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John Feckenham

(1518? - 1585)

Dean of St Paul's. Last abbot of Westminster. [DNB]

Feckenham was made dean of St Paul's on Midsummer's Day, 1554. 1563, p. 1151; 1570, pp. 1636 and 1760; 1576, pp. 1396 and 1551 [recte 1503]; 1583, pp. 1467 and 1587

He conversed with Thomas Hawkes in June 1554 trying to persuade him to recant. 1563, pp. 1153-54; 1570, p. 1762; 1576, p. 1505; 1583, pp. 1588-89

In the letter exhibited by Bonner about Bartlett Green, reference was made to John Dee and Feckenham. 1563, pp. 1444-45, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, pp. 1721-22, 1583, p. 1828.

Feckenham traveled to Colchester with Bishop Bonner to try to win Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed back to catholicism. 1563, p. 1104; 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

He tried to persuade Hooper to recant after he was condemned on 29 January 1555. The effort was unsuccessful but false rumors spread that Hooper had recanted. 1563, p. 1057; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, p. 1507.

Feckenham was one of those who presided over an examination of Thomas Tomkins on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1461; 1583, p. 1535.

He was one of those who examined first Thomas Causton, and then Thomas Higbed, in Bonner's palace on 8 March 1555. 1563, p. 1105; 1570, p. 1718; 1576, p. 1466; 1583, p. 1540.

He wrote a ballad, Caveat emptor , on the subject of the restoration of monastic lands. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1497; 1583, p. 1559.

Feckenham received a letter from William Paulet. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

He discussed eucharistic doctrine with Bartlett Green. 1563, pp. 1463-64, 1570, pp. 2025-26, 1576, p. 1746, 1583, p. 1854.

Feckenham claimed that Green was converted by Peter Martyr's lectures and that Zwingli, Luther, Oecolampadius and Carolostadius could never agree doctrine. 1563, pp. 1463-64, 1570, pp. 2025-26,, 1576, p. 1746, 1583, p. 1854.

[In a letter that was never delivered] Bartlett Green told John Philpot of his presentment on 17 November before Bonner and two bishops, Master Dean, Roper, Welch, John Harpsfield, and two or three others. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

A letter by the thirteen prisoners reproaching Feckenham for his slander dated Feckenham's sermon as 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

Feckenham spoke up in defence of John Cheke. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley

(d. 1555) (DNB)

Bishop of London (1550 - 1553). Martyr. [DNB]

Nicholas Ridley gave John Rogers a prebend in St Paul's (1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484).

He led the bishops who compelled John Hooper to wear vestments at his consecration. Ridley wrote a letter to Hooper apologising for this in Mary's reign (1563, pp. 1050-2; 1570, pp. 1676-7; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5).

He preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, at the behest of the privy council, supporting Jane Grey's claim to the throne. After Mary's accession Ridley visited the queen at Framlingham and was arrested (1563, p. 903; 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; and 1583, p. 1408).

He was engaged, over dinner with John Feckenham and Sir John Bourne, in a debate on the nature of the eucharist. An account of the debate, 'penned with his own hand,' is first printed in 1563, (1563, pp. 928-31; 1570, pp. 1589-91; 1576, pp. 1356-58; and 1583, pp. 1426-28). There is no earlier printed version or manuscript of the exchange.

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Ridley was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, p. 933 and 937-38; 1570, p. 1593; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; 1583, pp. 1429-30).

[NB: There is a summary of Ridley's disputation on Tuesday 17 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, pp 933-34].

Ridley disputed with Richard Smith and the other catholic doctors on 17 April 1554 (1563, p. 957-78; 1570, pp. 1606-22; 1576, pp. 1370-84; 1583, pp. 1441-54).

Ridley's preface to his account of the disputation is 1563, pp. 956-57 and (in a differently worded version) 1570, p. 1632; 1576, pp. 1392-93; 1583, p. 1463.

