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Guildford Dudley

(d. 1554)

Husband of Lady Jane Grey and fourth son of Northumberland (DNB)

Guildford Dudley married Lady Jane Grey (1563, p 901; 1570, p. 1567; 1576, p. 1336; and 1583, p. 1406; cf. the darker version of this marriage given in Rerum, p. 232, where Guildford Dudley is not named).

He was imprisoned in the Tower for nearly five months after Mary became queen (1563, p. 902; 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; and 1583, p. 1407).

He was executed on 12 February 1554, the same day as Jane Grey; Foxe calls him and his wife 'innocentes' (1563, p. 923; 1570, p. 1585; 1576, p. 1352; and 1583, p. 1423). [His execution is not mentioned in the Rerum.]

Foxe again relates that Lady Jane Grey and her husband were beheaded. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Another mention of Dudley's execution is in 1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467.

Foxe refers to Guildford Dudley's marriage to Jane Grey. 1583, p. 2128.

[Also referred to as 'Lord Gildford']

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Lord Thomas Grey

(d. 1554) [DNB sub Thomas, 2nd marquis of Dorset (his father>]

Younger brother to Henry Gray, the duke of Suffolk, and uncle to Lady Jane Grey

Thomas Grey was brought to London 21 February 1554 and put in the Tower (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

He was beheaded soon after 21 February in North Wales (1563, p. 923; 1570, p. 1585; 1576, p. 1352; 1583, p. 1423). [NB: This entry is contradicted by the next and is, in fact, in error.]

He was executed 27 April 1554 (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

[David Loades, Two Tudor Conspiracies (Cambridge 1965), p. 104, has 24 April as the date.]

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Richard Morgan

(d. 1556)

Chief Justice of the Common Pleas; Privy Councillor (DNB; Bindoff, Commons)

Sir Richard Morgan was on the commission which tried Lady Jane Grey. According to Foxe, he fell mad as a providential punishment for judging Lady Jane Grey. This is in Foxe's section on the providential punishment of persecutors. (1563, p. 1704; 1570, p. 2298; 1576, p. 1990; and 1583, p. 2099).

In a more elaborate version of the story, which appears in the narrative of Jane Grey's martyrdom, Morgan fell mad and in his raving 'cried out continually to have the Lady Jane taken away from hym, and so ended his life' (1570, p. 1585; 1576, p. 1352; and 1583, p. 1423).

Ridley reported in a letter to Cranmer written in the aftermath of the Oxford Disputations of April 1554, that Morgan had gone mad (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

[NB: Interestingly, this story may have had some foundation in fact; see Bindoff, Commons].

Foxe appended a marginal note to Ridley's comment, tying Morgan's madness to his condemning Lady Jane Grey to death: 'Thys Justice Morgan gave sentence agaynst Lady Jane', (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

Morgan was on the commission which deprived John Hooper of his bishoprics; during the deprivationMorgan upbraided Hooper for his punishments of religious offenders while he had been Bishop of Gloucester (1563, pp. 1054-55; 1570, pp. 1678-79; 1576, pp. 1432-33; 1583, p. 1605).

1447 [1423]

Queene Mary. Epitaphes of Lady Iane. A monition to Boner. Queene Maryes letter to Boner.

Deo iuuante, nil nocet liuor malus:
Et non iuuante, nil iuuat labor grauis.
Post tenebras spero lucem.  

Commentary  *  Close

Note that the translations of the Latin verses praising Jane Grey are eliminated from the 1570 and all subsequent editions (see textual variant 24 and textual variant 25). Again this seems to run counter to the argument that the later editions were more 'populist' and accessible to the general reader than the first edition.

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Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 424, fn 1

{Cattley/Pratt inserts the following in the text on page 425:

'* If God do help thee,
Hate shall not hurt thee;
If God do fail thee,
Then shall not labour prevail thee.*}

¶ Certaine Epitaphes written in commendation of the worthy Lady Iane Gray.
De Iana Graia Ioan. Parkhursti Carmen.

