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Charles V

(1500 - 1558) [C. Scott Dixon, M. Greengrass,]

Duke of Burgundy; king of Spain (1516 - 56)

Holy Roman Emperor (1520 - 56); abdicated the Spanish throne in favour of son Phillip II of Spain and the imperial throne in favour of brother Ferdinand

Charles V had promised to marry Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII, but bowed to objections in Spain that the marriage of her parents had been irregular. He married Isabella of Portugal instead. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry VIII, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Thomas Wyatt was sent to Emperor Charles V. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry VIII to attend the council to be held at Mantua or to send delegates. Henry again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

Francois I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

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Conrad Brunus

(1491 - 1563) German jurist; wrote on insurrections and revolts

Conrad Brunus wrote a preface to a work against Hussites and Lutherans by Johann Cochlaeus. In the preface Brunus hurled insults at protestants. 1570, p. 1440; 1576, p. 1228; 1583, p. 1258.

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Constantine I

(271x273 - 337) [H. A. Pohlsander]

Roman emperor in the West (306 - 37); defeated Maxentius, rival emperor, in 312

Sole Roman emperor (324 - 37)

Constantine took three legions with him out of Britain, thereby weakening its defence. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

Maximian plotted to have Constantine killed; the plot was detected by Fausta, Constantine's wife and daughter of Maximian. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

The citizens and senators of Rome appealed to Constantine to rid them of Maxentius. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

Constantine, preparing for battle against Maxentius and fearing his magical powers, saw the sign of a cross in the sky. He then had a dream with a vision of the cross and of Christ. He took a cross into battle with him as a standard and defeated Maxentius at Milvian Bridge. 1570, p. 119; 1576, p. 86; 1583, p. 85.

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After the defeat of Maxentius, Constantine no longer sacrificed to the Roman gods, but he deferred baptism to his old age. He issued edicts restoring church goods and bringing Christians back from exile. 1570, pp. 139-41; 1576, pp. 103-04; 1583, pp. 101-03.

Constantine wrote to Anulinus, his proconsul in Africa, instructing him to restore goods to the Christian churches and to ensure that Christian ministers were freed from public duties. 1570, p. 141, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Constantine wrote to Pope Miltiades, instructing him to set up a synod to examine the cause of Cæcilian of Carthage, and sent letters to other bishops, issuing instructions and encouraging the ending of schisms. 1570, p. 141, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Initially Constantine and Licinius were on good terms, and Constantine gave Lucinius his sister in marriage. 1570, p. 122; 1576, p. 88; 1583, p. 87.

Licinius and Constantine issued a joint edict authorising freedom of worship for Christians. But Licinius began to turn against Constantine and the Christians, instigating a new, more surreptitious persecution. 1570, pp. 120-21, 122; 1576, pp. 86-87, 88; 1583, p. 86, 87.

Constantine defeated Licinius. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 31; 1583, p. 31.

He wrote to Alexander of Alexandria and Arius, urging them to end their disagreement. 1570, p. 142, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Constantine built churches and schools and provided books of scripture. 1570, pp. 142-43, 1576, p. 105, 1583, pp. 103-04.

Constantine wrote a letter to Shapur II, asking him to treat the Christians in Persia well. 1570, p. 137; 1576, p. 100; 1583, p. 99.

Constantine renounced the Roman gods and was baptised. 1563, p. 8.

Constantine fulfilled St Cyprian's vision of a time of peace for the church. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.

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Domitian (Titus Flavius Domitianus)

(51 - 96) [J. Donahue]

Studied rhetoric and literature; brother of Titus

Roman emperor (81 - 96); murdered

The second persecution of the Christians began under Domitian. He caused himself to be worshipped as a god and persecuted senators. 1570, pp. 56-58; 1576, pp. 35-37; 1583, pp. 35-37.

Melito of Sardis, in his Apology, refers to him, along with Nero, as the worst persecutors of Christians. 1570, p. 75; 1576, p. 51; 1583, p. 51.

