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Henry Cole

(1500? - 1580)

LL.D. (1556 - 1557) Archdeacon of Ely (1553). Provost of Eton (1554). Dean of St Paul's (1556). Vicar general to Cardinal Pole. Judge of the archiepiscopal court. Dean of the Arches (1557). (DNB)

Henry Cole was one of the catholic disputants in the Oxford disputations of 1554. During the debates, Cole had short acrimonious exchanges with Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer (1563, pp. 932, 938, 944-46, 951, 955, 969 and 972; 1570, pp. 1591, 1593, 1581[recte 1597]-99, 1602 and 1605-6; 1576, pp. 1358-59, 1362-64, 1367 and 1371; 1583, pp. 1428, 1430, 1433-35, 1438 and 1440-41).

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Later in the disputation, he interrupted the debate and called Latimer a liar (1563, p. 984; 1570, p. 1627; 1576, p 1388; and 1583, p. 1458).

Cole was secretly asked to prepare a funeral sermon for Cranmer. 1563, p. 1498, 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

Cole preached a sermon prior to the martyrdom of Cranmer. 1563, p. 1498, 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, pp. 1885-86.

In an attempt to reinstate catholicism at the University of Cambridge, a commission under the direction of Cardinal Pole ordered the condemning and burning of the bones and books of Phagius and Martin Bucer. Members of the commission were Cuthbert Scott, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

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Henry Cole was chosen by Pole to be a persecutor of the University of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1537, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.

Cole was sent to King's College, Cambridge, to examine certain scholars on 9 January 1557. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2143, 1576, p. 1863, 1583, p. 1956.

He was awarded a doctorate at Cambridge. 1570, p. 2150, 1576, p. 1858, 1583, p. 1963.

William Holcot was charged with treason by Cole and Geffre for supporting Cranmer. 1583, p. 2135.

Cole was one of those holding a commission from Cardinal Pole to disinter Peter Martyr's wife and burn her bones. 1563, p. 1558, 1570, p. 2152, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

He was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Bonner sent Thomas Hinshaw before John Harpsfield and Henry Cole. 1563, p. 1690, 1570, p. 2242, 1576, p. 1937, 1583, p. 2043.

Elizabeth Young's eighth examination was before Bonner, the dean of St Paul's and Story. 1570, pp. 2273-74, 1576, pp. 1962-63, 1583, pp. 2069-70.

Her ninth examination took place before the dean. 1570, p. 2274, 1576, p. 1963, 1583, p. 2070.

Cole was committed to the Fleet after the death of Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Feckenham

(1518? - 1585)

Dean of St Paul's. Last abbot of Westminster. [DNB]

Feckenham was made dean of St Paul's on Midsummer's Day, 1554. 1563, p. 1151; 1570, pp. 1636 and 1760; 1576, pp. 1396 and 1551 [recte 1503]; 1583, pp. 1467 and 1587

He conversed with Thomas Hawkes in June 1554 trying to persuade him to recant. 1563, pp. 1153-54; 1570, p. 1762; 1576, p. 1505; 1583, pp. 1588-89

In the letter exhibited by Bonner about Bartlett Green, reference was made to John Dee and Feckenham. 1563, pp. 1444-45, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, pp. 1721-22, 1583, p. 1828.

Feckenham traveled to Colchester with Bishop Bonner to try to win Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed back to catholicism. 1563, p. 1104; 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

He tried to persuade Hooper to recant after he was condemned on 29 January 1555. The effort was unsuccessful but false rumors spread that Hooper had recanted. 1563, p. 1057; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, p. 1507.

Feckenham was one of those who presided over an examination of Thomas Tomkins on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1461; 1583, p. 1535.

He was one of those who examined first Thomas Causton, and then Thomas Higbed, in Bonner's palace on 8 March 1555. 1563, p. 1105; 1570, p. 1718; 1576, p. 1466; 1583, p. 1540.

He wrote a ballad, Caveat emptor , on the subject of the restoration of monastic lands. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1497; 1583, p. 1559.

Feckenham received a letter from William Paulet. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

He discussed eucharistic doctrine with Bartlett Green. 1563, pp. 1463-64, 1570, pp. 2025-26, 1576, p. 1746, 1583, p. 1854.

Feckenham claimed that Green was converted by Peter Martyr's lectures and that Zwingli, Luther, Oecolampadius and Carolostadius could never agree doctrine. 1563, pp. 1463-64, 1570, pp. 2025-26,, 1576, p. 1746, 1583, p. 1854.