Miraris Ianam Graio MarginaliaGraia being her surname signifieth in Latin a Grecyan. sermone valere?
Quo primum nata est tempore, Graia fuit.

In historiam Ianæ. I. F.

Tu, quibus ista legas incertum est lector, ocellis:
Ipse equidem siccis scribere non potui.

De Iana, D. Laurentij Humfredi decastichon.

Iana iacet sæuo non æquæ vulnere mortis,
Nobilis ingenio, sanguine, martyrio.
Ingenium latijs ornauit fœmina musis,
Fœmina virgineo tota dicata choro.
Sanguine clara fuit, regali stirpe creata,
Ipsaque Reginæ nobilitata throno.
Bis Graia est, pulchrè Graijs nutrita camænis,
Et prisco Graiûm sanguine creta ducum.
Bis Martyr, sacræ fidei verissima testis:
Atque vacans regni crimine, Iana iacet.

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MarginaliaFebruary. 12. MarginaliaLady Iane and L. Gylforde Dudley beheaded.Thus the xij. day of February (as I sayd) was beheaded the Lady Iane, and with her also the Lord Gilford her husband, one of the Duke of Northumberlands sonnes, two innocēts in comparison of them that sate vpon them. For they did but ignorantly accept that which the others had willingly deuised, and by open Proclamation consented to take from others and geue to them. 

Commentary  *  Close

The brief accounts of the executions of Jane Grey and her husband, Guildford Dudley (with the memorable phrase that they were innocents by comparison with their judges) are reprinted from Crowley's chronicle (cf. Crowley, Epitome, sig. Ffff3v with 1563, p. 923; 1570, p. 1585; 1576, p. 1352; 1583, p. 1423).

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MarginaliaA wonderfull example vpon Morgan the Iudge who gaue sentence agaynst the Lady Iane.Touching the condemnation of this Lady Iane, heere is to be noted, that the Iudge Morgan who gaue the sentence of condemnation against hir, shortly after he had condemned her, fell madde, and in his rauing cried out continually to haue the Lady Iane taken away from hym, and so ended his life.  

Commentary  *  Close

The account of Justice Morgan's providential punishment for condemning Jane Grey first appeared in 1563, p. 1704 (in an appendix devoted to divine chastisement of sinners). This version of the story was reprinted in 1570, p. 1704; 1576, p. 1990; and 1583, p. 2099. The version of the story added to the narrative of Jane Grey in the edition of 1570 (see textual variant 26) is substantially the same account, but with different wording.

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MarginaliaFebruary 21.And not long after the death of the Lady Iane, vppon the xxj. of the same moneth,  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 425, line 15 from the bottom

{Cattley/Pratt alters the text to '23rd of the same month'.} Foxe reads "upon the 21st of the same month ... the fourth day after his condemnation." No doubt the 21st was the fourth day after his condemnation, according to p. 544, but the execution is there dated Friday, February 23d, which suits Nicolas's Tables, and is confirmed by Noailles 88, Stow, Hollinshed, Godwin in Kennett's Collections, and Strype.

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MarginaliaHenry D. of Suffolke beheaded.was Henry Duke of Suffolke her father also beheaded at the Tower Hill, the iiij. day after his condemnation: about which time also were condemned for this conspiracie many Gentlemen and Yeomen, whereof some were executed at London, and some in the Countrey. MarginaliaL. Thomas Gray apprehended and executed.In the number of whome was also Lorde Thomas Gray, brother to the sayde Duke, being apprehended not long after in North Wales, and executed for the same. 
Commentary  *  Close

The brief account of the executions of Suffolk and his brother, Thomas Grey, are reprinted from Crowley's chronicle (cf. Crowley, Epitome, sig. Ffff3v with 1563, p. 923; 1570, p. 1585; 1576, p. 1352; 1583, p. 1423). A much fuller account of Suffolk's execution, from a different source, will be given much later in Book 10.

