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John ClaymondThomas Cromwell
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John Claymond

(1467/8 - 1536) [ODNB]

Humanist; b. Frampton, Lincolnshire; master of Magdalen College, Oxford (1507 - 16); BTh 1510; 1st president of Corpus Christi College (1517 - 36); collapsed during the panic at St Mary's church and died after

John Claymond was in St Mary's Church, Oxford, during the performance of penance by John Mallory. When a panic broke out in the church about a suspected fire, John Claymond, along with a few other aged people with him, knelt quietly before the altar. 1563, p. 623; 1570, p. 1383; 1576, p. 1180; 1583, p. 1209.

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Thomas Cromwell

(in or bef. 1485 - 1540) [ODNB]

Lawyer; king's secretary; chief minister

Earl of Essex 1540; beheaded gruesomely

Thomas Cromwell was the son of a smith. He had an impressive memory and was skilled in languages. He was retained by the English merchants in Antwerp as clerk. He accompanied Geoffrey Chambers to Rome to obtain indulgences for the guild of Our Lady in Boston. 1570, p. 1346; 1576, p. 1149; 1583, pp. 1177-78.

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As a young man Cromwell fought with the French at Garigliano. He was then destitute in Italy and was helped by the Italian merchant banker Francesco Frescobaldi. Cromwell years later repaid him with generous interest when Frescobaldi was impoverished in England. 1570, pp. 1357-58; 1576, pp. 1158-59; 1583, pp. 1186-87.

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Cromwell confessed to archbishop Cranmer that he had been wild in his youth. He was at the siege of Rome with the duke of Bourbon. 1570, p. 1346; 1576, p. 1149; 1583, pp. 1177-78.

Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Cromwell was one of Wolsey's chief councillors and was active in the dissolution of the monasteries. After Wolsey's fall and his departure to Southwell, Cromwell entered the king's service. 1570, pp. 1132, 1347; 1576, pp. 969, 1150; 1583, pp. 996, 1179.

Cromwell was knighted, made master of the jewels and admitted to the king's council. Two years later he was made master of the rolls. Shortly before the birth of Prince Edward, Cromwell was created earl of Essex and appointed viceregent. 1570, p. 1348; 1576, p. 1151; 1583, p. 1179.

Cromwell discovered and made public fraudulent miracles. 1570, p. 1359; 1576, p. 1160; 1583, p. 1188.

Elizabeth Barton prophesied that if the king divorced Queen Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, he would not reign more than a month thereafter. Through the efforts of Cranmer, Cromwell and Latimer, she was condemned and executed with some of her supporters. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, pp. 1054-55.

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Cromwell urged King Henry to destroy the monastic houses and to grant the lands to the nobility and gentlemen. 1570, p. 1350; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1181.

Edward Lee was sent, under Cromwell, to visit the monasteries and nunneries to release all those in religious orders who wished to leave. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Cromwell gave an oration at the synod in 1537 of bishops and learned men. 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. Bonner owed his major preferments to Cromwell. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

Bonner sent a declaration to Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

Through the efforts of Cromwell, the destruction of the abbeys and religious houses was accomplished. 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

At the end of John Lambert's trial, the king had Cromwell read the sentence of condemnation. On the day of Lambert's execution, Cromwell asked for his forgiveness. 1563, pp. 537, 569; 1570, pp. 1283-84; 1576, pp. 1097-98; 1583, pp. 1123-24.

The king sent Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Thomas Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

The wife of Thomas Broke wrote to Thomas Cromwell, complaining of the way the imprisoned men in Calais, especially her husband, were treated. Cromwell wrote to the commissioners in Calais, commanding that Broke and a number of others be sent to England. 1563, p. 666; 1570, p. 1405; 1576, p. 1198; 1583, p. 1227.

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Cromwell was instrumental in obtaining Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. Cromwell procured letters from King Henry to Francois I that resulted in a licence being granted to print bibles in English at Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

When printing of English bibles was stopped in Paris, Cromwell got the presses and types sent to London. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Stephen Gardiner was Cromwell's chief opponent. Cromwell had other enemies as well, and in 1540 he was suddenly arrested in the council chamber and committed to the Tower. He was charged with heresy and treason. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1359; 1576, pp. 1160-61; 1583, p. 1189.

Cromwell, having made an oration and prayer, was beheaded by an incompetent axeman. 1563, p. 598; 1570, pp. 1361-62; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1190.

Stephen Gardiner recalled that Cromwell spent a day and a half investigating a matter between Sir Francis Bryan and Gardiner, finally declaring Gardiner an honest man. 1563, p. 756; 1570, p. 1526; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

1233 [1209]

King Hen. 8. A ridiculouse pageant in Oxford. Queene Katherine Haward.

feared then hurt) who would haue doubted but that it had happened vnto them according to their deserts? But now worthy it is the noting, how the vayne feare and folly of those catholickes either was deluded, either how theyr cruelty was reproued, whereby they being better taught by theyr owne example, might herafter learne MarginaliaA good warning for the Papistes to know what burning meaneth.what is to put other poore men to the fire which they themselues here so much abhorred.