Ridley's conclusion to his account of the Oxford disputations is printed (only) in 1563, p. 978.

Ridley wrote to Weston protesting the conduct of the 1554 Oxford disputations and demanding that Ridley's written responses to the three propositions be shown to the higher house of convocation (1563, p. 977; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, pp. 1393-94; 1583, p. 1464).

The queen's letter ordering Ridley, together with Cranmer and Latimer, to be held in the custody of the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford during the disputation is printed in 1563, p. 999.

He was summoned, together with Cranmer and Latimer, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant what he had said during the disputations. He was condemned and taken to the sheriff's house (1563, pp. 935-38; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, pp. 1463-64).

On 21 April 1554, Ridley was compelled to observe, having been brought from the sheriff's house, a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried a canopy over Weston (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, p. 1464).

Ridley wrote a letter to Cranmer, which was sent together with copies of his account of the disputation and news of recent developments (1570, pp. 1633-34; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, pp. 1464).

Foxe mentions Ridley's condemnation and disputation in passing in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469.

In a letter of 10 October 1554, Heinrich Bullinger asked John Hooper to pass his commendations toRidley, Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer (1570, p. 1692; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Ridley was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ridley, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer from the Marshalsea(1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97).

Foxe describes Ridley's character. 1563, p. 1283, 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

John Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Ridley called Bradford to take the position of deacon and, at Bradford's willing, ordered him deacon. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He led the bishops who compelled John Hooper to wear vestments at his consecration. Ridley wrote a letter to Hooper apologising for this in Mary's reign. 1563, pp. 1050-2; 1570, pp. 1676-7; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5.

In a letter of 10 October 1554, Heinrich Bullinger asked John Hooper to pass his commendations to Ridley, Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer. 1570, p. 1692; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Ridley was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms. 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ridley, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer from the Marshalsea.1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Foxe recounts the life of Ridley. 1563, pp. 1283-96, 1570, pp. 1895-96, 1576, pp. 1623-24, 1583, pp. 1717-30.

Ridley was kind to Heath, archbishop of York during Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley was kind to Edmund Bonner's mother. She would dine at Ridley's manor in Fulham with Ridley and Mistress Mungey, Bonner's sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley's sister and her husband, George Shipside, were also kind to Bonner's mother and sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1717-18.

Ridley was converted through the reading of Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

After Mary's accession, Ridley was kept first in the Tower, then in the Bocardo in Oxford, and then held in custody at Master Irish's house until his death. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley was cast into Bocardo prison with Hugh Latimer. 1563, p. 1285, 1583, p. 1718.

A conference took place between Ridley and Latimer in prison on the objections of Antonian, in other words, those of a popish persecutor, such as Winchester. 1563, pp. 1285-94, 1583, pp. 1718-24.

Letters of Ridley. 1570, pp. 1896-1902, 1576, pp. 1624-30, 1583, pp. 1724-30.

A letter was sent by Ridley to West, in which Ridley asked West and also Dr Harvey to remember their promises to him. Foxe also includes West's letter and Ridley's response. 1570, pp. 1900-01, 1576, pp. 1627-28, 1583, pp. 1728-29.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. He mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. He had heard that West had relented, and Grimald been cast into the Marshalsea. He had also heard that Thomas Ridley, of the Bull-head in Cheapside, had died. He had heard that his brother-in-law, Shipside, had spent much time in prison but was now released. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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The examination of Ridley and Latimer by White (Lincoln) and Brookes (Gloucester) took place on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from Cardinal Poole. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

A communication took place between Ridley and Brookes in Irish's house on 15 October, on which day he was degraded, and at which Edridge ('reader then of the Greek lecture') was present.. 1563, pp. 1374-76, 1570, pp. 1934-35, 1576, pp. 1659-60, 1583, pp. 1768-69.

Ridley had a discussion with Brookes on 16 October, on which day he was degraded. 1563, pp. 1374-76.