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Sir Nicholas Throgmorton very hardly escaped, as ye shall heare (the Lord willing) in another place.

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MarginaliaFebruary. 24.The xxiiij. of the same moneth, the yeare of our Lorde 1554. Boner Bishop of London sent downe a Commission, directed to all the Curates and Pastors of his dioces, for the taking of the names of such as would not come the Lent following to auriculare confession, and to the receyuing at Easter: the copie of which monition heere followeth.

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¶ A monition of Boner Byshop of London, sent downe to all and singular Curates of his Dioces, for the certifying of the names of such as would not come in Lent to Confession and receiuing at Easter. 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 10: Bonner's Monition

Bonner's order to his curates to report the names of all those who did not confess during Lent or receive the eucharist at Easter is printed from Bonner's register (cf. Guildhall MS 9531/12, fol. 341r with 1563, p. 923; 1570, p. 1585; 1576, pp. 1352-53; 1583, p. 1423). It is yet another example of Foxe's quarrying of the London episcopal registers before the publication of the 1563 edition. There is a curious discrepancy; Foxe gives the date of the document as 23 February in all his editions, but it is 24 February on the original document.

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Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 426, top

This monition of Bonner is in the Bonner Register, fol. 341. It is singular that in all the editions of Foxe it is misdated the 23d of February, though in the preceding paragraph of text it is correctly dated the 24th. The Register says "the xxiiij day of February." Foxe's copy has been collated with the original, and conformed to it. The first edition, indeed, is nearly exact; only two words in square brackets are added by Foxe, as necessary to the sense.

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MarginaliaA monition of Boner B. of London to all ministers of his Dioces. EDmund by the permission of God, Byshop of London, to all Parsons, Vicares, Curates and Ministers of the Church, within the Citie and Dioces of London, sendeth grace, peace, and mercy, in our Lorde euerlasting. For as much as by the order of the Ecclesiasticall lawes and constitutions of thys Realme, and the lawdable vsage & custome of the whole Catholicke Church, by many hundreth yeares agone, duely and deuoutly obserued and kept, all faithfull people beeing of lawfull age and discretion, are bounde once in the yeare at least (except reasonable cause excuse them) to be confessed to theyr owne proper Curate, and to receaue the Sacrament of the aultar, with due preparation and deuotion: and for as much also as we be credibly enformed, that sundry euill disposed and vndeuout persons, geuen to sensuall pleasures and carnall appetites, following the lusts of their body, and neglecting vtterly the health of their soules, MarginaliaComming to confession. do forbeare to come to confession according to the sayd vsage, MarginaliaReceiuing the sacrament of the aultar. and to receaue the Sacrament of the aulter accordingly, geuing therby pernicious and euill example to the yonger sort, to neglect and contemne the same: we minding the reformation heereof for our owne discharge, and desirous of good order to be kept, and good example to be geuen: do will and commaund you by vertue heereof, that immediately vpon the receipt of this our com-

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maundement, yee and euery ech of you within your cure and charge, do vse all your diligence and dexteritie to declare the same, straightly charging and commaunding all your parishioners, being of lawfull age and discretion, to come before Easter next comming, to confession, according to the sayd ordinaunce and vsage, and with due preparation and deuotion to receiue the sayd Sacrament of the aulter, and that ye do note the names of all such as be not confessed vnto you, and do not receiue of you the sayd Sacrament, certifying vs or our Chauncellour or Commissary thereof before the sixt day of Aprill next ensuing the date heereof: so that we knowing thereby who did not come to confession, and receyuing the Sacrament accordingly, may proceede agaynst them, as beeyng persons culpable, and transgressours of the sayd ecclesiasticall lawe and vsage: Further also certifying vs or our sayd Chauncellour or Commissary, before the day aforesayde, whether ye haue your aultars set vp, chalice, booke, vestiments, and all things necessary for Masse, and the administration of sacraments and sacramentals, with procession and all other diuine seruice prepared and in readines, according to the order of the Catholike Church, and the vertuous and godly example of the Queenes Maiesties: and if ye so haue not, yee then with the Churchwardens cause the same to be prouided for, signifying by whose faulte and negligence the same want or faulte hath proceeded, and generally of the not comming of your parishioners to Church, vndue walking, talking, or vsing of themselues there vnreuerently in the tyme of diuine seruice, and of all other open faults and misdemeanours, not omitting thus to doo, and certifie as before, as you will answere vpon your perill for the contrarye. Geuen at London the 23. of February, in the yeare of our Lord 1554.