Domitian was persuaded to release the Jews he had seized and to cease the persecution of Christians. 1570, p. 64; 1576, p. 37; 1583, p. 37.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 38; 1576, p. 31; 1583, p. 31.

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Gilbert Génebrard

(1535 - 1597) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

French Benedictine monk; DTh Paris 1562; professor of Hebrew and exegesis 1563; prior of St Denis; wrote Chronologia in 1567; archbishop of Aix 1591

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 1440; 1576, p. 1228; 1583, p. 1258.

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James Bainham

(d. 1532) [ODNB]

Lawyer; married to Simon Fish's widow; brought before Sir Thomas More, accused of heresy; imprisoned, tortured, abjured; arrested after relapse, burnt at Smithfield

Simon Fish died of plague; his widow later married James Bainham. 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 987; 1583, p. 1014.

James Bainham was arrested and imprisoned in Sir Thomas More's house in Chelsea and whipped, then racked in the Tower. He was examined before John Stokesley. 1563, pp. 496-98; 1570, pp. 1168-70; 1576, pp. 999-1001; 1583, pp. 1027-29.

Bainham held to his beliefs, but after several examinations he abjured and was given a penance to carry a faggot and stand before the preacher at Paul's Cross. He soon publicly repented his abjuration and was sent to the Tower again. 1570, p. 1170; 1576, p. 1001; 1583, p. 1029.

Lawrence Staple was charged for, among other things, saying that he wanted to drink and pray with Bainham at his burning. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

Bainham was condemned, delivered to the sheriff and burnt at Smithfield. 1570, p. 1171; 1576, p. 1002; 1583, p. 1030.

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Johann Cochlaeus

(1479 - 1552) [C. Scott Dixon, M. Greengrass,]

German anti-Lutheran polemicist; Luther's first (antagonistic) biographer.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 1440; 1576, p. 1228; 1583, p. 1258.

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John Frith

(1503 - 1533) [ODNB; Hillerbrand]

Theologian and early martyr

BA Cambridge 1525; called by Wolsey to Cardinal College, Oxford

Imprisoned, fled abroad; returned 1531; arrested, placed in the Tower. Burnt at Smithfield

John Frith was converted at Cambridge by William Tyndale. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1031.

Frith was one of the scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College for attending an illegal assembly. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

He and others were released on Wolsey's orders. When he heard of the examination and bearing of faggots of Dalaber and Garrard, he fled overseas. He returned two years later, was arrested at Reading as a vagabond and put in the stocks. He asked to see the schoolmaster there, Leonard Cox, who helped to free him.1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

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John Frith translated Patrick Hamilton's 'Places' into English and wrote a preface to it. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

John Frith wrote an answer to Sir Thomas More's book on purgatory. 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Frith preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

William Tyndale met John Frith in Germany and became determined to translate the scriptures into English. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, p. 1076.

While abroad, Richard Bayfield met William Tyndale and John Frith and sold their books in France and in England. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Lambert translated works from Latin and Greek to English and then went abroad to join William Tyndale and John Frith. 1563, p. 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Frith wrote against Sir Thomas More to a friend, who innocently showed the letter to William Holt. Holt then took the letter to More. 1563, p. 498; 1570, p. 1175; 1576, p. 1005; 1583, p. 1032.

Frith was taken first to the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, then to the bishop of Winchester at Croydon, and then to London to plead his case before the assembled bishops. He was imprisoned in the Tower. From there he wrote to his friends, describing his examination before John Stokesley, Stephen Gardiner and John Longland. 1563, pp. 501-03; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

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Frith refused to retract his articles and was condemned. John Stokesley pronounced sentence and turned him over to the mayor and sheriffs of London. He was taken to Smithfield and burnt. 1563, p. 504; 1570, p. 1178; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

Frith was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

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John Lambert (formerly Nicholson)

