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John Oldcastle

(d. 1417) [ODNB]

Baron Cobham; soldier; Lollard heretic; rebel

Sheriff of Herefordshire (1406-7); under royal writ attended an examination and was convicted of heresy in 1413; escaped from the Tower; began conspiracy to armed revolt; went into hiding; instigated Lollard plots 1416; captured 1417, executed

John Oldcastle (Lord Cobham) was one of those Sir Thomas More in his The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

John Oldcastle was included by Foxe in a list of early Lollards persecuted. 1570, p. 1428; 1576, p. 1217; 1583, p. 1247.

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Richard FitzRalph (Armachanus)

(before 1300 - 1360) [ODNB]

Theologian; MA Oxford 1325; BTh 1328; DTh 1331; chancellor of the University of Oxford (1332 - 34); dean of Lichfield cathedral (1335 - 46); archbishop of Armagh (1347 - 60); conducted a campaign against the mendicant friars

Armachanus is included by Foxe in a list of early Lollards. 1570, p. 1428; 1576, p. 1217; 1583, p. 1247.

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William Warham

(c. 1450 - 1532) [ODNB]

Studied at Oxford; lawyer in Oxford and London; diplomat

Bishop of London (1502 - 04); keeper of the great seal (1502 - 04); archbishop of Canterbury (1504 - 32); lord chancellor (1504 - 15); chancellor of the University of Oxford (1506 - 32)

William Carder, Agnes Grebill and Robert Harrison were tried for heresy in 1511 before William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Gabriel Sylvester, Thomas Wells and Clement Browne. All three were condemned to burn. Warham had brought in witnesses who had already abjured and would therefore tell everything they knew lest they be found guilty of relapse. 1570, pp. 1454-55; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, pp. 1276-77.

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Thomas Wolsey caused his cardinal's hat, when it arrived, to be taken back to Dover so that the archbishop of Canterbury could greet it. 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Warham was one of the supporters of Queen Catherine before the papal legates considering the matter of the divorce. 1563, p. 458; 1570, p. 1193; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

In a letter to Juan de Vergara, Erasmus of Rotterdam described how, after the downfall of Thomas Wolsey, Warham was offered the chancellorship but declined due to his advanced years. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Thomas Hitten was imprisoned by Archbishop Warham and Bishop Fisher, tortured and then burnt at Maidstone. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

William Tracy's will was sent to the Archbishop Warham to be proved. It contained reformed sentiments, and Warham brought it to the convocation. Tracy's body was exhumed and burnt. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

John Lambert was brought from Antwerp to London, where he was examined before Archbishop Warham and others. Forty-five articles were put to him which he answered. Warham then died and Lambert was unbothered for a time. 1563, pp. 528, 533-69; 1570, pp. 1255-80; 1576, pp. 1075-1095; 1583, pp. 1101-21.

1271 [1247]

K. Hen. 8. Abolishing of Englishe bookes. Collections out of Tindalls workes.

Armachanus, syr Iohn Oldcastle, Iohn Hus, the Bohemians, and such other. Which thing if the bookes and places when these Articles were gathered againste them, had bene suffered to remayne, we might more playnely vnderstand. In the meane season as touching these Articles here present, for so much as the Bishops owne Registers haue offered them vnto vs, and doe yet remaine with the selfe same bookes from whence they be excerpted, I shall therefore desire thee (frendly reader) first to cōsider the Articles, and laye them with the places which the Registers themselues doe assigne, and then iudge thy selfe what is to bee thought thereof. The Articles gathered out of the foresayde bookes wyth the Bishops decree prefixed before the same, is as here vnder followeth.

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A publike Instrument by the Byshops, for the abolishing of the Scripture, and other bookes to be read in English.