Foxe recounts the behaviour of Ridley at supper the night before he was martyred. 1563, pp. 1376-79, 1570, pp. 1936-37, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Foxe recounts the behaviour of Ridley and Latimer at their martyrdom. 1563, pp. 1376-1379, 1570, pp. 1937-39, 1576, pp. 1661-62, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley gave his gown and tippet to Shipside. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley gave a new groat to Henry Lea. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley spoke with Lord Williams before his martyrdom. 1563, p. 1379, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1662, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley's friendly farewell. 1563, pp. 1379-81, 1570, pp. 1939-43, 1576, pp. 1622-28, 1583, pp. 1770-76.

Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Cranmer was confirmed in his reformist beliefs after conference with Ridley. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1556 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

In the third year of Edward's reign, Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Robert Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Letter to Augustine Bernher [BL, Harley 416, fo.16v. Printed in LM, p. 72 et seq. Also in 1570, p. 1902 et seq.].

Letter to Augustine Bernher [BL Harley 416, fos.17v and 32r. Not printed in Foxe or LM].

Letter to Bernher [BL Harley 416, fo.32r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letter to Bradford. [BL Harley 416, fo.32v. Printed in LM, pp. 62 et seq. and 1570, p. 1897 et seq.]

Foxe records Nicholas Ridley's writings against idolatry. 1583, pp. 2128-31.

Lord Dacre would have paid a ransom to Mary for his kinsman Nicholas Ridley's life if it were possible but she refused. 1563, p. 1733, 1583, p. 2131.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir John Bourne

(1518 - 1575)

Secretary of State to Mary; uncle to Bishop Gilbert Bourne of Bath and Wells, [DNB, sub Bourne, Gilbert; Bindoff].

Sir John Bourne led a debate, or rather dinner conversation, with John Feckenham, against Nicholas Ridley while the latter was imprisoned in the Tower (1563, pp. 928-31; 1570, pp. 1589-91; 1576, p 1356-58; and 1583, p. 1426-28).

He was one of the commissioners who interrogated Rowland Taylor on 22 January 1555 (1563, pp. 1071-73; 1570, pp. 1696-97; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1521-22).

He was one of the examiners of John Rogers on 28 January 1555 (1563, pp. 1026-28; 1570, pp. 1659-60; 1576, pp. 1416-17; 1583, pp. 1486-87).

He was one of the commissioners who interrogated Robert Ferrar on 4 February 1555 (1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, pp. 1553-54).

He was ordered by the privy council to examine Sir Thomas Benger, Cary, John Dee and John Field on 5 and 7 May 1555 (1583, p. 1581).

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Secretary Bourne declared that Bradford had caused much trouble with letters, as had been reported to him by the earl of Derby. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bourne asked Bradford if the letters were seditious, but Bradford claimed they were not. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Sir John Bourne is described by Foxe as the chief stirrer in such cases as that of Bartlett Green's. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1851.

A letter to Bonner by the privy council regarding Green's treason was written on 11 November 1555, but not delivered until 17 November. It was signed Winchester, Penbroke, Thomas Ely, William Haward, John Bourne, Thomas Wharton. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. , 1583, pp. 1851-52.

Lord Williams, Lord Chandos, Sir Thomas Bridges and Sir John Browne arrived in Oxford, prior to Cranmer's martyrdom. 1563, p. 1498, 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

Sir John Bourne was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

On 15 December 1557 a letter was sent by the archbishop of York, the earl of Shrewsbury, Edward Hastings, Anthony Montague, John Bourne and Henry Jernegam (members of the privy council) to Bishop Bonner along with the examinations of John Rough. They sent Rough to Newgate. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, pp. 1921-22., 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

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His judges were Portman and Marven who, when they witnessed John Davis's sorry state when he was held before them, agreed with John Bourne that the boy had suffered enough. 1570, p. 2277, 1583, p. 2073.