(d. 1538) [ODNB]

of Norfolk; religious radical; BA Cambridge 1519/20; imprisoned for heresy 1531-32; accused again and tried in 1538; burnt at Smithfield

John Lambert was converted at Cambridge by Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur. 1563, pp. 482, 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Lambert translated works from Latin and Greek to English and then went abroad to join William Tyndale and John Frith. He became preacher to the English house in Antwerp. 1563, pp. 527-28; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

He was accused by Barlow in Antwerp and brought from there to London, where he was examined at Archbishop Warham's house at Otford before Warham and others. Forty-five articles were put to him which he answered. Warham then died and Lambert was unbothered for a time because Thomas Cranmer replaced Warham and Anne Boleyn married the king. Lambert taught children Greek and Latin in London. 1563, pp. 528, 533-69; 1570, pp. 1255-80; 1576, pp. 1075-1095; 1583, pp. 1101-21.

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Lambert attended a sermon preached by John Taylor at St Peter's in London in 1538. Lambert put ten articles to him questioning transubstantiation. Taylor conferred with Robert Barnes, who persuaded Taylor to put the matter to Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer called Lambert into open court, where he was made to defend his cause. 1563, pp. 532-33; 1570, pp. 1280-81; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

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Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. The king himself would sit in judgement. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

Lambeth wrote an apology of his cause to King Henry. 1563, p. 538; 1570, pp. 1285-91; 1576, pp. 1099-1105; 1583, pp. 1124-30.

At his trial, Lambert disputed with Cranmer, Gardiner, Tunstall, Stokesley and ten other bishops. At the end, the king had Thomas Cromwell read the sentence of condemnation. On the day of Lambert's execution, Cromwell asked for his forgiveness. 1563, pp. 533-37, 569; 1570, pp. 1281-84; 1576, pp. 1095-98; 1583, pp. 1121-24.

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Stephen Gardiner recalled hearing Thomas Cranmer reason against John Lambert. 1563, p. 756; 1570, p. 1526; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

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John Tewkesbury

(d. 1531) [Fines]

Martyr; living by the entrance to St Martin's le Grand in the parish of St Michael-le-Quern; leatherseller and haberdasher

John Tewkesbury was converted by reading Tyndale's works and disputed openly in the chapel in the bishop's palace. He was examined before Cuthbert Tunstall, Henry Standish and John Islip, before the bishops of Lincoln, Ely and Bath and Wells, and before Geoffrey Wharton, Rowland Philipps, William Philow and Robert Ridley. 1563, pp. 490-92; 1570, pp. 1165-66; 1576, pp. 996-97; 1583, pp. 1024-25.

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Tewkesbury abjured and was sentenced to carry a faggot, to wear the sign of a faggot for life and to remain in a monastery until released by the bishop of London. 1563, p. 492; 1570, pp. 1166-67; 1576, p. 997; 1583, p. 1025.

Two years later, Tewkesbury appeared before Sir Thomas More and John Stokesley. He was sentenced as a relapsed heretic and handed over to the sheriffs to be burnt at Smithfield. 1563, p. 492; 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1025.

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Laurentius Surius (Laurence Suhr)

(1522 - 1578) Carthusian monk; convert from Lutheranism to Catholicism; translator and author

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 1440; 1576, p. 1228; 1583, p. 1258.

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Leo X (Giovanni de Medici)

(1475 - 1521) [Kelly]

b. Florence, second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent; abbot of Font Douce, Passignano and Monte Cassino; cardinal 1489 (aged 13); studied theology and law at Pisa (1489 - 91)

Pope (1513 - 21)

Thomas Cromwell presented Leo X with English delicacies, and Leo immediately granted the pardons for Boston that Cromwell had requested. 1570, p. 1346; 1576, p. 1149; 1583, p. 1178.

Leo X sent legates to France, Germany and England in 1518 when he was preparing to fight the Turks. 1563, p. 418; 1570, p. 1120; 1576, p. 959; 1583, p. 986.

Leo X condemned writings and translations of Martin Luther. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 999.

