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1399 [1375]

King Eward 6. Disputations in Oxford.

MarginaliaAnno 1552.for the time, vntill the restitution of all. Actes. 3. 

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Acts 3: 21.

Seeke those things that are aboue, where Christ is, sitting at the right hand of God, &c. Col. 3. 
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Col. 3: 1.

MarginaliaActes. 3. Col. 3.

The Minor likewise is euident by S. Austen, MarginaliaAugust. ad Dardanum. who speaking of the glorified body of Christ, affirmeth the same to be in one certayne place, Propter veri corporis modum, that is, for the maner of a true body.

¶ Argument.
Da-Euery true naturall body requireth one certaine place.
ri-Christes body is a true naturall body:
j.Ergo, Christes body requireth one certayne place.
¶ Argument.

MarginaliaComparatio a Maiori.Austen giueth not to the soule of Christ to be in mo places at once, but one. August. ad Dardanum.

Ergo, much lesse is it to be giuen to the body of Christ to be in mo places at once, but in one.

¶ Argument.

MarginaliaComparison betweene Aungels and the body of Christ.The nature of the Aungels is not to be in diuers places, but they are limited to occupy one certaine place at once. Basilius de spirit. sanct. cap. 22.

Ergo, the body of Christ, being the true naturall body of a man, can not fill diuers places at one time.

¶ Argument.
Ba-Whatsoeuer is in many & diuers places at once is God.
io-The body of Christ is not God but a creature:
co. Ergo, the body of Christ can not be in moe places to-
¶ Argument.
Fes-We must not so defende the Diuinitie of Christ, that
we destroy his humanitie.August.
ti-If we assigne to the body of Christ pluralitie of places,
we destroy his humanitie:
no.Ergo, we must not assigne to the body of Christ plura-
litie of places. 
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Catholics would counter Martyr's use of the Fathers here by stating that transubstantiation does not destroy Christ's humanity: in his risen body it is possible for Christ to be in many places at once, for his risen body possesses the property of 'agility' or ease of movement, and so he passes through locked doors in John 20: 19.

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¶ Argument.
Fes-Whatsoeuer thing is circumscribed, that is to say, con-
teined in the limits of any peculiar place, can not be di-
spersed in mo places at once.
ti-The body of Christ is a thing circumscribed:
no.Ergo, the body of Christ is not dispersed in mo places
at one time.
¶ Argument.
Da-Euery quantitie, that is, euery body hauing magni-
tude, length, and other dimensions, is circumscribed
in one peculiar place:
ri-The bodye of Christe hathe his dimensions, and is a
j.Ergo, the body of Christ is circumscribed.

MarginaliaCyrillus De crenit. Lib. 2. pag. 245.The Maior is proued by Cyrillus. Whatsoeuer is vnderstanded to be a body, the same is verely in a place, and in magnitude, and in quantitie. And if it be in quantitie, it can not auoyd circumscription, that is, to haue his place.

¶ Argument.
Ba-If Christ had giuen his body substantially and carnal-
ly in the Supper, then was that body either passible, or
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The risen body is also 'impassible': immune from all suffering. Martyr argues that Christ's body was not immune from suffering at the institution of the Eucharist, therefore Christ's corporeal body cannot be received in the sacrament. Catholics would counter that it is the risen body of Christ which they receive, which is still also the same body that was born of the Virgin Mary and also died on the cross. See St Paul's discussion of the resurrected body in I Corinthians 16: 35-57.

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ro-But neither can you say that body to be passible or im-
passible, which he gaue at Supper:
co.Ergo, he did not giue his body substancially and car-
nally at Supper.

MarginaliaAugust. in Psal. 98.The Minor is proued thus. For if ye say it was passible, Austen is against it, which sayth: Ye shall not eate thys body which you see, nor drinke the same bloud which they shall shed, that shall crucifie me, &c. And if ye say, it was impassible, that may not be admitted by the words of the Euangelist, which sayth: Eate, this is my body which shall be geuen for you: So that that body was passible and not impassible, wherein Christ was geuen.

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MarginaliaVigilius contra Eutichen. lib. 4.One creature can not receaue in the selfe two contrary or diuers thynges together. But these two thyngs be diuers and farre vnlike, that is to say, to be conteyned in a place, and to be euery where. For the word is euery where, but the fleshe is not euery where. 

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The risen body possesses the quality of 'subtlety': in contrast to its former finitude, the risen body has infinite capabilities such that it cannot be hindered by any created object.

¶ Argument.
Fe-Bodyes origanicall without quantitie be no bodies.
ri-The Popes doctrine maketh the body of Christ in the
Sacrament to be without quantitie:
o.Ergo, the Popes doctrine maketh the body of Christ in
the Sacrament to be no body.
¶ Argument.
Da-All things which may be deuided, haue quantitie.
ri-The body in the Popes Sacrament is deuided in iij.
j.Ergo, the body in the Popes Sacrament hath quanti-
tie, which is against their owne doctrine. 
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'[T]he Popes doctrine' and 'the Pope's sacrament': if Foxe's record of the debate is accurate, than Martyr is attempting to associate the doctrine of transubstantiation with the papacy, which has been unremittingly vilified in England since the break with Rome in 1534, and in Edward's reign became equated with Antichrist, the servant of Satan on earth.