Bourne and his wife took Davis home and anointed his wounds but put him away when they realised he would not submit to their doctrine. They were afraid he might have an effect on their son Anthony. 1570, p. 2277, 1583, p. 2073.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Thomas Brydges

Brother of Sir John Brydges 1st Baron Chandos.

Sir Thomas Brydges would succeed his brother John as Lieutenant of the Tower (DNB, sub Brydges, Sir John)

He took part in a conversation, cum debate, between Ridley and Feckenham, Sir John Bourne and others (1563, pp. 928-31; 1570, pp. 1589-91; 1576, pp. 1356-58; and 1583, pp. 1426-28).

Referred to by Foxe as 'Thomas of Bridges' or 'Sir Thomas Abridges'.

1450 [1426]

Queene Mary. Queene Maryes title altered. Priestes extolled. D. Ridleys talke with Bourne.

MarginaliaAnn. 1454.the bishop in the premisses, and comparing the same with the true testimony of Wyat himselfe, & with the testimony of the Sheriffes whiche were present the same time when Syr Thomas Wiat asked the Lord Courtney forgeuenes, may the better iudge of the whole case and matter for the whiche the Lady Elizabeth and the Lord Courtney were so long in trouble. Of which her Graces trouble, hereafter (God willing) more shall be said in the story of her life. In the meane time, to let this matter stay, let vs now passe further in our history.

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MarginaliaQueene Mary not fauouring the Londoners. NOt longe after this, Queene Mary partly fearing the Londiners by occasion of Wiats cōspiracy partly perceiuing most part of the City for religions sake not greatly to fauour her proceedings, to theyr displeasure and hinderaunce sommoned a Parliament to be holdē at Oxford: MarginaliaA Parlament holden pretended to be kept at Oxford. as it were to gratify that Citty, where both the Vniuersity, Towne, and Country had shewed themselues very obedient and forward, especially in restoring popish religion. 

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In the first edition, Foxe declared that Oxford had been forward in restoring the 'olde religion'. (1563, p. 927). In later editions, this was changed to 'popish religion' (1570, p. 1588; 1576, p. 1355; 1583, p. 1426), probably in an effort to avoid conceding the superior antiquity of catholicism.

For this purpose great prouision was made, as wel by the Queenes officers and by the townes men and inhabitantes of Oxford and the Country about.

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MarginaliaA Parlamēt holden at Westminster.But the Queenes minde in short space chaunged, and the same Parliament was holden at Westminster in aprill folowing. MarginaliaMention of the Quenes mariage in the Parlament.Then the Queene, beside other thinges, proposed concerning her mariage to king Philip, and restoring of the Popes supremacy. As touching her maryage it was agreed vpon: but the other request could not as then be obteyned.

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The same time when this Parliamēt was sommoned, she also sommoned a conuocation of bishops & of the Clergy, 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 432, bottom

The acts of this Convocation are briefly given in the Bonner Register, fol. 339-341. It opened on Tuesday, April 3d, 1554, and was on Friday, May 25th, prorogued to the 5th of October ensuing, being the Friday following St. Michael's day.

writing vnto 
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From 'The Stile' to 'The Communication'

There are two aspects to be noted: the change in Mary's style (all editions) and Bonner's praise of priests. The softening of the sarcasm against Bonner after 1563 can be seen by comparing the glosses 'Hyghe reasons of Bōner why the order of priestes is to be honored aboue Angels and kinges' (1563) and 'The profound exhortation of B. Boner in the Conuocation' (later editions); perhaps this was linked in with the sharpening of the criticism against him because of his ill temper and base appetites which appear in later passages: this case does not provide the opportunity for that type of criticism.

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MarginaliaBoner made Vicegerent, and President in the Conuocation.Boner (whom she had made Vicegerēt in the stead of Cranmer being in the Tower) after þe tenor and forme of a new stile, differing from the olde stile of K.Henry, and K. Edward as foloweth.