MarginaliaA writing of the Bishops agaynst Englishe books.IN the name of God. Amen. Be it knowen to all and singulare, true, and faithfull people, to whome these present letters testimoniall, or this present publicke and authenticke instrument shall come to be seene, reade, hearde or vnderstande, and whome this vnder wrytten shall or may teache, or appertaine vnto in any maner of wise in time to come, William by the sufferaunce of almightye God, Archbishop of Caunterburie, Primate of all the Realme of Englande, sendeth greeting in our Lorde God euerlasting. We signifie vnto you all, and let you well wit and know by these presents, that the king our soueraigne Lorde, hearing of many bookes in the English tongue, containing many detestable errours, and damnable opinions, printed in the parties beyond the Seas, to be brought into diuers townes, and sondrye parties of this his Realme of Englande, and sowen abroad in the same, to the great decay of our faith Catholicke, and perillous corruption of hys people, vnlesse speedy remedy were briefely prouided, hys highnesse willinge euermore to employ all his studie and mynde in the high degree which almighty God hath called hym vnto, to the wealth of his subiectes, that they might liue, not only in tranquillitie and peace, but also be kept pure and cleane of all contagion, and wrong opinions, in Christes Religion: considering also that he being defendour of the faith, woulde be full loth to suffer such euill seede sowne amongst his people, and so take roote that it might ouergrowe the corne of the Catholicke doctrine before spronge in the soules of hys subiectes: for the repellinge of suche booke, calling vnto him of his great goodnesse, & gratious dispositiō, not onely certein of the chief prelates & clerks of his realm, but also of eache Vniuersitie a certaine number of the chiefe learned men proposed such of those bookes, as his grace had readye to be read vnto them, requiring to heare in that behalfe their aduise and iudgement of them. Who both by great diligence and mature deliberation, perusing ouer the sayde bookes, founde in them manye errours and heresies, both detestable and damnable, being of such a sort, that they were like briefly to corrupt a greate parte of his people (if they mighte be suffered to remaine in theyr handes any space) gathering also out of them many great errors, and pestilent heresies, and noting them in wryting, so the intente to shewe for what cause they reputed the sayd bookes damnable, of which hereafter out of eache booke gathered many do ensue: albeit, many more there be in the said bookes, which bookes totally do swarue full of heresies and detestable opinions.

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MarginaliaHeresies falsly gathered by the Papistes out of wicked Māmon.Heresies and errours collected by the Byshops out of the booke of Tyndall, named the wicked Mammon with the places of the booke annexed to the same, oute of which euery Article is collected. 
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Heresies charged against Protestants

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008).

Marginalia1. Article.1. FAith onely iustifieth. Fol. 59.

This Article being a principle of the Scripture, and the ground of our saluation, is playne enoughe by S. Paule and the whole body of the scripture: MarginaliaThe Papistes of the principles of diuinitye, make heresie.Neither can any make this an heresie, but they must make S. Paule an hereticke, and shew themselues ennemies to the promises of grace, and to the crosse of Christ.

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Marginalia2. article.2. The law maketh vs to heare God, because we be borne vnder the power of the Deuil. Fol. 59.

Marginalia3. article.3. It is impossible for vs to consent to the will of God. Fol. 59.

The place of Tyndall from whence these Articles be wrasted, is in the wicked Mammon, as followeth. Whych place I beseeche thee indifferente is reade, and then to iudge.

MarginaliaHerein is no thing conteyned but that which is rightly consonant vnto the Scripture.In the faith which we haue in Christ, & in Gods promises, finde we mercy, life, fauour, & peace. In the law we finde death, damnation and wrath, moreouer the curse and vengeance of God vpon vs. And it (that is to say, the law) is called of Paul, the ministratiō of death and damnation. In the lawe wee are prooued to be the ennemies of God,and that we hate hym. For howe can we be at peace wyth God, and loue hym, seeing we are cōceiued and borne vnder the power of the Deuill, and are his possession & kingdome, hys captiues and bondmen, and led at hys will, and he holdeth our hearts, so that it is impossible for vs to consent to the will of God? Muche more is it impossible for a man to fulfill the lawe of hys owne strength and power, seeing that we are by birth and nature the heires of the eternall damnation. &c.

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Marginalia4. article,4. The lawe requireth impossible things of vs Fol. 59.

Read the place. The law when it commaundeth þt thou shalt not lust, geueth thee not power so to do: but damneth thee because thou canst not so doe.

MarginaliaWhat heresy is in these wordes. If thou wilt therefore be at peace with God and loue hym, then must thou turne to the promises and to the gospel, which is called of Paul the ministration of righteousnesse and of the spirite. Marginalia2. Cor. 3.

