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Charles V

(1500 - 1558) [C. Scott Dixon, M. Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

Duke of Burgundy; king of Spain (1516 - 56)

Holy Roman Emperor (1520 - 56); abdicated the Spanish throne in favour of son Phillip II of Spain and the imperial throne in favour of brother Ferdinand

Charles V had promised to marry Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII, but bowed to objections in Spain that the marriage of her parents had been irregular. He married Isabella of Portugal instead. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry VIII, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Thomas Wyatt was sent to Emperor Charles V. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry VIII to attend the council to be held at Mantua or to send delegates. Henry again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

Francois I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

 
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Joan Bocher (Joan of Kent)

(d. 1550) [ODNB]

Religious radical; burnt at Smithfield

Edward VI was opposed to the burning of Joan Bocher. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

George van Parris and Joan Bocher were the only martyrs during Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

 
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Lady Mary (Mary Tudor)

(1516 - 1558) [ODNB]

Mary Tudor, later Mary I, queen of England and Ireland (1553 - 58)

Charles V had promised to marry Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII, but bowed to objections in Spain that the marriage of her parents had been irregular. He married Isabella of Portugal instead. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

A marriage was proposed between the duke of Orleans and Princess Mary. The French raised questions of the validity of the marriage of her parents, and the proposed marriage did not take place. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Thomas Wolsey set up a household for Princess Mary. 1563, p. 435; 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

William Paulet sent a letter to Princess Mary via Lord Hussey, her chamberlain, informing her she was to move her household and omitting her title. Mary wrote to her father and to the lords he sent to her, complaining of the denial of her title and legitimacy. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1395.

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When Nicholas Ridley visited Princess Mary at Hunsdon, she recalled the sermon he preached at the marriage of Elizabeth and Anthony Browne in the presence of King Henry. Ridley offered to preach before her, but she refused. 1570, pp. 1565-66; 1576, pp. 1335-36; 1583, p. 1396.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Mary exchanged letters with the Lord Protector and privy council, relating to her inability to adhere to the king's new laws concerning religion. The king also sent a letter to his sister, urging her to comply with the laws, to which she replied. 1576, pp. 1289-97; 1583, pp. 1332-39.

The king sent his own councillors to Mary after her servants, Rochester, Englefield and Waldegrave, had failed to prevent masses being said in her household. 1576, pp. 1296-97; 1583, pp. 1338-39.

In his will, Edward VI excluded his sister Mary from the succession because of her religious views. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, pp. 1395.

 
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Nicholas Ridley

(c. 1502 - 1555) [ODNB]

Protestant martyr; BA Cambridge 1522, MA 1525, BTh 1537, DTh 1541; master of Pembroke (1540 - 53)

Bishop of Rochester (1547 - 53); bishop of London (1550 - 03) [licence to hold both]

When Nicholas Ridley visited Princess Mary at Hunsdon, she recalled the sermon he preached at the marriage of Elizabeth and Anthony Browne in the presence of King Henry. Ridley offered to preach before her, but she refused. 1570, pp. 1565-66; 1576, pp. 1335-36; 1583, p. 1396.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Stephen Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 732-54; 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1297; 1583, pp. 1340, 1348-50.

Gardiner was released out of the Fleet by a general pardon, but was placed under house arrest for failure to conform. Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Smith and William Cecil were sent to him. He was called before the council. 1563, p. 755; 1570, pp. 1525-26; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Sir John Cheke, William May and Thomas Wendy, king's visitors, attended the disputation at Cambridge in 1549. Ridley took part in the disputation and made the determination. 1570, pp. 1555-57; 1576, pp. 1326-28; 1583, pp. 1376-88.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received. 1563, pp. 704-710; 1570, pp. 1508-12; 1576, pp. 1279-81; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. Bonner was imprisoned and deprived of his office. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

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Ridley replaced Bonner as bishop of London in 1550. He received a letter from the king and privy council directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. He carried out a visitation to ensure that churches were conforming to the directive and broke down the wall next to the altar in St Paul's. 1563, pp. 727-28; 1570, pp. 1519-21; 1576, pp. 1288-89; 1583, pp. 1331-32.

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When Sir William Herbert and Sir William Petre went to Stephen Gardiner in the Tower with new articles, they took with them a canon and a civil lawyer: Nicholas Ridley and Richard Goodrich. 1563, p. 768; 1570, p. 1534; 1576, p. 1307; 1583, p. 1357.

After Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

 
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Richard Coxe

(1500 - 1581) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1524; MA 1526; headmaster at Eton 1529; BTh 1535, DTh 1537

Chaplain to Henry VIII and to Archbishop Cranmer by 1540; archdeacon of Ely 1540; first dean of Osney Cathedral, Oxford 1544

Tutor and almoner to Prince Edward; chancellor of Oxford (1547 - 52)

Bishop of Ely (1559 - 1581). Marian exile

Richard Coxe was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Coxe was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1169; 1583, p. 1198.

Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson came in to see Anne Askew after a session of questioning at her second examination. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1238.

Thomas Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Prince Edward to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Richard Coxe wrote to Thomas Cranmer, praising the young Prince Edward. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Henry Holbeach, Richard Coxe, Simon Haynes, Richard Morison and Christopher Nevinson, king's visitors, were present at the disputations at Oxford in 1549 with Peter Martyr. 1570, pp. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

Richard Coxe was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 808-9

Richard Coxe was present at the scaffold in January 1552 as counsellor and spiritual advisor to Edward Seymour at his execution. 1563, p. 882; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

 
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Sir John Cheke

(1514 - 1557) [ODNB; Bindoff]

BA Cambridge 1530; MA 1533; 1st regius professor of Greek (1540 - 51)

Humanist, royal tutor, administrator

Edward VI agreed with Sir John Cheke that clemency should be shown towards heretics. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Sir John Cheke, William May and Thomas Wendy, king's visitors, attended the disputation at Cambridge in 1549. 1570, p. 1555; 1576, p. 1326; 1583, p. 1376.

A king's commission examined Edmund Bonner in 1549. Finding Bonner's answers to the articles put to him to be unsatisfactory, the commissioners received witnesses against him: John Cheke, Henry Markham, John Joseph, John Douglas and Richard Chambers.. 1563, p. 707; 1570, p. 1510; 1576, p. 1280; 1583, p. 1320.

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Cheke was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 807-8

John Cheke was a witness in 1551 to the sentence against Stephen Gardiner and his appellation. 1563, p. 867.

After John Redman's death, John Young sent a testimonial letter to John Cheke, praising Redman and his thoughts on religion. 1563, pp. 870-74; 1570, pp. 1539-41; 1576, pp. 1312-14; 1583, pp. 1362-64.

 
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Thomas Cranmer

(1489 - 1556) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1511; MA 1515; archbishop of Canterbury (1533 - 56); burnt in 1556

Cranmer acknowledged the help he received from John Frith's book attacking the doctrine of Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 500; 1570, p. 1176; 1576, p. 1006; 1583, p. 1033.

Thomas Cranmer, John Stokesley, Edward Carne, William Benet and the earl of Wiltshire were sent as ambassadors to the pope to dispute the matter of the king's marriage. 1570, p. 1280; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

Cranmer's separation of the king and Queen Catherine was authorised by parliament. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Elizabeth Barton prophesied that if the king divorced Queen Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, he would not reign more than a month thereafter. Through the efforts of Cranmer, Cromwell and Latimer, she was condemned and executed with some of her supporters. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, pp. 1054-55.

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The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Cranmer was godfather to Princess Elizabeth. 1563, p. 510; 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Cranmer was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Cranmer attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Cranmer opposed retaining the seven sacraments. He gave an oration to the bishops. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

On the second day of the synod, Thomas Cranmer sent his archdeacon to command Alexander Alesius to cease from disputation. 1570, p. 1353; 1576, p. 1155; 1583, p. 1184.

John Lambert attended a sermon preached by John Taylor at St Peter's in London in 1538. Lambert put ten articles to him questioning transubstantiation. Taylor conferred with Robert Barnes, who persuaded Taylor to put the matter to Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer called Lambert into open court, where he was made to defend his cause. 1563, pp. 532-33; 1570, pp. 1280-81; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

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Cranmer disputed with Lambert at his trial before the king. 1563, pp. 534-35; 1570, p. 1282; 1576, pp. 1096-97; 1583, p. 1122.

Thomas Cranmer alone disputed the Six Articles in parliament. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1110; 1583, p. 1136.