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But to returne agayn to the descriptiō of this pageant: wherin (as I sayd before) there was no daunger at all, yet were they all in such feare, as if present death had ben ouer their heades.

In all this great maze and garboyle there was nothing more feared then the melting of the lead, which many affirmed that they felt dropping vpō their bodies: Now in this sodein terror and feare, which tooke from them all reason & counsell out of theyr mindes: to beholde what practises & sondry shiftes euery man made for himselfe, it would make not onely Democritus, and Heraclitus also to laugh 

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Democritus (born c. 460 BC) was an ancient philosopher who was known as the 'laughing philosopher' because he held that a cheerful disposition should be cultivated by the wise. For reasons that are less clear, Heraclitus (fl. 500 BC) came to be associated with melancholy and pessimism.

but rather an horse welnere to breake his halter. But none vsed themselues more ridiculously, then such as semed greatest wise men, sauing that in one or ij. peraduenture some what more quietnes of minde appeared. Amongest whom was one MarginaliaClaymundus President of Corpus Christi Colledge.Claymund President of Corpus Christi Colledge (whom for reuerence and learnings sake I do here name) and a few other aged persons with him, which for theyr age and weakenesse, durst not thrust themselues into the throng amongest the rest, but kneled downe quietly before the high aulter, committing themselues & theyr liues vnto the sacrament. 
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John White, in another account of the same incident, claims that Claymund cast himself down before the altar and committed himself to the mercy of God, rather than escape through a broken window (John White, Diacosio-Martyrion[Louvain, 1553], STC 25388, fo. 83r).

The other which were yonger and stronger, ran vp and downe through the preasse maruelling at the vnciuility of mē, and waxt angry with the vnmanerly multitude that would geue no rowme vnto the Doctors, Bachelers, Maisters, and other graduates & regent maisters. But as the terror and feare was common vnto all men, so was there no differēce made, of persōs or degrees euery man scamling for himselfe. The violet cap or purple gowne, did there nothing auayle the Doctour, neyther the masters hood nor the monkes coule was there respected.

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Yea if the king or queene had bene there at that present and in that perplexity, they had bene no better then a common man. After they had long striuen and assayed all manner of wayes and saw no remedy, neither by force neither authority to preuayle: the fell to entreating and offering of rewardes, one offering xx. poūd, an other his scarlet gown so that any man would pull him out though it were by the eares.

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Some stood close vnto the pillers, thinking themselues safe vnder the vautes of stone for the dropping of the lead. Othersome being without mony & vnprouided of al shift, knew not which way to turne them. One being a presidēt of a certaine Colledge (whose name I need not here to vtter) pulling a bourd out from the pues, couered his head & shoulders therwith agaynst þe scalding lead, which they feared much more then the fall of the Church. Now what a laughter would this haue ministred vnto Democritus amongest other thinges, to behold there a certayne graund paūch, who seing the dores stopped and euery way closed vp, thought by an other compendious meanes to get out through a glasse window if it might be by any shift. But here the irō grates letted him 

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John White, in another account of the same incident, claims that Claymund cast himself down before the altar and committed himself to the mercy of God, rather than escape through a broken window (John White, Diacosio-Martyrion[Louvain, 1553], STC 25388, fo. 83r).

: notwithstandiug his gredy mind would needes attempt if he could happely bring hys purpose to passe. Whē he had brokē the glasse, & was come to the space betwene þe grates where he should creepe out, first he thrust in his head wt the one shoulder, & it wēt thorow wel enough. Thē he labored to get the other shoulder after, but there was great labor about þt, & lōg he stuck by þe shoulders with much adoe. For what doth not importunate labor ouercome? Thus farreforth he was now gottē. But by what part of his bodye he did sticke fast, I am not certayne, neither may I fayne, forsomuch as there be yet witnesses which did see these thinges, which woulde correcte me if I should so doe. Notwithstanding this is most certayne that he did sticke fast betweene the grates, and coulde neither get out nor in.

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Thus this good man being in deed a Monke, and hauing but short hose, by the which way he supposed soonest to escape, by the same he fel into further incōuenience making of one danger two. For if the fire or lead had fallen on the outside, those parts which did hang out of the window had bene in danger: & contrariwise if the flame had raged within the Church, all his other parts had lyen opē to the fire. And as this man did sticke fast in the windowe, so dyd the rest sticke as fast in the dores, that sooner they myght haue bene burned, then they could once styrre or moue one foot. Through the which prese at the last there was a way found, that some going ouer their heads gat out.