[In a letter that was never delivered] Bartlett Green told John Philpot of his presentment on 17 November before Bonner and two bishops, Master Dean, Roper, Welch, John Harpsfield, and two or three others. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

A letter by the thirteen prisoners reproaching Feckenham for his slander dated Feckenham's sermon as 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

Feckenham spoke up in defence of John Cheke. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Harding

(1516 - 1572)

John White's chaplain. Of Lincoln. Catholic controvertialist. Born Combe Martin, Devonshire. [DNB]

Author of STC 12758-12763.5.

Jane Grey wrote a letter to Thomas Harding (he had been her father's chaplain) reproving him for apostasy during Mary's reign. The letter is not in the Rerum and, although it is printed in 1563 (pp, 920-22), Harding is unnamed in that edition. He was identified, however, when the letter was reprinted in 1570 (p. 1582-83) and subsequent editions (1576, pp. 1349-41 [recte 1351] and 1583, pp. 1420-21).

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Harding participated in the 1554 Oxford disputations, challenging both Ridley and Latimer on Greek vocabulary and grammar (1563, pp. 934, 970 and 981; 1570, pp. 1606, 1616 and 1624; 1576, pp. 1371, 1379 and 1388; 1583, pp. 1441, 1450 and 1456).

On 14 February 1555 Harding went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoken against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

In February 1555 Willerton, a chaplain to Bishop Bonner, went to speak with John Bradford in prison. They discussed the doctors and scripture and agreed that each would write down his own arguments over transubstantiation. Willerton sent his few sparse answers to Bradford the next morning and went to see him in the afternoon. They discussed whether or not the scriptures should be in the vernacular. Bradford gave Willerton his answers on transubstantiation and told Willerton to form his answers as reasons. 1563, pp. 1199-1200. Willerton was with Creswell, Harding, Harpsfield and others. 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

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Harding was with Creswell, Willerton, Harpsfield and others who visited Bradford in prison in February 1555. 1570, p. 1790.

In his rejoinder against John Jewel [STC 12760], bishop of Salisbury, Harding dismissed Foxe's version of the three Guernsey martyrs as a series of inflammatory lies. He also charged that Perotine Massey was a whore and responsible for the death of her child. 1570, pp. 2130-34, 1576, pp. 1852-55, 1583, pp. 1946-49.

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Foxe challenged Harding to disprove the legitimacy of Perotine Massey's marriage to David Jores. 1570, p. 2131, 1576, p. 1853, 1583, p. 1947.

Foxe refuted Harding's case that Massey was responsible for the death of her child. 1570, pp. 2131-32, 1576, p. 1853, 1583, p. 1947.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Tresham

(d. 1569)

Vice-Chancellor of Oxford (1532 - 1547, 1556 and 1558) [DNB]

William Tresham was one of the official disputants in the Oxford disputations of April 1554. He debated extensively and acrimoniously with Nicholas Ridley and claimed that Cranmer?s Defense of the Sacrament contained 600 errors (1563, pp. 933-34, 936-38, 948-50, 975-76, 981-82, 989-90; 1570, pp. 1592-93, 1600-01, 1606, 1620-21, 1624-25 and 1629-30; 1576, pp. 1358-59, 1365-66, 1371, 1382-83, 1386-87 and 1390-91; 1583, pp. 1428-30, 1436-37, 1441, 1453, 1456-57 and 1461-62).

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[NB: A brief account of the Oxford disputations, printed only in 1563, mentions Tresham as disputing with Cranmer (1563, p. 933)].

Tresham addressed the students of Christ Church, urging them to hear mass, discussing the different types of mass and promising them new copes and a new bell for their services (1563, pp. 1007-8; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475).

1480 [1456]

Queene Mary. Disputation of Maister Latimer at Oxford.

babble many things of Christ which yet know not Christ: but pretending Christ, do craftily colour and darken hys glory. Depart from such men, sayth the Apostle S. Paule to Timothie.

It is not out of the way to remember what MarginaliaAugustine.S. Augustine sayth. The place where, I now well remember not, except it be against the Epistles of Petilian: 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 503, fn 1

Petilian was a Donatist bishop of Cirtha in Africa in the beginning of the fifth age. - ED.

Who so euer (saith he) teacheth any thyng necessarily to be beleued, which is not contayned in the olde or new Testament, the same is accursed. Oh beware of this curse if you be wise. I am much deceyued if MarginaliaBasilius.Basilius haue not such like words: What so euer (saith he) is besides the holy scripture, if the same be taught as necessarily to be beleeued, that is sinne. Oh therefore take heede of this sinne.