The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Henry asked for a summary of Cranmer's objections to the Six Articles. Cranmer asked his secretary to write up a copy of his arguments against the Six Articles to give to the king.1570, p. 1355; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Adam Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. The next day, warned by Cranmer that he was likely to be imprisoned and burnt, he fled to the West Country. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

King Henry wrote to Archbishop Cranmer, ordering that idolatrous images be removed from churches. 1563, p. 625; 1570, p. 1385; 1576, p. 1181; 1583, p. 1210.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

When Claude d'Annebault, the French ambassador, went to see Henry VIII at Hampton Court, lavish entertainment was laid on for him, but he was recalled before he had received half of it. During the course of the banquet, he had private conversation with the king and Archbishop Cranmer about the reform of religion in the two countries. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

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Cranmer had sent letters for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church. Gardiner convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor, so the letters were never signed. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

The young Prince Edward wrote letters in Latin to Thomas Cranmer, his godfather. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Prince Edward to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Richard Coxe wrote to Thomas Cranmer, praising the young Prince Edward. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

When King Henry was on his deathbed, Anthony Denny asked him if he wished a spiritual adviser, and he asked for Thomas Cranmer. Before Cranmer could arrive, however, the king had lost the power of speech. He clasped Cranmer's hand, and shortly after died. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

Cranmer had great difficulty in getting King Edward to sign Joan Bocher's death warrant. 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Thomas Dobbe was brought before Cranmer, who committed him to the Counter, where he died. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

Edward VI's councillors and Edward Seymour wrote to Thomas Cranmer, directing that candles no longer be carried on Candlemas, nor palms on Palm Sunday, nor should ashes be used on Ash Wednesday. Cranmer immediately wrote to all the other bishops to inform them of the new directive. 1563, pp. 685, 691; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

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The council wrote further to Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. He wrote to Edmund Bonner, directing him to carry out the order in London. 1563, p. 692; 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Cranmer, with other learned bishops and learned men, was appointed to draw up a uniform order of common prayer. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

Stephen Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 732-54; 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1297; 1583, p. 1340.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received. 1563, pp. 704-710; 1570, pp. 1508-12; 1576, pp. 1279-81; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. Bonner was imprisoned and deprived of his office. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

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Cranmer was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

After Stephen Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

1319 [1295]

King Edward 6. The lyfe, commendation, and rare vertues of king Edward.

MarginaliaAnno. 1547.cut downe the groues, and destroyd all monuments of Idolatry in the temple 

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See 2 Kings 22-23. The comparison of Edward VI to Josiah seems to have been initiated by Archbishop Cranmer (Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer (New Haven, CT and London), pp. 364-5.

: the like corruptiōs, drosse and deformities of Popish Idolatry crept into the Church of Christ of long time, MarginaliaComparison betwene King Iosias and King Edward. 6.this Euangelicall Iosias king Edwarde remoued, & purged the true temple of the Lorde, Iosias restored the true worship of God in Ierusalem, and destroid the Idolatrous priestes: King Edward in England likewise abolishing Idolatrous Masses and false inuocation, reduced agayne religion to a right sincerity, & more would haue brought to perfection if life and time had aunswered to his godly purpose. And though he killed not: as Iosias did, the idolatrous sacrifices, yet he put them to silēce, and remoued them out of theyr places.

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Moreouer, in king Iosias dayes the holy Scripture & booke of Gods word was vtterly neglected and cast aside, which he most graciously repayred & restored agayne. And did not K. Edwarde the like with the selfe same booke of Gods blessed worde, and with other wholesome bookes of Christian doctrine, which before were decayed and extinguished in his fathers dayes by sharpe lawes & seuere punishments here in England? Briefly in all poynts and respectes, betwene him and this our godly king no oddes is to be foūd but onely in length of time and reign. MarginaliaK. Iosias and K. Edward onely differ in continuāce of raigne.Who if he might haue reached (by the sufferaunce of God) to the continuance of Iosias reigne: proceding in those beginnings, which in his youth appeared, no doubt but of his Actes, & doings some great perfection woulde haue ensued to thys Church and Realme. But the manifold iniquities of Englishmē deserued another plague, as after fel amongst vs: as in sequele of the story hereafter (God willing) shalbe declared. 

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The plague Foxe is referring to is the reign of Mary Tudor.

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In the meane time, to proceed in the excellent vertues of this christian yong Iosias (as we haue begon) althogh neither do we know, nor will laysure serue vs to stād vpō a full descriptiō of all his Actes: yet will we (God willing) geue a litle taste of the noble nature and princely qualities of this king, wherby the reader may esteme with himselfe what is to be thought of þe rest of his doinges, though they be not here all expressed.