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The next moneth following, which was the moneth of March, and the 4. day of the sayd moneth, there was a letter sent from the Queene to Boner Bishop of London, with certaine Articles also annexed, to be put in speedy execution, conteining as heere followeth. 

Commentary  *  Close
Blocks 11 and 12: Mary's Articles

Queen Mary's articles to her bishops, instructing them how to deal with heresy, married clergy and re-establishing the ceremonies and practices of the Catholic church, and her accompanying letter to Bonner, are printed by Foxe from Bonner's register (cf. Guildhall MS 9531/12, fol. 342r-v with 1563, pp. 924-25; 1570, pp. 1585-86; 1576, pp. 1353-54; 1583, pp. 1423-24). Once again, Foxe misdated this document; the letter is dated 4 March but Foxe dates it 3 March.

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¶ Articles sent from the Queene to the Bishop of London, by him and his officers at her commaundement to be put in speedy execution, with her letter to the sayd Byshop before prefixed.

MarginaliaA letter of Q. Mary to B. Boner. Causes declared. March. 3. RIght reuerend Father in God, right trusty and welbeloued we greete you well. And wheras heretofore in þe time of the late raigne of our most dearest brother K. Edward þe 6. whose soule god pardon, dyuers notable crimes excesses and faults, with sundrye kindes of heresies, simony, adultery, & other enormities haue bene committed wtin this our Realme and other our dominions, the same continuing yet hitherto in like disorder since the beginning of our raigne, without any correction or reformation at all, & the people both of the laitie and also of the clergye, & chiefly of the clergy haue bene geuen to much insolency & vngodly rule, greatly to the displeasure of almighty God, & very much to our regret & euill contentation, & to no litle slander of other Christen realmes, and in a maner to the subuersion & cleane defacing of this our realme, and remembring our duety to almighty god, to be to foresee (as much as in vs may be) þt all vertue and godly liuing shoulde be embraced, florish & increase, and therewith also, þt all vice & vngodly behauiour shuld be banished and put away, or at þe least wise (so nigh as might be) so bridled and kept vnder that godlines and honesty might haue þe ouer hand, vnderstanding by very credible report and publike fame, to our no smal heauines and discomfort, that within your dioces as well in not exempted as exempted places, the like disorder and euill behauiour hath bene done & vsed, like also to continue and increase vnlesse due prouision be had and made to reforme þe same, which earnestly in very deede we do mind & intend to the vttermost all þe waies we can possible, trusting of Gods furtherance and helpe in þt behalfe. For these causes, and other most iust cōsiderations vs mouing, we send vnto you certayne articles of suche speciall matter, as among other thinges be most necessary now to be put in execution by you & your officers, extending to the end by vs desired, and the reformation aforesaide, wherein ye shall be charged with our speciall commaundement, by these our letters to the intent you and your officers may þe more earnestly and boldly proceed therunto without feare of any presumption to be noted on your part, or danger to be incurred of any such our Lawes, as by our doinges of that is in the said articles conteined, might any wise greue you whatsoeuer be threatned in any such case. And therfore we straightly charge and commaund you, and your sayde officers to proceede to the execution of the said Articles, wtout all tracte and delay, as ye will answere to the contrary. Geuen vnder our signet, at our Palace of Westminster the 3. day of march the first yeare of our raigne.

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