became aware that King Henry favoured Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Articles against Wolsey were introduced to the House of Commons from the Lords. He confessed to the charges. He departed for Southwell in his diocese of York, but many of his household left him to enter the king's service. 1570, p. 1132; 1576, p. 969; 1583, p. 996.

Wolsey planned a grand enthronement at York without informing the king. The earl of Northumberland was given a commission by the king to arrest Thomas Wolsey at Cawood Castle and turn him over to the earl of Shrewsbury. Although Wolsey protested, he submitted to the arrest. He was taken to Sheffield Castle and placed in the keeping of Shrewsbury. 1570, pp. 1132-33; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

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Sir William Kingston was sent to Sheffield Castle to take Wolsey to the Tower. Wolsey was ill, and Sir William treated him gently and made the journey in easy stages. Wolsey died at Leicester Abbey. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

 
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Bury St Edmunds

[St Edmundsbury; Berry; Bery]

West Suffolk

OS grid ref: TL 855 645

Contains a ruined abbey, the shrine of St Edmund

1213 [1189]

K. Hen. 8. The lyfe and story of the Lord Cromwell Earle of Essex.

and doyng good to the poore afflicted saintes, helping them out of trouble, the malice of his enimies so wrought, continually hunting for matter against him, that they neuer ceased, till in the end they by false traines and crafty surmises, brought him out of the kings fauour.

MarginaliaSteph. Gardiner chiefe enemy to the L. Crōwell.The chiefe and principall enimie against him, was Steuen Gardiner bishop of Winchester, who euer disdayning and enuieing the state and felicitie of the Lord Cromwell, and now taking his occasion by the mariage of lady Anne of Cleue, beyng a stranger and forreiner, put in the Kings eares what a perfect thing it were for the quiet of þe realm, and establishment of the kings succession, to haue an English Queene and Prince that were meere English: so that in conclusion the kings affection, the more it was diminished from the late married Anne of Cleue, the lesse fauour he bare vnto Cromwell 

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In 1563, Foxe blamed Cromwell's fall on Henry's dissatisfaction with his marriage to Anne of Cleves, which Cromwell had arranged. In these passages, added in 1570, Foxe presents a more sophisticated analysis of Cromwell's fall, emphasizing the role of opposing factions.

. Besides this Gardiner, there lacked not other backe friends also and ilwillers in the court about the king, which little made for Cromwell both for his religion which they maligned, and for other priuate grudges also incident by the way.

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Ouer and besides all which, it is moreouer supposed, that some part of displeasure might ryse agaynst hym, by reason of a certaine talke, which happened a little before at Lambeh, at what tyme the king after the makyng of the vi. Articles, sent the sayd Lord Cromwell his Vicegerēt, with the two Dukes of Northfolke & Suffolke, with all the Lordes of the Parliament to Lambeth, to dyne with the Archbishop (who mightily had disputed and alledged in the Parliament agaynst the said Articles) to cheare and comfort his daunted spirits agayne.

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MarginaliaThe talke betwene the L. Cromwel & certeine of the Lordes at Lambeth.There the 

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As Foxe observes in a marginal note, he obtained this story from Ralph Morice, Archbishop Cranmer's secretary.

said Cromwell with the other noble Lordes sitting with the Archbishop at his table in talke, as euerie lord brought forth his sentence in commendation of Cranmer, to signifie what good will both the kyng & they bare vnto him: among the rest one of the company entring into a comparison betweene the sayd Thomas Cranmer, and Thomas Wolsey late Cardinall of Yorke, declared in his iudgement, that Cranmer was much to bee preferred for his mynd and gentle nature, where as the Cardinall was a stubburne and a churlish and prelate, and one that could neuer abide any noble man, and that (sayd he) knowe you well enough, my Lord Cromwell, for he was your Maister, &c. At these wordes the Lord Cromwell beyng somewhat touched to heare the Cardinals seruice cast in hys teeth, inferred agayne, saying: that he could not deny but he was seruant sometyme to Cardinall Wolsey, neyther did repent the same, for he receiued of hym both fee, meate, and drinke, and other commodities: but yet he was neuer so farre in loue with hym, as to haue wayted vpon him to Rome, if he had bene chosen Pope, as he vnderstoode that he would haue done if the case had so fallen out. Whiche when the other had denied to be tue, Cromwell still persisted, affirmyng the same, and shewyng moreouer what number of Florens he should haue receyued, to be his Admirall, and to haue safe conducted hym to Rome, in case he had bene elected Bishop of Rome. The partie not a little mooued with these wordes, told hym, he lyed. The other agayne affirmed it to be true. Vpon this, great and hygh wordes rose betwene them. Which contention although it was through intreatie of the Archbishop and other nobles somewhat pacified for the tyme, yet it might be, that some bitter roote of grudge remayned behynd, which afterward grew vnto him to some displeasure. And this was, an. 1540. in the moneth of Iuly. Ex testimonio. Secretarij. Cantuar.