Leo issued a bull against Martin Luther, in which his teachings and his works were condemned. 1570, pp. 1459-65; 1576, pp. 1244-47; 1583, pp. 1280-84.

Luther produced an answer to the papal bull and sent an appeal to the pope. 1570, pp. 1465-76; 1576, pp. 1247-52; 1583, pp. 1284-89.

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Martin V (Oddone Colonna)

(1368 - 1431) [Kelly]

b.Genazzano; studied law at Perugia; protonotary; cardinal-deacon of San Giorgio in Velabro 1402. Pope (1417 - 31); his election ended the schism.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 5, 1576, p. 4, 1583, p. 4.

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Maxentius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius)

(c. 278 - 312) [M. Di Maio]

Son of Maximian; married the daughter of Galerius

Roman emperor (306 - 12); entered into civil war with his father Maximian and with Galerius; died at the battle of Milvian Bridge

Maxentius was set up as emperor by the praetorian guard, but was opposed by his father. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

He initially feigned favouring the Christians in order to ingratiate himself with the people of Rome. He then instituted persecutions. 1570, p. 119; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 85.

The citizens and senators of Rome appealed to Constantine to rid them of Maxentius. Constantine responded and, having received a vision and taking the cross as his standard, defeated Maxentius at Milvian Bridge.1570, pp. 118-19; 1576, pp. 85-86; 1583, pp. 84-85.

While in retreat, Maxentius fell into the Tiber and, weighted down by his armour, drowned. 1570, pp. 39, 119; 1576, pp. 31, 86; 1583, pp. 31, 85.

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Nero (Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus)

(d. 68) [D. J. Coffta]

Roman emperor (54 - 68); deposed, committed suicide

Nero was lecherous, murderous and cruel. He burned Rome and blamed the Christians, and was forced to commit suicide. 1570, p. 38; 1576, p. 31; 1583, p. 31

The first persecution of the Christians began under Nero. 1570, p. 42-44; 1576, pp. 34-35; 1583, pp. 34-35.

Melito of Sardis, in his Apology, refers to him, along with Domitian, as the worst persecutors of Christians. 1570, p. 75; 1576, p. 51; 1583, p. 51.

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Richard Bayfield (alias Somersam)

(d. 1531) [ODNB]

born Hadleigh; Benedictine monk of Bury St Edmund's and protestant martyr

Robert Barnes, Lawrence Maxwell and John Stacy visited Bury Abbey and during the course of their visit converted Richard Bayfield. Bayfield was imprisoned in the abbey, whipped and stocked. Barnes and Edmund eventually secured his release, and he went with Barnes to Cambridge. When Barnes was arrested, Bayfield went to London, where Maxwell and Stacy kept him secretly and helped him leave the country. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

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While abroad, Bayfield met William Tyndale and John Frith and sold their books and those of the German reformers in France and in England. He returned to England, was arrested, tried by Cuthbert Tunstall and abjured. He was told to return to Bury and wear his monk's habit, but fled abroad again. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

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Upon his return to England, he stayed at the house of Mr Smith, where he was betrayed and arrested. He was imprisoned in Lollards' Tower, but was moved to the Coalhouse to keep him away from another imprisoned suspect, Thomas Patmore. He was severely shackled in an attempt to make him reveal the buyers of his books, but he refused. He was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, pp. 484-88; 1570, pp. 1161-64; 1576, pp. 993-995; 1583, pp. 1021-1023.

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Edmund Peerson presented a list of charges against Richard Bayfield, especially concerning Bayfield's praise for Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney. 1570, p. 1191; 1576, p. 1020; 1583, p. 1048.

William Smith was charged in London in 1531 with harbouring Richard Bayfield and other good men in his house and reading illicit books. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

About four days before Bayfield was arrested, a boy of Colchester was charged in London with bringing books to him. The boy was imprisoned by Sir Thomas More and died there. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

Bayfield was condemned as a heretic and suffered a lengthy burning. 1563, pp. 488-89; 1570, pp. 1164-65; 1576, pp. 995-96; 1583, pp. 1023-24.