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MarginaliaK Edward beloued of his subiectes.And first to begin with that whiche is the chiefest property of al other externe things in a prince to be cōsidered, that is, to be loued of his subiectes: such were the hartes of all English people towarde this King inclined, and so toward him still cōtinued, as neuer came prince in this realme more highly esteemed, more amply magnified, or more dearely & tenderly beloued of all his subiects: but especially of the good & the learned sort, & yet not so much beloued, as also admirable by reason of his rare towardnes & hope both of vertue & learning which in him appeared aboue þe capacity of his yeares. And as he was intirely of his subiects beloued, so with no lesse good wil he loued thē again: of nature & disposition meek, MarginaliaThe meeke nature of K. Edw. and much enclined to clemēcy. He alwayes spared and fauored the life of man: as in a certayne dissertation 

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I.e., conversation.

of his once appeared, had with Maister Cheke in fauoring þe life of heretickes: in so much that when Ioane Butcher should be burned 
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This is Joan Bocher, who was executed on 2 May 1550 for heresy regarding the divine and human natures.

, all the Councell could not moue him to put to his hand, but were fayne to get Doct. Cranmer to perswade with him, and yet neither could he with much labor induce the king so to do sayyng: what my Lord? will ye haue me to send her quicke to the deuill in her error? so that D. Cranmer himself cōfessed that he had neuer so much to do in all his life, as to cause þe king to put to his hand, sayimg that he woulde laye all the charge therof vpon Cranmer before God. 
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Foxe rewrote his earlier mention of the execution of Joan Bocher in order to exculpate Edward VI of involvement in her death. In doing so, he placed the blame for this squarely on Cranmer and a number of scholars have objected that this was inaccurate. In his magisterial biography of Cranmer, Diarmaid MacCulloch argues that this story may be an exaggeration but that, when Joan proved obdurate in her beliefs, Cranmer approved of her execution (Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer (New Haven, CT, 1996), pp. 475-6). It should be remembered that, while Foxe anticipated modern sentiments in deploring Joan's death, the overwhelming majority of his contemporaries, Catholic and Protestant, would have approved of her burning as a deserved penalty for her egregious heresies. Foxe appears to be saying that this story came from Edward VI's tutor John Cheke. If so, it was transmitted to Foxe through intermediaries (since Cheke died in 1557), further undermining its credibility.

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There wanted in him no promptnes of wit, grauity of sentence, rypenesse of iudgement. Fauor and loue of religion was in him frō his childhood: Such an organe geuē of God to the Church of England he was, as England had neuer better. Ouer and besides these notable excellencies, and other great vertues in him: MarginaliaK. Edward well skilled in the tongues.adde moreouer skill & knowledge of tongues & other sciences, whereunto hee seemed rather borne then brought vp.

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Moreouer there wanted not in him to this felicitye of wit and dexterity of nature, like happines of institution of good instructors. Neither did there lacke agayne in him any diligence to receiue that, which they would teach him: MarginaliaThe readines of K. Edward to his booke.in so much that in the middest of all his play and recreatiō, he would alwayes obserue & keep his houre appoynted to his study, vsing the same with much intentiō, till time called him agayne from his booke to pastime. In this his study, & keeping of his houres he did so profit that D. Cranmer the Archbishop then of Canterbury, beholding his towardnes, his readines in both tongues, in translating frō Greek to Latine, from Latine to Greek agayne, in declaming wt his scholefellowes without helpe of his teachers, and that ex tempore, would weepe for ioy, declaring to D. Coxe MarginaliaD. Cox king Edwardes schoolemaster his scholemaister, 

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Richard Cox, the first Elizabethan bishop of Ely, was Edward VI's tutor and almoner from 1543-48. This reference is one clear indication that he was one of Foxe's sources for these tales of Edward's gifts and virtues.

that he would neuer haue thought that to haue bene in him, except he had sene it himselfe.

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To recite here his witty sentences, his graue reasons, which many times did proceed frō him, and how he would sometimes in a matter discoursed by his coūsell, adde ther-vnto of his owne moe reasons & causes touching the sayd matter then they themselues had or could deuise, it was almost incredible in þt age to see & tedious here to prosecute.

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This in him may seme notorious and admirable, that he in these immature yeres, could tell & recite all the ports, hauens and crekes, not within his owne realme only, but also in Scotland, and likewise in Fraūce, what commyng in there was, how the tide serued in euery hauen or creke: moreouer, what burdē & what winde serued the comming into the hauen. 