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MarginaliaAnno 1541. A Parliament.After this, the next yeare followyng, which was 1541. in the month of Aprill was holden a Parliament, which after diuers prorogations was continued till the moneth of Iuly the sayd yeare. In the which month of Iuly, the Lord Cromwell beyng in the counsaile chamber, was sodenly apprehended, MarginaliaThe Lord Cromwell apprehēded. and committed to the tower of London. Whereat, as many good men which knewe nothyng but truth by him did lament, and prayed hartily for him, so moe there were on the contrary side that reioyced, especially of the religious sort, and of the clergy, such as had bene in some dignitie before in the Churche, and nowe by hys meanes were put from it. For in deed, such was hys nature, that in all his doyngs he could not abyde any kynde of Poperie, nor of false religion creepyng vnder hypocrisie, and lesse could abyde the ambitious pryde of Popishe Prelacie, which professing all humilitie, was so elated in pride, that kinges coulde not rule in their owne Realmes for them. These snuffing Prelates as he could neuer abide so they agayne hated him as much, whiche was the cause of shortnyng his dayes, and to bryng him to his ende: So that the xix. day of the moneth aforesaid, he was attainted by Parliament.

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MarginaliaCrimes and accusatiōs brought agaynst the L. Cromwell.In the which Atteinder diuers and sondry crimes surmises, obiections and accusations were brought against hym but chiefly and aboue all other, he was charged and accused of heresie, for that he was a supporter of them (whō they recounted for heretikes) as Barnes 

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I.e., Robert Barnes.

, Clarke 
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Roger Clark. Foxe related that a layman of Norfolk (not Suffolk) named Roger was burned for sacramentarian heresy (Rerum, p. 144). By the time the 1563 edition was printed, Foxe had learned a great deal more about the burnings of John Kerby and Roger Clarke; most of his detailed account of their trials and executions first appeared in this edition. This material was contributed by unnamed eyewitnesses. In the 1570 edition, Foxe added details to the account of the martyrdoms of Kerby and Clarke, which were also obtained from informants, probably including the Ipswich gaoler John Bird (Richard Bird, also an Ipswich gaoler, would be denounced by Catholics in Mary’s reign for encouraging prisoners in their heresy (1576, p. 1981 and 1583, p. 2089). Were the Birds a family of evangelical gaolers? In any case, John Bird was probably the source the interview between Kerby and Robert Wingfield.). In the 1570 edition, Foxe also added an account of Henry VIII’s oration to Parliament on Christmas Eve 1545. Foxe printed this speech from Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and illuste famelies of Lancastre and Yorke (London, 1560), STC 12734a, fos.260r-262r. His purpose in including the speech was to criticize appeal for compromise for the sake of concord and religious unity. In ‘notes’ upon the speech, Foxe argued instead - in passages clearly intend to goad Elizabeth and her magistrates into further reformation of the Church - that correct doctrine and religious purity were more important than peace or unity.

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, and many other, whom he by his authoritie and letters written to Shiriffes and Iustices in diuers Shires rescued and discharged out of prison. Also that he did cuulgate & disperse abroad amongst the Kings subiects, great numbers of bookes, conteining (as they said) manifest matter of much heresie, diffidence, and misbeliefe. Item, that he caused to be translated into our English tongue, bookes comprising matter expresly against the Sacrament of the aulter, & that after the translation thereof, he commended and mainteyned the same for good and christian doctrine.

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Ouer and besides all this, they brought in certaine witnesses (what they were, the atteinder expresseth not) which most especially pressed (or rather oppressed) him with heinous wordes spoken agaynst the king in the Church of s. Peter the poore, in the moneth of March, in the xxx. yeare of the kings raigne. Which wordes if they be true, as the Atteinder doth purport three things I haue here much to meruaile at. MarginaliaWitnesses agaynst Cromwell suspected.First, if his aduersaries had so sure holde and matter against hym, then what would mooue thē to make such hastie speede in all post haste, to haue him dispatched and rid out of the way, and in no case could abyde hym to come to his purgation? Which if he might haue done, it is not otherwise to be thought, but he would easily haue clered himselfe thereof.

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Secondly, this I maruell, that if the wordes had bene so hainous against the kyng, as his enemies did pretend, why then did those witnesses which heard those words in S. Peters Church, in the xxx. yeare of the kyngs raigne, conceale the sayd wordes of such treason so long, the space almost of ij. yeares, and now vttered the same in the xxxij. yeare of the kings reigne, in the moneth of Iuly.

