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Antonino of Florence (Pierozzi) (St Antonino)

(1389 - 1459) [Eric Cochrane, Historians and Historiography in the Italian Renaissance (Chicago, 1981) pp. 21-22]

Dominican monk; theologian and historian; prior of Cortona; established the convent of San Marco in 1436

Archbishop of Florence (1446 - 59); wrote Summa Moralis

He regarded the Donation of Constantine to be fraudulent. 1570, p. 144, 1576, p. 106, 1583, p. 105.

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Bartolomeo Picerno

(fl. late C15, early C16)

Dominican monk; Latin and Greek scholar; translated from Greek to Latin

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 144, 1576, p. 106, 1583, p. 105.

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(742x747 - 814)

King of the Franks (768 - 814); king of the Lombards (774 - 814); emperor of the Romans (800 - 814)

Pope Stephen III called on Charlemagne for help against the Lombards; Charlemagne defeated King Desiderius and took over the rule of the Lombard kingdom. 1570, p. 174; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 130.

After the death of Charlemagne's brother Carloman, Carloman's wife and children went to Pope Adrian I for protection. He turned them over, with Desiderius, to Charlemagne, who kept them in captivity in France. 1570, p. 175; 1576, p. 132; 1583, p. 131.

Charlemagne confirmed the donations to the papacy of his father and added more. He received from Pope Adrian I the title of patrician of the Romans. 1570, p. 174, 1576, p. 132, 1583, p. 131.

Charlemagne granted to the clergy and people the right to elect bishops and to monks the right to elect their abbots. He was said to have received from Adrian I the right to choose and ordain the bishop of Rome. 1570, p. 5, 1576, p. 4, 1583, pp. 4-5

Charlemagne provided laws, rites and ordinances for the clergy and laity and called church synods. 1570, p. 9, 1576, pp. 7-8, 1583, pp. 7-8

Alcuin was sent to Charlemagne by Offa of Mercia in hopes of cementing peace between them. Charlemagne held Alcuin in high esteem and made him abbot of Tours. 1570, p. 173; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 129

Charlemagne sent a letter to King Offa, praising Pope Adrian I. 1570, p. 175; 1576, p. 132; 1583, p. 131

Pope Adrian favoured the mass of St Gregory over that of St Ambrose. He called a council that ordained that Gregory's mass should be used universally, and Charlemagne executed the decree. 1570, p. 174, 1576, p. 131, 1583, p. 130.

Charlemagne presided over the Council of Frankfurt, which rejected decrees of the Council of Nicea advocating the adoration of images. 1563, p. 4; 1570, p. 175; 1576, p. 132; 1583, p. 131

Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III. 1570, p. 175, 1576, p. 132, 1583, p. 131.

Eadburh, daughter of Offa and wife of Beorhtric, poisoned her husband, along with some nobles. She fled into France, where both Charlemagne and his son offered to marry her. When she chose the son, she was sent to a nunnery. She had an affair with a monk and was expelled. 1570, p. 176, 1576, p. 133, 1583, p. 132.

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Charlemagne built many monasteries, was generous to churchmen and to the poor, a triumphant warrior and skilled in languages. 1570, p. 175; 1576, p. 132; 1583, p. 131

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Cyprian of Carthage(St Cyprian)

(d. 258) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Teacher of rhetoric; bishop of Carthage (249 - 58); there was opposition and schism in his see. Early Christian writer; in conflict with Pope Stephen I over the efficacy of baptism by heretics; executed

Cyprian was born in Carthage, grew up a pagan and became a skilled rhetorician. He was converted by a priest and baptised. Not long after he became a priest, he was made bishop of Carthage. 1570, p. 98; 1576, p. 69; 1583, p. 69.

Cyprian was called 'papas' or 'father'. 1570, p. 11; 1576, p. 8; 1583, p. 8.

Cyprian favoured the rebaptism of those baptised by heretics; in this he disagreed with Pope Stephen. 1570, p. 101, 1576, p. 71, 1583, p. 71.

Cyprian complained that many of the faithful, without having been subjected to any torture, through cowardice voluntarily agreed to sacrifice to the gods. 1570, p. 92; 1576, p. 64; 1583, p. 64.