The example of Bayfield inspired John Tewkesbury after he had abjured. 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1026.

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Stanislaus Hosius

(1504 - 1579) [Shapers of Religious Traditions in Germany, Switzerland and Poland, 1560 - 1600, ed. Jill Raitt (New Haven, London; 1981)]

b. Cracow of German parents; BA Cracow 1520; studied law and theology at Padua and Bologna; DCnCL Bologna 1534. Royal secretary 1538; bishop of Culm 1549; bishop of Ermland (1551 - 79). Strong opponent of protestantism.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 2, 1576, p. 2, 1583, p. 2.

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Trajan Decius

(d. 251) [G. Nathan and R. McMahon]

Consul, commander under Philip the Arab

Roman emperor (249 - 51); killed in battle against the Goths

Decius killed Emperor Philip the Arab and his son Philip because they were Christians. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 59.

Great persecution of Christians took place during his reign. 1570, pp. 86-93; 1576, pp. 60-66; 1583, pp. 59-65.

Pomponius Laetus said that, when Decius was overcome by the Goths, rather than fall into their hands, he threw himself into a whirlpool and drowned. 1570, p. 94; 1576, p. 66; 1583, p. 66.

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W. Witte

Witte testified under oath that Thomas Merial had not spoken the words of heresy attributed to him. 1570, p. 1440; 1576, p. 1228; 1583, pp. 1257-58.

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[Angrogne; Angrongne]

Piedmont, Italy

Coordinates: 44° 51' 0" N, 7° 13' 0" E

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OS grid ref: TQ 043 671

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Mérindol (Merindol)

[Merindolum; Merindoll]

Luberon, Provence, France

Coordinates: 343° 45' 0" N, 5° 12' 0" E

1282 [1258]

King Henry. 8. Good men falsly slaundered of heresy by the Papistes.

and W. Witte, who being in the foresayde watch the same time, did take vpon theyr oth before the Bishop: that hys wordes were no other, but as is aboue declared. Which 3. witnesses at the second edition hereof were also liuing, wt the wife of the foresayd Meriall, who woulde then also be sworne that the same is true. Where as contrary the other x. persons be al gone, and none of them all remayning. Of whome moreouer the most of all the sayd x. came to a miserable end where as the other 3. which testified the truth wt Meriall, being liuing at the 2. editiō hereof, did see the ende of all the other. And as for Twyford, which was the executioner to Frith, Bayfild, Baynham, Teukesbury, Lambert, and other good men, he died rotting aboue the groūd, that none could abide him, and so came to a wretched end. MarginaliaGods iust punishment vpon a cruel persecuter. Ex testimon. vxoris Meriall, W. Tomson, Greg. Newman, W. Wit &c.

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Of thys malycious and peruerse dealinge of these men contrary to all truth & honesty, in defaming them for hereticks, which in deed are none, & with opprobrious railing to slaunder their cause, which is nothing els but the simple truth of Christes gospel, who so listeth to search further (if these examples hitherto recited do not suffice) let hym read the story of Merindol, & Angrogne, pag. 945. 955. Let him consider the furious Bull of Pope Martine. pag. 625. The like slaunderous Bull also of MarginaliaPope Leo. 10.Pope Leo x. with the MarginaliaThe Edict of Cæsar, Surius Carthus. Hosius Lindus, Genebrardus, Cochlœus, Brunus, agaynst the Lutherans. Ex epist. Conrad. Bruni, quæ præfatur in hist. Cochlei.Edict of Charles the Emperour agaynst Luther. Also let hym survey the railing stories of Surius the Monke of Colen, the booke of Osius, of Lindus, the Chronologie of Genebrardus, the story of Cochleus agaynst the Hussites and the Lutheranes, with the Preface of Conradus Brunus the Lawyer prefixed before the same, wherein he most falselye and vntruely rayling agaynst these Protestantes, whom he calleth heretickes, chargeth them to be blasphemers of God, contemners of God and men, Church robbers cruell, false lyers, crafty deceiuers, vnfaythfull, promise breakers, disturbers of publicke peace and tranquility, corrupters and subuerters of commō weales, and all els that naught is.