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Thirdly, here is agayne to be marueled, if the king had known or beleued these words to be true, and that Cromwell had bene in deede such a traytour to his person, why then did the kyng so shortly after lamēt his death, wishing to haue his Cromwell aliue agayne? What Prince will wish the lyfe of hym whom he suspecteth vndoubtedly to be a traitor to his life and person? wherby it may appeare what iudgement the King had of Cromwell in himselfe, howsoeuer the parliament by sinister information was otherwise incensed to iudge vpon him.

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MarginaliaWhat mischiefe malicious make bates make in a commō wealth.Such malicious makebates 

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I.e., people who create strife or discord.

about Princes and parliaments, neuer lacked in common weales. MarginaliaExamples of mē falsely accused, & wrongfully iudged.By such kyng Ethelstane was incensed to kill his brother Edwine 
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See 1570, p. 197; 1576, p. 150 and 1583, pp. 148-9.

, pag. 159. So was king Edward 2. deposed. So likewise when king Richard 2. was once brought into the Tower, what crimes and accusations were layd against him in the Parliament? So was Humfrey the good Duke of Gloucester, the kings vncle, by Henry Beauford bishop of Winchester and other in the Parliament holden at Bery, arrested as a traitour, and falsly made away 
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See 1570, p. 845; 1576, p. 680 and 1583, pp. 705-6.

, pag. 160. What great treason was in the words of him, who dwelling in Chepe side at the signe of the Crowne, sayd merily to hys sonne, that if he liued, he would make him heyre of the crowne 
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See 1570, p. 861; 1576, pp. 701-2 and 1583, p. 727.

: & yet was he therefore atteinted and iudged for a Traytor? pag. 701. In the tyme of king Henry the 8. how was that Parliament incensed, wherein both Queene Anne was falsly condemned, and Queene Elizabeth her daughter, as falsly disherited? To omit here the Attainder of the Duke of Buckingham wrought by the Cardinall of Yorke: Of the lord Cobham likewise, and sir Roger Acton, pag. 150. If the cause of the lord Henry late Earle of Surrey were well tried out, peraduenture no such hainous purpose of any treasō shuld be found therin as than was made. 
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This is one of a number of occasions in which Foxe hints that the earl of Surrey was urgently condemned and executed. It should be remembered that Foxe's former pupil and patron, the fourth duke of Norfolk, was Surrey's son.

Who incensed þe late Duke of Somerset to behead his own brother, but such makebates as these? And afterward whē the sayd Duke himselfe was attainted for a traytor and condēned for a felon, a briber and extorcioner: how was the parliament then incensed? Adam Damlip receyued of Cardinall Poole at Rome, but a sely crowne in way of almes, and therfore by meanes of Steuen Gardiner was atteinted for a traytor 
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Foxe's sources for the complicated, intertwined, narratives which follow were varied. The story of William Callaway and Dr. London first appeared in the Rerum, as did the account of the execution of Germain Gardiner (Rerum, pp. 143-4). The first came from Edward Hall, The union of two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre and Yorke (London, 1550) STC 12734a, fo. 257r, the second probably was related to Foxe by John Bale. Both of these stories were repeated in all editions of the A&M. In the 1563 edition, Foxe added accounts of Adam Damplip (from unknown informants), Thomas Broke’s speech against the Six Articles, accounts of the 1539 persecution of heresy in Calais, which came from informants, and accounts of the 1540 persecution of heresy in Calais, also obtained from informants, almost certainly including Thomas Broke’s wife, who supplied the detailed narrative of her husband’s ordeals. The 1563 edition also contained an account of an earlier heretic, William Button, who was forced to do penance in Calais sometime before 1532; Foxe states that this account was derived from informants in the town. And Foxe also added the recantations of John Athee and John Heywood, which he obtained from Bishop Bonner’s register (Guildhall MS 9531/12, fos. 61r and 254v).

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. George Egles did but read 
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George Eagles was an itinerant lay preacher who led a secret conventicle near Colchester during Mary's reign. He was executed in the summer in the summer of 1556 for sedition.

some tyme in woods and by the said Gardiner was also condemned and suffered as a traytor.

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Not that I here speake or meane agaynst the hygh courtes of Parliamentes of thys our Realme, necessarilye assembled for the common wealth, to whom I always attribute their due reuerence and authoritie. MarginaliaAuthority of Parliamentes. But as it hapneth sometimes in generall Councels, which though they be neuer so generall, yet notwithstanding sometimes they may and do erre in waightie matters of religion: so lykewise they that say, that Princes and Parliamentes may be misinformed sometimes, by some sinister heds, in matters

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