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The stile of Q. Mary altered writing to Boner for the summoning of a Conuocation. 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 433, top

This Royal summons of the Convocation is in the Bonner Register folio 337 verso: it is dated "London, decimo-quinto die Marcii, anno Regni primo." It is remarkable, that at folio 323, where Mary's reign commences, the anti-papal style of the Sovereign is inscribed in the title of the Register.

MarginaliaSupremum caput, in the Queenes stile taken away. MAria Dei gratia Angliæ, Franciæ, Hiberniæ Regina, fidei defensor. Reuerendo in Christo patri Edmondo London. Epis. Salutem. Licet nuper quibusdam arduis & vrgentibus negotijs nos securitatem, & defensionem Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ ac pacem & tramquilitatem &c.

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Where note good Reader, concerning the altering and chaunging the Queenes stile, the latter part thereof to bee left out of her title, which is: Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ Hiberniæ supremum caput, because in this present Parliament the supremacy being geuen away from the crowne of Englande to the Pope, therupon this parcell of the title was also taken away. Likewise the sayd Boner geuing his certificate vpon the same, leaueth out autoritate illustrissimæ. &c. legitime suffultus: MarginaliaLegitimé suffultus in the Bishops title taken away. which parcel also in the same Parliament was repriued and taken away the same time. 

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Block 15: Mary's title altered and Bonner's praise of priesthood

Foxe added a passage in the 1570 edition that emphasised that the title of Supreme Head of the English Church had been used by Henry VIII and Edward VI (textual variant 32). The order summoning Convocation, of which Foxe prints a few lines in order to demonstrate Mary's abandoning the title of Supreme Head, is in Bonner's register (Guildhall MS 9531/12, fol. 337v; cf. 1563, p. 927; 1570, p. 1588; 1576, p. 1355; 1583, p. 1426).

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¶ The dignity of Priestes extolled by Byshop Boner.

MarginaliaBoner speaketh for the honour of Priesthood. IN this foresayd conuocation, Bonor B. of Londō being Vicegerent and President as is said, made a certayne exhortation or oration to the Clergy (whether it was in this conuocatiō or much about the sayd time) wherin he semeth to shew a great piece of his profound and deep learning in setting forth the most incomparable & superangelical order of Priesthood, as may appeare by this parcell or fragment of his foresayd Oration. Being collected and gathered by some that stoode by, whiche as it came to our handes so I thought to impart it to the Reader, both for that the Author of so worthy a worke should not passe vnknown, and partly also, for that þe estimatiō of this blessed order should lose nothing of his preeminence, but might be knowne in most ample perfection, so as it standeth aboue Angels and kinges, if it be true that Boner sayth.

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¶ A piece or fragment of the exhortation made by Boner Bishop of London, to them of the Conuocation house, copyed out by them that stood by and heard him. 
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Foxe states that his extract from Bonner's oration to the Convocation of 1554, was based on the notes of those who heard it (1563, p. 927; 1570, p. 1588; 1576, p. 1355; 1583, p. 1426). A number of speeches and sermons which Foxe prints in Book 10 are based on the notes taken by those in attendance and later given to Foxe.

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Boners Oration in prayse of Priesthood.

MarginaliaThe profound exhortation of B. Boner in the Conuocation. WHerefore it is to be knowne that Priestes & Elders be worthy of all mē to be worshipped for the dignity sake which they haue of God, as in Mat. 16. Whatsoeuer ye shall lose vpon earth. &c. And whatsoeuer you shall binde. &c. For a priest by some meanes is like Mary the Virgin, and is shewed by three poyntes: As the blessed Virgine by fiue wordes did conceiue Christ, as it is sayd: Luke. 1. Fiat mihi secundum verbū tuum: that is to say, Be it vnto me according