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MarginaliaExamples of false accusation.In much like sort was Socrates accused of his countrymen for a corrupter of the youth, whō Plato notwithstanding defendeth. Aristides the iust lacked not his vniust accusers. Was it not obiected vnto S. Paule MarginaliaAct. 21. that hee was a subuerter of the law of Moyses, and MarginaliaRom. 3.that we might do euill that good might come thereof? How was it layd to the Christian Martyrs in the primitiue Church for worshiping an Asses head, and for sacrificing of Infantes. pag. 54? MarginaliaRead afore pag. 54. And to come more nere to these our latter daies, you heard likewise how falsely thc Christian congregation of french. men gathered together in the night at Paris, to celebrate þe holy communion, were accused of filthy commixion of mē and women together, and the king the same time Henry 2. was made to beleue that beds with pillowes and mats were founde there in the floore where they laye together: Wherupon the same time diuers were condēned to the fire and burned pag. 862. MarginaliaRead afore pag. 862. Finally what innocency is so pure, or truth so perfect, which can be voyd of these sclaunders or crimynatiōs whē also our Sauior Christ himselfe was noted for a wine drinker, & a common haunter of the Publicanes? &c.

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MarginaliaNo truth safe from false detraction.Euen so likewise it pleaseth our Lorde and Sauiour Christ, to keepe vnder and to exercise his church vnder the like kinde of aduersaries now raigning in the church, who vnder the name of the church will nedes mayntain a portly state and kingdome in this world, and because they can not vpholde theyr cause by playne scripture and the word of God, they beare it out with facing, rayling, and slaundering, making Princes and the simple people beleue, that all be heretickes, schismatickes, blasphemers, rebels & subuerters of all authority & commō weales, whosoeuer dare reply with any scripture agaynst theyr doings.

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It is writtē of MarginaliaSuetonius in Nerone.Nero, that when he himselfe had burnt the Citty of Rome sixe dayes and seuen nightes, he made open proclamations that the innocent Christians had set the City on fire, to styrre the people agaynst them, wherby he might burne and destroy them, as rebels and traytors.

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Not much vnlike seemeth the dealing of these religious Catholickes, who MarginaliaPapistes accuse the Protestants of heresie, and they be the heretickes them selues.when they be the true heretickes themselues, and haue burnt and destroyed the Church of Christ, make out theyr exclamatiōs, Buls, briefes, articles bookes, censures, letters and Edicts against the poore Lutheranes, to make the people beleue, that they be the heretickes, schismatickes, disturbers of the whole world. Who if they could proue them as they reproue them to be heretickes, they were worthy to be heard. But nowe they cry out vpon them heretickes, and can proue no heresy: they accuse them of errour: and can proue no errour: they call them schismatickes, and what Church since the worldestood, hath bene the mother of so many schismes as the mother Church of Rome? They charge them with dissention and rebellion. And what dissention can be greater, then to dissēt from the scripture, and word of God? or what rebellion is like, as to rebell against the sonne of God, & against the will of hys eternall Testamente? They are disturbers (they say) of peace and of publicke authority: Which is as true, as that the Christians set the Citty of Rome on fire. What doctrine did euer attribute so much to publicke authority of Magistrates, as do the protestantes, or who euer attributed lesse to magistrates, or deposed moe dukes, kinges, and Emperours, thē the Papistes? They that say, that the Bishop of Rome is no more but the Bishoppe of Rome, and ought to weare no crowne, is not by and by a rebell agaynst his king and Magistrates, but rather a maynteyner of theyr authority: which in deed the Byshop of Rome cannot abide. MarginaliaA measure betweene the Protestantes and the Papists, to try whether of them two are the greater heretickes.Briefely, wilt thou see whether be the greater heretickes, the Protestantes or the Papistes? Let vs try it by a measure, and let this measure be the glory onely of the sonne of God, which cannot fayle. MarginaliaComparisō betwene the doctrine of Papistes and of the Protestantes.Nowe iudge I beseeche thee, whosoeuer knowest the doctrine of them both, whether of these two do ascribe more or lesse to the Maiestye of Christ Iesus our king and Lord: the Protestantes which admit none other head of the Church nor iustifier of our soules, nor forgeuer of our sinnes, nor Aduocate to his father but him alone: Or els the papistes which can abide none of all these articles, but condemn the same for heresy. Which being so (as they themselues wyll not deny) now iudge (good reader) who hath set the Citty of Rome on fire. Nero, or els the Christians.