Marginalia5. article,5. The spirit of God turneth vs & our nature, that we do good: as naturally as a tree doth bring fourth fruit. Fol. 65.

The place is this: MarginaliaThis place speaking of the operatiō & effecte of fayth, conteyneth nothing but which is mayntaynable by the Scripture. the spirite of God accompanyeth fayth and bringeth with her light, wherwith a man beholdeth himself in the law of God, and seeth his miserable bōdage & captiuitie, and humbleth himselfe, & abhorreth himselfe. She bringeth Gods promises of all good thynges in Christ: God worketh with his word, & in his worde. And as hys word is preached, fayth rooteth her selfe in þe harts of the elect: and as fayth entreth: and the worde of God is beleued, the power of God looseth the hart from the captiuitie & bondage vnder sinne: and knitteth & coupleth hym to God & to the will of God, altereth hym & changeth him cleane, fashioneth and forgeth hym a new, geueth him power to loue and to do that which before was impossible for him either to loue or doe, and turneth him into a new nature: so that he loueth that which before hee hated, & hateth that which he before loued, and is cleane altered and changed, and contrary disposed: and is knitt and coupled fast to gods will, and naturally bringeth fourth good workes: þt is to say, that which God commandeth to do, & not things of his owne imagination: and that doth hee of his owne accord, as a tree bringeth forth fruit of his owne accord. &c.

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Marginalia6. article.6. Workes doe onely declare to thee that thou art iustified. Fol. 65.

If Tindall say, that workes doe onely declare our iustification, he doth not thereby destroy good works: but onely sheweth the right vse and office of good workes: to be noted to merite our iustificatiō, but rather to testify a liuely fayth, which onely instifieth vs, The article is playn by the scripture, and S. Paule.

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Marginalia7. article.7. Christ with all his workes did not deserue heauen. fol. 69.

Reade the place. Al good workes must be done freely wt a single eye, without respect of any thing, so that no profit be sought thereby. That commaundeth Christ, where hee fayth. Free haue you receaued, free geue agayne. For look as Christ with all his workes did not * MarginaliaMath. 10. He meaneth in his diuinitye but in his humanitye he deserued heauen by his workes not onely for himselfe, but for vs all. deserue heauen (for that was his already) but did vs seruice therewith, & neyther looked for, nor sought his owne profite, but ours and the honour of god his father onely: euen so we withal our workes, may not seeke our owne profite, neither in thys world, nor in heauen, but must and ought freely to worke to honour God withall, and without all maner of respect, seeke our neighbours profite, and do him seruice. &c.

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Marginalia8. article.8. Labouring by good workes to come to heauen, thou shamest Christes bloud. Fol. 9.

Read the place. If thou wouldest obteine heauen with the merites and deserings of thine owne works, so doest thou wrong, yea and shamest the bloud of Christ, and vnto thee Christ is dead in vaine. Now is the true beleuer heire of God by christes deseruings, yea and in Christ was predestinate and ordained vnto eternall life before the worlde began. And when the Gospell is preached vnto vs, we beleue the mercy of God, and in beleuing we receiue the spirit of God, which is the earnest of eternall life, and we are in eternal life already, and feele already in our harts þe sweetnes thereof, and are ouercome with the kindnes of God & Christ: and therefore loue the will of God, and of loue are ready to worke freely, and not to obtaine that whyche is geuen vs freely, and whereof we are heyres already, &c. MarginaliaTo say that heauen is gotten by our deseruings, is a Popishe heresie & contrary to the Scriptures.

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Marginalia9. article.9. Saintes in heauen can not helpe vs thither. fol. 69.

Whether saintes can helpe vs vnto heauen, see þe scripture, and marke wel the office of the sonne of God our only Sauiour and redeemer, and thou shalt not nede to seeke any further.

Marginalia10. article.10. To builde a Churche in the honour of our Ladye or anye other Saincte, is in vaine. they cannot helpe thee, they be not they friendes, fol. 71.

Read the place of Tind. MarginaliaThe place annexed What buildest thou Churches, foundest Abbeys, Chauntreis, & Colledges in the honour of Saintes, to my mother, S. Peter, Paule, and Saintes that be deade, to make of them thy friendes? They neede it

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