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MarginaliaPriestes compared to the virgin Mary in three pointes. to thy word: so the priest by 5. wordes doth make the verye body of Christe. Euen as immediately after the consent of Mary, Christ was all whole in her wombe: so immediatly after the speaking of the wordes of consecration, þe bread is transubstantiated into the very body of Christ. Secondly, as the Virgin caried Christ in her armes, and layd him in an Oxe stall after his byrth: euen so the Priest after the consecration, doth lift vp the body of Christ, & placeth it, & caryeth it, and handleth it with his hands. Thyrdly, as the blessed Virgin was sanctified before she was conceiued: so the Priest being ordeined & annoynted before he doth consecrate, because without orders he could cōsecrate nothing, therefore the lay man cannot do the thing, although he bee neuer so holy, and do speake the selfe same wordes of consecration. MarginaliaPriesthood cōpared & preferred before the state of Angels.Therfore here is to be knowne, that the dignity of Priestes by some meanes passeth the dignity of angels, because there is no power geuen to any of the Aungels to make the body of Christ. 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 433, last line

It may be well, as this statement does not come immediately from Bishop Bonner himself, to support his opinion from Mr. Gibbings's 'Roman Forgeries and Falsifications; or an Examination of counterfeit and corrupted Records,' p. 63 (Dublin, 1842).

"Nothwithstanding the usual exaggeration of the Virgin Mary's power and privileges, there is a class of human beings, by whom she is confessedly surpassed. - 'Gabriel Biel super Canonem Missæ, et Discipulus Serm. III. ex Catholicorum omnium Doctorum communi consensu, statuit Sacerdotem sanctissimâ et immaculatâ Virgine matre majorem atque digniorem: quia illa semel tantum filium sacro meruit in utero portare; iste vero quotidiè, imo in casibus a jure expressis, in Gloss. c. "consuluit," De celebr. Miss. et a Soto in 4. dist. 13. q. 2. Navar. in c. 25. n. 87. et alii) bis, et in Die Nativitatis ter, poterit consecrare.' (Jos. Geldolph. a Ryckel Justa Funeb. animab. fidel. defunct. persolv. p. 404, Lovan. 1634.)"

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Wherby the least priest may do in earth, that the greatest and highest Aungell in heauen can not do as S. Barnard sayth: O worshipful dignity of Priestes in whose hands the Sonne of God is, as in the wombe of the Virgin he was incarnate. S. Augustine sayth, that Angels in the consecration of the sacred host do serue him, and the Lorde of heauen descendeth to him. Whereupon Saynt Ambrose vpon Saynt Luke sayth: Doubt thou not the Aungels to be where Christ is present vpon the Aultare.  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda, ref. page 434, line 8

{Pratt substitutes 'angel' for 'aungels' in the text.} The Latin of Ambrose reads "angelum."

Wherefore Priestes are to be honoured before all kinges of the earth, Princes and Nobles MarginaliaBlasphemy.For a Priest is higher then a King, happyer then an Aungell, Maker of his Creator. Wherefore. &c.

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It was declared a litle before, how Doct. Ridley was had from Fremingham to the Tower: where being in duraunce, and inuited to the Lieftenants table, he had certain talke or conference with Secretary Bourne M. Fecknam and other concerning the controuersies in religiō: þe sūme whereof, as it was penned with his owne hand, hereafter ensueth. 

Commentary  *  Close
Block 16: The Communication between Bourne and Ridley

The dialogue between Ridley and Sir John Bourne continues the pattern of argument about the eucharist alternating with political narrative which runs throughout Book 10. The dialogue first appeared in print in the 1563 edition (1563, p. 929-32; 1570, p. 1589-91; 1576, p. 1356-58; 1583, p. 1426-28); there is no earlier surviving print or manuscript version. Foxe states that the dialogue was penned with Ridley's own hand; apparently Foxe obtained a unique copy. As will be seen in Book 11, George Shipside, Ridley's brother-in-law, was one of Foxe's sources; it is quite possible that he obtained the dialogue for Foxe.