Novatian was a priest under Cyprian in Carthage, where he appointed Felicissimus deacon without Cyprian's knowledge and stirred up factions. Novatian opposed the reinstatement of lapsed Christians. 1570, p. 93; 1576, p. 65; 1583, p. 64.

Cyprian was banished from Carthage during the reign of Gallus due to sedition within the church there. 1570, p. 95; 1576, p. 66; 1583, p. 66.

Cyprian returned from exile in the reign of Valerian. 1570, p. 99; 1576, p. 70; 1583, p. 69.

Cyprian received visions warning him of the persecution of Valerian. He wrote an Apology in defence of the Christians. 1570, p. 97; 1576, p. 68; 1583, p. 68.

He was banished a second time. When he refused to sacrifice to the gods, he was beheaded. 1570, p. 99; 1576, p. 70; 1583, p. 69.

Foxe discusses his writings. 1570, pp. 99-101; 1576, pp. 70-71;1583, pp. 69-71.

Constantine fulfilled Cyprian's vision of a time of peace for the church. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.

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Gelasius I (St Gelasius)

(d. 496) [Kelly]

Pope (492 - 96) Asserted the primacy of Rome over the entire church; prolific writer

Gelasius was the son of a married priest. 1570, p. 1319; 1576, p. 1129; 1583, p. 1154.

Gelasius spoke of the transmutation of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ, but still remaining in their proper nature. 1570, p. 1299; 1576, p. 1112; 1583, p. 1137.

Gelasius decreed that communion was to be taken in two kinds. 1570, p. 1314; 1576, p. 1124; 1583, p. 1149.

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of Bologna; C12 canon lawyer [P. Landau, NCMH, vol 4:1, p. 128]

Wrote Decretum, an attempt logically to reconcile contradictory canons, which became the standard text for canon law

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 63, 68, 95, 134, 143; 1576, pp. 38-39, 45, 67, 97, 106; 1583, pp. 4, 39, 45, 67, 96, 105.

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Isidore of Seville (St Isidore)

(c. 560 - 636) [Catholic Encyclopedia; Gams]

b. Cartagena, Spain; Archbishop of Seville (599 - 636); scholar and historian

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1563, p. 4; 1570, pp. 56, 96, 143, 1319; 1576, pp. 36, 67, 106, 1128; 1583, pp. 36, 67, 105, 1154.

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Johannes Nauclerus

(c. 1425 - 1510)

German humanist historian; DCL 1450; taught at the University of Basel; rector of the University of Tübingen 1477; chancellor of the university; judge of the Swabian League (1502 -13); wrote World Chronicle

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 64, 78, 83, 96, 143, 174; 1576, pp. 37, 53, 57, 67, 106, 131; 1583, pp. 37, 53, 57, 67, 105, 130.

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Lorenzo Valla

(1405 - 1457) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Italian humanist; distinguished Latinist; taught at Pavia

Secretary to Alfonso of Aragon at Naples in 1433; scriptor, and later of Apostolic secretary, under Pope Nicholas V.

Proved the Donation of Constantine to have been a forgery.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 144, 1576, p. 106, 1583, p. 105.

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Marsilius of Padua

(1270 - 1342) [G. Holmes, Europe: Hierarchy and Revolt (London, 1975) pp. 146-7]

Italian scholar; born and studied at Padua; rector of the University of Paris in 1313

Argued for the supremacy of the empire and independence from the see of Rome; wrote Defensor Pacis, the theory of the city state, in 1324; excommunicated in 1327

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 143, 1576, p. 106, 1583, p. 105.

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Martin Luther

(1483 - 1546) [C. Scott Dixon and Mark Greengrass,]

b. Eisleben; of Wittenberg; German theologian, Augustinian monk, founder of the protestant reformation; translated the bible into German

Luther regarded the Donation of Constantine as fraudulent. 1570, p. 144, 1576, p. 106, 1583, p. 105.

Upon leaving England, William Tyndale went into Saxony and met Luther. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1076.

Humphrey Monmouth was accused of helping William Tyndale and William Roy to get to the continent to join Martin Luther. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Leo X condemned writings and translations of Martin Luther. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 999.

Leo X issued a bull against Martin Luther, in which his teachings and his works were condemned. 1570, pp. 1459-65; 1576, pp. 1244-47; 1583, pp. 1280-84.