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Here also happened an other pageaunt in a certayneMonke (if I be not misaduised) of Glocester Colledge, whereat Calphurnius mighte well laugh with an open mouth. MarginaliaPleno ridet Calphurnius ore. Horat. So it happened that there was a young lad in this tumult, who seing the dores fast stopped with the prese or multitude, & that he had no way to get out, climed vp vpō the dore, and there staying vpon the top of the doore, was forced to tary still. For to come downe into the Church agayne, he durst not for feare of the fire, and to leape downe toward the street he could not without daunger of falling. When he had taryed there a while, he aduised himself what to do: neither did occasion want to serue his purpose. For by chaunce, amongst them that gat out ouer mens heads, he saw a Monke comming towardes him, which had a great wide Coule hanging at his backe. This the Boye thought to be a good occasion for him to escape by. When the Monke came neare vnto him, the Boy which was in the toppe of the doore, came downe, and pretily conueyed himselfe into the Monkes Coule, MarginaliaA boye gotte into a Monkes coule. thinking (as it came to passe in deed) that if the Monke did escape, he should also get out with him. To be briefe, at the last the Monke gat out ouer mens heads, with the boy in his Coule, and for a great while felt no wayght or burden.

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At the last, when he was somewhat more come to himselfe, and did shake his shoulders, feling his Coule heuyer thē it was accustomed to be, & also hearing þe voyce of one speaking behinde his Coule, he was more afrayd then he was before, when he was in the throng, thinking in very deed, that the euill spirit which had set the Church on fire, had flyen into his Coule. By and by he began to play the Exorcist: In the name of God (sayd he) and all sayntes, I commaund thee to declare what thou art that art behinde at my backe. To whom the boy aunswered: I am Bertrames boy, sayd he (for that was his name.) But I, sayd the monke, adiure thee in the name of the vnseparable trinity, that thou wicked spirit do tell me who thou art, from whence thou commest, and that thou get thee hence. I am Bertrames boy, sayd he, good mayster let me go: and with that his Coule began with the wayt to cracke vppon his shoulders. The monke when he perceiued the matter, took the boy out and discharged his Coule. The boy tooke his legges and ranne away as fast as he could.

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Among other, one wiser then the rest, ranne wyth the Church dore key, beating vpon the stone walles, thinking ther with to breake an hole thorough to escape out.

In the meane time those that were in the streate looking diligently about them, and perceyuing all thynges to be without feare, maruelled at this soddayne outrage, & made signes and tokēs to them that were in the church, to keepe themselues quyet, crying to them that there was no daunger.

But for so much as no word could be heard by reason of the noyse that was within the Churche, those signes made them much more afrayd then they were before, interpreting the matter, as though all had bene on fire without the Church, and for the dropping of the lead and falling of other things, they should rather tary still within þe church, and not to venter out. This trouble continued in this maner by the space of certayne houres.

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The next day, and also all the weeke following there was an incredible number of bils set vp vpon the Church dores, to enquire for thinges that were lost, in such variety and number, as Domocritus might here agayne haue had iust cause to laugh. If any man haue foūd a payre of shoes yesterday in S. Mary Church, or knoweth any man that hath found them. &c. An other bill was set vp for a gowne that was lost. An other intreateth to haue his cappe restored. One lost his purse and gyrdle with certeyne mony: an other his sword. One enquireth for a ring, and one for one thing, an other for an other. To be short, there was few in this garboyle, but that either through negligence lost, or through obliuion left something behind him.

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Thus haue you hitherto heard a tragicall story of a terrible fire which did no hurt. The description whereof although it be not so perfectly expressed according to the worthines of the matter, yet because it was not to be passed with silence, we haue superficially set foorth some shadow therof, wherby the wise & discreet may sufficiently consider the rest, if any thing els be lacking in setting forth the full narration therof. As touching the heretick, because he had not done his sufficient penaunce there by occasion of thys hurly burly, therfore the next day folowing he was reclaimed into the Church of S. Frideswide, where he supplied the rest that lacked of his plenary penaunce.

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The 4. and 5. Mariage of K. Henry the 8. 
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Katherine Howard and Katherine Parr

This section was introduced in 1570, as Foxe's work moved towards becoming a chronologically complete narrative, and concentrated on public events. It draws chiefly on one of Foxe's most regular sources of information, and of chronological confusion: Edward Hall and Richard Grafton, The vnion of the two noble and illustrate famelies of Lancastre & Yorke (STC 12721: London, 1548), supplemented by a few more specific documents.Alec Ryrie

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THe same yeare and month next folowing, after the apprehension of the Lord Cromwell, which was an. 1541 

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