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Here foloweth the summe and effect of the communication betwene D. Ridley, and Secretary Bourne with others, at the Lieuetenauntes table in the Tower. 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 434

{Cattley/Pratt alters the text to the 1563 version.} The conference between Ridley and Bourn is given according to the text of 1563, which seems the most correct and genuine: many verbal alterations occur in the subsequent editions, some of them much for the worse.


Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
'The Communication'

A large number of glosses ('Vnitie, Antiquitie, Vniuersalitie' and ten following) appear in all editions, and concern Ridley's successful answer to Fecknam, taking his own categories of unity, antiquity and universality and refashioning them in a suitably protestant way, together with an exposition of 'hoc est' (see also 'The place of Saint Cyprian expounded' for another example of Ridley expounding). For an example of Ridley's view being given authoritative status by a marginal gloss, see 'The doctrine of the Sacrament not new'. A 1563 gloss which seems to be mocking the poor logic of the catholics was later dropped, possibly because it was rather obscurely phrased ('Ergo ther is no substance of bread in the sacrament'). The veil drawn over the connection between the catechism and Cranmer after 1563 ('Bishop of Caunterburys boke' (1563); 'The booke of Catechisme' (later editions)) is perhaps significant in the light of concerns about the Prayer Book.

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MarginaliaSir Tho. Abridges. MAister Thomas of Bridges sayd at his brother mayster Lieuetenantes boorde: I pray you M. Doctours, for my learning tell me what an heretick is. M. Secretary Bourne sayd, I will tell you who is an hereticke: MarginaliaWho is an hereticke.who so stubbernly & stifly maynteineth an vntruth, he is an hereticke. Ye meane syr (sayd I) an vntrueth in matters of religion, & concerning our fayth. Yea that is true sayd he: & in this we are soone agreed. Then sayd maister Fecknam, sitting at the vpper end of the table, whom they called M. Deane of Paules: I wil tell you by S. Austine who is an hereticke. MarginaliaAn hereticke defined by S. Austen. Qui adulandi principibus vel lucri gratia falsas opiniones gignit vel sequitur, hereticus est, sayth S. Austine. 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 434, fn 1

Augustine de Utilitate Credendi, cap. 1, vol. viii. page 45. Benedict. - ED.

And then he englished the same. Sir sayd I, I wene S. Austine addeth the thyrd member, which is, vel vanæ gloriæ causa. Ye say euen true M. Doctor, sayd he, and thus farre we did agree all three.

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MarginaliaFecknam prouoking M. Ridley.M. Fecknam began againe to say, who so doth not beleue that scripture affirmeth, but will obstinately maintein the contrary, he is Hæreticus, as in the sacramēt of the aultar: Mathew doth affirm there to be Christs body. Marke doth affirme it, Luke affirmeth it, Paule affirmeth it, and none denyeth it: therfore to hold the cōtrary it is heresy. It is the same body and flesh that was borne of the virgine: & this is confirmed by MarginaliaVnitie, Antiquitie, Vniuersalitie.vnity, antiquity & vniuersalitye. For none before Berengarius did euer doubt of this, & he was an heretick, as M. doctor there knoweth full well: I do testify his owne conscience sayd he.

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Mary sir, saide mayster Secretary, maister Fecknam hath spoken well. These be great matters, vnitie antiquitie and vniuersalitie. Do ye not thinke so maister Doctour said he to me?

Here while I strayned curtesye and pretended as nothinge to talke, sayd one of the Commissioners: peraduenture M. Ridley doth agree with M. Fecknam, and then there needes not much debating of the matter.

Syr saide I in some thinges I doe and shall agree with him, and in some things which he hath spoken to be playne. I doe not agree with him at all. Maister sayde I, ye be (as I vnderstād) the Queenes Commissioners here and if ye haue commissiō to examine me in these matters, I shall declare vnto you playnely my faythe, if yee haue not, then I shall pray you either geue mee leaue to speake my minde freely, or els to hold my peace.

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There is none here, sayde M. Secretary, that doth not fauour you: and thē euery man shewed what fauour they

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