Luther produced an answer to the papal bull and sent an appeal to the pope. 1570, pp. 1465-76; 1576, pp. 1247-52; 1583, pp. 1284-89.

Luther was called to Rome to answer charges of heresy. The duke of Saxony, John Frederick I, pleaded to have him tried by impartial judges. His case, however, was committed to be heard by the legate to Germany, Cardinal Cajetan, a sworn enemy of Luther. The cardinal rejected his case, and Luther appealed from the cardinal to the pope. This appeal was turned down, and Luther appealed to the next general council. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1252; 1583, pp. 1289-90.

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Henry VIII issued a proclamation against the heresies of Luther. 1570, p. 1159; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

Robert Barnes fled England and went to Germany, where he found favour with Luther, Melancthon, Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Hegendorph, Aepinus, the duke of Saxony and the king of Denmark. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

Catholics defamed Luther, claiming he died of drunkenness. 1570, p. 1439; 1576, p. 1227; 1583, p. 1257.

Luther was one of those Sir Thomas More in The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

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Nicholas of Cusa (Nicholaus Cusanus)

(1401 - 1464)[]

German humanist; mathematician, jurist and astronomer; DCnL Padua 1423

Bishop of Brixen (1450 - 64); papal legate to England and Germany

Cardinal (1448 - 64)

Nicholas regarded the Donation of Constantine as forged. 1570, p. 144, 1576, p. 106, 1583, p. 105.

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Otto von Freising

(c. 1114 - 1158)

Chronicler; fifth son of Leopold III, margrave of Austria, and Agnes, daughter of Emperor Henry IV

Cistercian abbot; bishop of Freising (c. 1136 - 58); went on crusade in 1147

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1563, p. ; 1570, pp. 63, 113, 143; 1576, pp. 38, 81, 106; 1583, pp. 38, 80, 105.

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Pippin the Short (the Younger)

(714 - 768)

Mayor of the palace of Neustria (741 - 51); mayor of the palace of Francia (747 - 51)

King of the Franks (751 - 68); first Carolingian king

Boniface, archbishop of Mainz, on instruction from Pope Zacharias, authorised the deposition of King Childeric III of the Franks and confirmation of Pippin the Short as king. 1570, p. 172; 1576, p. 130; 1583, p. 129.

In gratitude for Stephen's anointing, Pippin granted the exarchate of Ravenna and other areas of Italy to the see of Rome. 1570, p. 173; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 130.

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Pius II (Æneas Sylvius Piccolomini)

(1405 - 1464) [Kelly]

Pope (1458 - 64). Secretary to Domenico Capranica, bishop of Fermo, and Cardinal Albergati at the Council of Basel. Imperial poet laureate; papal ambassador for Eugene IV to the imperial court; bishop of Trieste 1447; bishop of Siena 1450; imperial ambassador 1450; cardinal 1456

Æneas Sylvius regarded the Donation of Constantine as fraudulent. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.

Æneas Sylvius, while cardinal, wrote to a friend who wished to marry after taking holy orders. 1570, p. 1319; 1576, p. 1129; 1583, p. 1154.

The indulgences granted to the guild of our Lady in Boston by Nicholas V, Pius II and Sixtus IV and Leo X were renewed by Clement. 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

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Raphael Volaterranus (Raffaele Maffei)

(1451 - 1522) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

b.Volterra; Roman humanist, philosopher, theologian. Established an academy in his house; founded Clarisse monastery, Volterra; wrote an encyclopedia in three parts: geology, anthropology, philology

Volaterran regarded the Donation of Constantine to be a forgery. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1563, p. 11; 1570, pp. 6, 63, 78, 86, 96, 105, 1329; 1576, pp. 5, 38, 53, 60, 69, 75, 1133; 1583, pp. 5, 38, 53, 59, 69, 74, 1162

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Silvester I (St Silvester)

(d. 335) [Kelly]

Pope (314 - 35)

According to Otto von Freising, Constantine gave the Donation to Silvester I. 1570, p. 143, 1576, p. 106, 1583, p. 105.

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Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius)

(c. 346 - 395) [D. Woods]

b.Spain; Roman general; emperor in the east 379; named his son Arcadius co-emperor in 383; his sons ruled east and west

Theodosius decreed that no one should be buried within a church. 1570, p. 9, 1576, p. 8, 1583, p. 8.