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The obvious bellicose intentions behind this line of study - it is necessary preparatory knowledge for invading France and Scotland - is passed over by Foxe.

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MarginaliaK. Edward knew the names and religion of all his Magistrates.Also of all his iustices, maiestrates, gentlemē that bare any authority within his realme, he knew the names, their housekeping, their religiō and conuersation what it was. Few sermons or none in his court, especially in the Lord Protectors time, 

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I.e., during the ascendancy of the Duke of Somerset, 1548-49.

but he would be at them. Agayne, neuer was he present at any commonly, but he would excerp thē or note them with his owne hand.

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Besides and aboue al other notes and examples of his commendatiō, as touching the chiefest poynt which ought most to touch all men, for mainteining, promoting, preferring, embracing, zealing and defending the true cause and quarell of Christes holy gospell, what was his study, hys zealous feruency, his admirable constancy therin, by thys one example folowing, amongest many other, may notably appeare.

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MarginaliaThe singular constancye of King Edward in maintayning true religion.In the dayes of this K. Edward the sixt, Carolus the Emperor made request to the sayd king and his counsel to permit Lady Mary (who after succeeded in the crowne) to haue Masse in her house without preiudice of the law. And the counsell on a time, sitting vpon matters of pollicy hauing that in question, sent Cranmer then Archbishoppe of Canterbury, and Ridley then bishop of Londō, to intreat the king for the same: who comming to his grace alledged theyr reasons and persuasions for the accomplishing therof. So þe king hearing what they could say, replied his answere again out of the Scriptures, so groundedly, grauely, and fully, that they were enforced to geue place to his replication, and graunt the same to be true. Then they, after long debating in this maner with his maiesty, labored politickely in an other sort, and alledged what daungers the denying therof might bring to his grace, what breach of amity of the Emperors part, what troubles, what vnkindnes, & what occasions sondry wayes it would enforce. &c. Vnto whom the king aunswered, wylling them to contēt themselues, for he would (he sayd) spend his life and all he had, rather thē to agree & graunt to that he knew certainly to be agaynst the trueth. The which when the Byshoppes heard, notwithstanding they vrged hym still to graūt, and would by no meanes haue his nay. Then þt good K. seyng theyr importunate sute, that needes they would haue hys Maiesty consent thereto, in the ende his tender hart bursting out in bitter weeping and sobbing, desired them to be content. MarginaliaThe zealous hart of K. Edward. Whereat the Bishoppes themselues seeing the kinges zeale and constancy, wept as fast as he, and tooke theyr leaue of his grace: and comming from him, the Archbishop tooke mayster Cheke his scholemayster 

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Sir John Cheke was Edward VI's tutor from 1549-53. This story probably came to Foxe from Cheke, but not directly, as Cheke had died in 1557. Cheke's close friend William Cecil may possibly have related this story to Foxe.

by the hand and sayd: Ah mayster Cheke, you may be glad all þe dayes of your life, that you haue such a Scholer, for he hath more Diuinity in his litle finger, then all we haue in all our bodyes. MarginaliaThe Lady Maryes Masse stayed by the teares of K. Edward.Thus the Ladye Maryes Masse for that time was stayed.

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Ouer and besides these heauenly graces and vertues, most chiefly to be required in all faythfull and christen maiestrates which haue gouernaunce of Christes flocke, neyther was he also vnprouided of suche outward giftes and knowledge as appertein to the gouernance of his realme politick. MarginaliaK. Edward skilfull in the exchaunge.In so much that neither he was inexpert or ignoraunt of the exchaunge and all the circumstaunces of the same touching doinges beyond the sea, but was as skilfull in the practises therof, and could say as much as the chiefest doers in his affaires. Likewise in the enterteining of Embassadors, to whom he would geue aunswere, and that to euery part of theyr oration, to the great wonder of thē that heard, doing that in his tender yeares by himselfe, which many Princes at theyr mature age seldome are wont to do but by other. And as he was a great noter of things þt perteyned to Princely affayres, MarginaliaK. Edwards chest for keeping of Actes and doinges of the counsaile.so had he a chest seruerallye to himselfe for euery yeare, for the keping of such records and matters, as past and were concluded by the Counsell. Of whom also he woulde require a reason and cause of euery thing that should passe their iudgements. And of this chest he would euermore keep the key about him. His notes also he ciphred in Greeke letters, to the ende that those that wayted vpon him, should not read nor know what he had written.

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He
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