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But to returne agayne to the purpose of our former matter, which was to shew forth the proclamation of the Byshops for the abolishing of English bookes aboue rehearsed, as being corrupt and full of heresye, whiche not withstanding we haue declared to conteine no heresye, but sounde and wholesome doctrine, according to the perfect word and Scripture of God.

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Here nowe when the Prelates of the Popes side had procurred this Edict & proclamation aforesayd, for the condemnation of al such English bookes printed or vnprinted which made agaynst theyr aduantage, they triumphed not a litle, wening they had made a great hand against þe Gospell for euer to rise againe, & that they had established their kingdome for euer, as in deed to all mās thinking it might seme no lesse. MarginaliaGods mercifull helpe in time of neede. For who would haue thought, after so strayt so precise, and so solemne a proclamation set forth & armed with the kinges terrible authority: also after the cruel execution of Anne Askewe, Lacels, and the rest: Item after the busy search moreouer and names taking of many other, of whom some were chased away, some apprehended and layd vp, diuers in present perill, & expectation of theyr attachment: who would haue thought (I say) otherwyse possible, but that þe gospel must nedes haue an ouerthrow, seing what sure worke the papistes here had made, in setting vp theyr side, and throwing downe the contrary.

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MarginaliaGods power worketh commonly agaynst mans presumption.But it is no new thing in the Lord, to shew his power agaynst mans presūption, that when he counteth himselfe most sure, then is he furthest of, and when he supposeth to haue done all, then is he new to begin agayne. So was it in the primitiue Church before Constantinus time, that when Nero, Domitianus, Maxentius, Decius, and other Emperours impugning the gospell & profession of Christ, did not onely constitute lawes and proclamations against the Christians, but also did ingraue the same lawes in tables of brasse, minding to make all thinges firme for euer and a day: yet we see, how with a litle turning of Gods hand, all theyr puissant deuises, & brasen lawes turned all to wind and dust. So little doth it auayle for man to wrastle agaynst the Lord and his procedinges. Howe so euer mans building is mortall and ruinous, of brickle bricke, and mouldring stones, the Lord neuer taketh in hande to builde, that either time can waste, or man can pluck down. What God setteth vp, there is neither power nor striuing to the contrary. What he entendeth, standeth: what he bleiseth, that preuayleth. And yet mans vnquiet presumption will not cease still to erect vp MarginaliaTowers of Babell agaynst the Lorde.towers of Babell against the Lord, which the higher they are builded vp, fall with the great ruine. For what can stand, that standeth not with the Lord? Which thing as in example of all ages is to be seene: so in this late proclamation deuised by the bishops, is in like maner exemplified.

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The which proclamation, though it was sore & terrible for the time, yet not long after, by reason of the kings death (whō the Lord shortly therupon took to his mercy) it made at length but a castle come downe. MarginaliaMans deuise agaynst the Lord ouerthrowen. So that where the prelates thought to make theyr Iubile, it turned them to the Threnes of Ieremy. Such be the admirable workings of the Lord of hostes, whose name be sanctified for euer.

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