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(Byzantium, Istanbul) [Bizance]


Coordinates: 41° 0' 44" N, 28° 58' 34" E

128 [105]

donation to be falsly fained and forged, and not to procede from Constantine, many arguments might heere be inferred, if laisure from other matters would suffer me.

MarginaliaReasons and arguments prouing the donation of Constantine to be falsefied.1. First, for that no ancient history, nor yet Doctour maketh any mention thereof.

2. Nauclerus reporteth it to be affirmed in the hystorie of Isidorus: but in the olde copies of Isidorus no such thyng is to be founde.

Marginalia3.3. Gracianus the compiler of the decrees, reciteth that decree, not vpon any auncient authoritie, but only vnder the title of Palea.

Marginalia4.4. Gelasius is sayd to geue some testimony therof, in Dist. 15. Sancta Romana, but that clause of the said distinction touching that matter, in the olde ancient bookes is not extant.

Marginalia5.5 Otho Phrisingensis, who was about the time of Gracian, after hee hath declared the opinion of the fauourers of the Papacie: affirming this donation to be geuen of Constantine, to Siluester the Pope: induceth consequently, the opinion of them that fauour the Empire, affirming the contrary.

Marginalia6.6. How doth thys agree, that Constantine did yeelde vp to Siluester all the politicall dominion ouer the West, when as the sayd Constantine at hys death, deuiding the Empire to his three sonnes, gaue the West part of the Empire to one, the East part to the secōd, the middle part to the third?

Marginalia7.7. How is it like that Theodosius after them, being a iust and a religious Prince, would or could haue occupyed the Citie of Rome, if it had not bene his right, but had belonged to the pope, & so did many other Emperors after him?

Marginalia8.8. The phrase of this decree being conferred wt the phrase and stile of Constantine, in his other Edictes and letters aboue specified doth nothing agree.

Marginalia9.9. Seeing the papists themselues confesse that the decree of this donation was writtē in Greeke, how agreeth that with truth: when as both it was written not to the Gretians , but to the Romanes, and also Constantine himselfe for lacke of the Greeke toung, was faine to vse the Latine toung in the Councell of Nice?

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Marginalia10.10. The contents of this donation (who soeuer was the forger thereof) doeth bewray it selfe. For if it be true which there is confessed, that he was Baptised at Rome of Siluester, & the iiij. day after his baptisme this patrimonie was giuen (which was before his battaile against Maximinus or Licinius, An. 317. as Niceph. recordeth) howe then accordeth this wyth that which followeth in the donation, for him to haue iurisdiction geuen ouer the other iiij. principall seas of Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople and Hierusalem? when as the Citie of Constantinople was not yet begun, before the death of Maximinus or Licinius, and was not finished, before the xxviij. yere of the raigne of Constantine, an. 339. or if it be true, as Hierome counteth, it was finished the xxiij. yere of his raigne, which was the yere of our Lorde 334. long after this donation by their owne accōpt.

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Marginalia11.11. Furthermore, where in the sayde constitution is sayd that Constantine was baptised at Rome of Siluester, & therby was purged of Leprosie: the fable thereof agreeth not with the trueth of historie: for so much as Eusebius, lib. 4. De vita Constantini, Hieronymus in Chron. Ruffin. lib. 1. cap. 11 Socrates, lib. 1. cap. 39 Theodor. lib. 1. cap. 31. Sozomenus, lib 2. cap. 34. doe altogether consent that hee was Baptised not at Rome, but at Nicomedia: and that moreouer, as by theyr testimonie doth appeare, not of Siluester but of Eusebius bishop of Nicomedia, not before his battaile against Maximinus, or Licinius, but in the xxxj. yeare of his raigne, a litle before his death.

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Marginalia12.12. Againe, where as Constantine in this donation appoynted him to haue the principalitie ouer the other iiij. Patriarchall Seas: that maketh Constantine contrary to himselfe. Who in the Councell of Nice afterwarde agreed with other bishops, that al the iiij. patriarchal seas should haue equall iurisdiction, euery one ouer his owne territorie and precinct.