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¶ Argument.
Fe-No naturall body can receaue in it selfe, and at one
time, contrary or diuers qualities. Vigilius.
ri-To be in one place locall and in another place not lo-
call, in one place with quantitie, in another place with-
out quantitie, in one place circumscript, in another
place incircumscript, is for a naturall body to receyue
contrary qualities:
o.Ergo, the body of Christ can not be in one place locall,
and in another not locall, in one place with quantitie,
and in another without quantitie, as our aduersaries
do affirme.
¶ Argument.
Fe-The wicked receaue not the body of Christ.
ri-The wicked do receaue the body of Christ, if transub-
stantiation be graunted:
son.Ergo, transubstantiation is not to be graunted in the
¶ Argument for probation of the Maior.
Ca-To eate Christ, is for a man to haue Christ dwellyng
and abiding in him. Augustine.
mes-The wicked haue not Christ dwelling in them:
tres.Ergo, the wicked eate not the body of the Lord. 
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Martyr argues that sinful Christians and non-Christians cannot eat the body of Christ: for Christ is only truly, spiritually present to those who receive the Eucharist with faith. Using I Corinthians 11: 27-30, Catholics argue that St Paul states that those who receive the Eucharist unworthily or without belief, cannot harm Christ's risen body but rather condemn themselves, and not only in the Last Judgment. Even in this life they suffer the consequences of their sin or lack of faith, as seen, according to Paul, by those who become ill or die after eating without repentance for their sins or without faith in Christ's presence in the Eucharist.

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MarginaliaCyprian. De Cœna Domini.Cyprianus de Cœna Domini. The eating of Christ, is our abyding in hym.

¶ Argument.
Bo-The holy Ghost could not come if the body of Christ
were really present.
car-That the holy Ghost is come, it is most certayne:
do.Ergo, it can not be that Christ himselfe should be heere
really present.

For proofe of the Maior. Iohn 16. MarginaliaIohn. 16.Vnlesse I go from you, the holy Ghost shall not come: It is expedient for you that I go hence. 

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John 16: 7.

¶ Argument of Peter Martyr.
Ba-If the wicked and infidels doe receaue the bodye of
Christ, they receaue him either with sense or reason, or
with fayth.
ro-But they receaue him neither with sense, reason, nor
with faith:
co.Ergo, wicked men and infidels receaue in no wise the
body of Christ.

MarginaliaDeclaratiō of the Maior.For declaration of the Maior: if yee say, they receaue him with sense, that is against their owne lore, for the body of Christ in the blessed Sacrament (say they) is not sensible, nor to be perceaued by any sense, neither with reason can they receaue him, by their owne learning, for so much as this Sacramente exceedeth all reason: Nec fides habet meritum, vbi ratio præbet experimentum. And if ye say, that they receaue him with faith, how can that be, seeing infidels haue no faith?

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MarginaliaWhat is to eate the body of Christ by the Papists.What is to eate the body of Christ, the teachyng of the Papistes heerein is straunge, and differeth from the olde Doctours. 

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As with the phrase, 'the Popes doctrine', Martyr describes belief in transubstantiation as a belief created by the papacy, an institution despised and even demonized in Edwardian England.

For where the Papistes do teache, that wicked persons and infidels, albeit they receaue not the effect of the Sacrament, yet the matter of the Sacrament, which is the very body of Christ, they receiue with their mouth, and with their sense the accidences of bread, and thus imagine a certaine body of Christ, suche as euill men and infidels may eate, and yet being eaten, it geueth them no nourishment nor life, nor maketh them no partakers of his spirite and grace: both Scripture and the auncient expositours of the Scripture do teach much otherwise. For the Scripture knoweth no such kinde of eating Christes body, but onely that which is fruitefull, wholesome, and effectuall. He that eateth my fleshe and drinketh my bloud, abideth in mee and I in him, &c. Iohn. 6. 
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John 6: 56. Martyr does not refer to I Corinthians: 27-30, in which St Paul describe those who receive the Eucharist without faith or repentance for their sins and so condemn themselves.

MarginaliaWhat is to eate the body of Christ by Scripture & Doctours.And therefore it may appeare, that the Scripture meaneth by eating Christes flesh, to beleeue in Christes Passion, which none can doe but onely the faithfull. And to the same sense sound all the old Doctours.

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De caena domini was in fact a medieval work that was erroneously attributed to St Cyprian of Carthage by both Catholics and Protestants in this period. Both Catholics and Protestants found it a useful source of proof texts for their various views of the Eucharist.

MarginaliaCyprian De Cæna Domini.That we should knowe, that eatyng is our dwellyng in hym, and our drinkyng is, as it were, a certayne incorporation in hym.

Item, the same Cyprian: The eatyng therefore of hys fleshe is a certayne desire to abyde in hym: and sayeth moreouer, MarginaliaThe wicked and infidels do not eate the body of Christ.that none eateth of thys Lambe, but suche as be true Israelites, that is, true Christen men, without colour or dissimulation.

And agayne hee sayeth: That as meate is to the fleshe, the same is fayth to the soule, the same is the woorde to the spirite, &c.

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