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Marginalia13.13 In summe, briefly to conclude: who so desireth more aboundantly to be satisfied touching this matter, let hymread the bookes of Marsilius Patauinus, intituled: defensor pacis, An 1324. of Laurētius Valla, An. 1440. of Antoninus archbishop of Florence, who in hys hystorie, plainely denieth the tenour of thys donation to be founde in the old bookes of the decrees. Of Cusanus Cardinalis. Lib. 3. Cap. 2. wryting to the Councell of Basil, Anno 1460. Of Æneas Syluius in Dialogo, of Hier. Paulus Cattalanus, An. 1496. of Raphael Volateranus, An. 1500. of Lutherus, An. 1537. &c. all which by many and euident probations, dispute and proue this donation taken out of a booke De gestis Syluestri, and translated (as they faine) by one Bartholomeus Picernus, out of Greke into Latine: not to proceede from Constantinus, but to be a thing vntruely pretensed, or rather a fable imagined, or els to be the deede of Pipinus or Charles, or some such other, if it were euer the deede of any.

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MarginaliaCommendation of Constantine. the Emperour.And thus hast thou (beloued Reader) briefly collected the narration of the noble actes and heauenly vertues of thys most famous Emperour Constantine the great: a singulare spectacle for all Christian Princes to beholde and imitate, and worthy of perpetuall memorie in all congregations of Christian Saintes. Whose feruent zeale & pietie in generall, to all cōgregations, and to all the seruants of Christ was notable: but especially the affection and reuerence of hys heart toward them was admirable, whych had suffered any thyng for the confession of Christ, in the persecutions before, them had hee principally in price and veneration, in so much that hee embraced and kissed theyr woundes and stripes, and their eyes, being put out. MarginaliaConstantine kissed the woundes of them that suffered for Christ And if any suche Byshops or any other Ministers brought to hym any cōplaints one against an other, (as many times they did) he would take theyr bils of complaint, and burne them before theyr faces: so studious and zealous was hys mind to haue them agree, whose discord was to hym more griefe, then it was to themselues. MarginaliaConstantine burneth the bils of complayntes, and breaketh strife among the Byshops. All the vertuous actes and memorable doings of this diuine & renowmed Emperour to comprehende or commit to hystorie: it were the matter alone of a great volume: wherfore contented with these aboue premised, because nothing of him can be sayde inough, I cease to discourse of him any further.

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MarginaliaNote, that the oration ad conuentum sanctorum is wrongly ascribed to Eusebius, which in deede is the oration of Constantine.One thyng yet remaineth not to be omited, wherein (as by the way of a note) I thought good to admonish the learned Reader, suche as loue to be conuersant in reading of auncient authors: that in the Ecclesiasticall hystorie of Eusebius, where in the latter ende of the booke, is added a certaine Oration, Ad cōuentum Sanctorum, vnder the name of Eusebius Pamphilus, here is to be vnderstād, that the sayd Oration is wrongly intituled vpon the name of Eusebius, whych in very truth is the Oration of Constantinus hymselfe. For the probation whereof, beside the stile and matter therein contained, and tractation heroycall) liuely declaring the religious vaine of Constantine) I alledge the very testimonie of Eusebius himselfe in his fourth booke De vita Constantini, where he in expresse wordes not onely declareth that Cōstantine wrote such an Oration intituled Ad Conuentum Sanctorum, but also promiseth in the end of hys booke, to annexe the same: declaring moreouer what difficultie the interpretors had, to translate the same form the Romaine speeche, to theyr Grecian toung. Eusebius de vita Constantini. Lib. 4 pag. 211.

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And here an end of these lamentable & doleful persecutions of the primitiue Church, during the space of the 300. yeres frō the passion of our Sauiour Christ, til the cōming of this Constantinus, by whom, as by the elect instrumēt of God, it hath so pleased his almighty maiesty, by his determinat purpose to giue rest after lōg trouble to his church, according to that S. Cyprian declareth before, pag. 68. MarginaliaLooke aboue pag. 68. Col. 2. line. 52. to be reueled of God vnto his Church: that after darkenes and stormy tempest should come peaceable calme, & stable quietnes to his church, meaning this time of Constantine now present. MarginaliaSatan bound vp for a M. yeares.At which time it so pleased the almightie, that the murdering malice of Sathan should at length be restrained, and he him selfe to be tied vp for a thousande yeares, through his great mercie in Christ, to whome therefore be thankes and praise now and for euer. AMEN.

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