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There be some that speake many false things more probable, and more like to the truth, then to the truth it selfe. Therefore Paule geueth a watch word: Let no man (saith he) deceiue you with probabilitie and perswasions of woordes. But what meane you (saith one) by this talke so far from the matter? Well, I hope good maisters, you will suffer an old man a little to play the child, and to speake one thyng twise. MarginaliaThe absurdities of the Papistes opened in abusing the Lords Supper.Oh Lord God, you haue chaunged the most holy Communion, into a priuate action: and you deny to the Laitie the Lordes cup contrary to Christes commaundement, and you do blemish the annuntiation of the Lordes death till he come: for you haue chaunged the Common prayer called the diuine seruice, with the administration of the sacramentes, from the vulgar and knowen language, into a strange tongue, contrary to the wyll of the Lord reuealed in his word. God open the dore of your hart, to see the things you should see herein. I would as fayne obey my soueraigne as any in this realme: but in these things I can neuer do it with an vpright consciēce. God be mercifull vnto vs. Amen. 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda, ref. page 503, line 11 from the bottom

Here ends the Emmanuel Coll. MS.

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Weston. Then refuse you to dispute? Will you here then subscribe?

Lat. No good maister, I pray you be good to an olde man. You may (if it please God) be once old, as I am: MarginaliaBut God saw it good that Westō neuer came to his age. ye may come to this age, and to this debilitie.

West. Ye said vpon saterday last, that ye could not find the masse, nor the marybones thereof in your booke: but wee will finde a masse in that booke.

Lat. No good M. Doctor, ye cannot.

West. What find you then there?

Lat. Forsooth a Communion I find there.

West. Which Communion, Marginalia* By this first and second communion, he meaneth the two bookes of publicke order set forth in king Edwards daies the one in the beginning, the other in the latter end of his reigne.* the first or the last?

Lat. I find no great diuersitie in them: they are one supper of the Lord, but I like the last very well.

West. Then the first was nought belike.

Lat. I do not wel remember wherin they differ.

West. Then cake bread & loaf bread are all one with you. MarginaliaD. Weston caueleth against the name, of the Lords Supper.Ye call it the Supper of the Lord, but you are deceyued in that: for they had done the supper before, and therfore the Scripture sayth: Postquam cœnatum est, that is, After they had supped. For ye know that S. Paul findeth fault wyth the Corrinthians, for that some of them were drunken at this supper: and ye know no man can be dronken at your Communion.

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Lat. The first was called MarginaliaCœna Iudaica.Cœna Iudaica, that is, The Iewish Supper, when they did eate the Paschall Lambe together: the other was called MarginaliaCœna DominicaCœna dominica, that is, The Lordes supper.

West. That is false, for Chrysostome denieth that. MarginaliaChrisost. in 1. Cor. cap. 10.And S. Ambrose in cap. 10. prioris ad Corinthios, saith, that Mysterium Eucharistiæ inter cœnandum datum, non est cœna dominica: that is, The mysterie of the sacrament, geuen as they were at supper, is not the supper of the Lord.

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And MarginaliaGreg. Nazianzenus.Gregory Nazianzene sayth the same: Rursus Pasche sacra cum discipulis in cœnaculo ac post cœnam, dieque vnica ante passionem celebrat. Nos verò ea in orationis domibus, & ante cœnam & post resurrectionem peragimus: that is, Agayne, he kept the holy feast of Passeouer with his Disciples in the dinyng chamber after the supper, and one day before his passion. But we keepe it both in the Churches and houses of prayer, both before the supper, and also after the resurrection.

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And that first Supper was called ἀγάπη, Marginaliaἀγάπι. I. So were the feastes called wont to be geuen to the poore.can you tell what that is?

Lat. I vnderstande no Greeke. Yet I thinke it meaneth charitie.

West. Will you haue all thing done that Christ did then? Why, then must the Priest be hanged on the morrow. And where find you I pray you, that a woman should receyue the sacrament?

Lat. Will you geue me leaue to turne my booke? I finde it in the xj. chapter to the Corinthians. I trow these be hys wordes: Probet autem seipsum homo, &c.

MarginaliaWeston opposed in his grammer.I pray you good maister what Gender is homo?

West. Marrie the common gender.

Cole. It is in the Greeke, ὁ ἄνθρωπος. Marginaliaἄνηρ. 1. Cor. 11.

Har. It is δοκιμαζὲτε ἄνθρωπος ἑαυτὸν, that is, vir.

Lat. It is in my booke of Erasmus translation, Probet seipsum homo. 

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There was an omission in the Rerum account. Latimer's comment 'It is in my booke of Erasmus translation, Probet se ipsum homo' (1563, p. 981; 1570, p. 1624; 1576, p. 1385; 1583, p. 1456; this is not in Rerum, p. 690). This omission was probably inadvertent.

Feck. It is Probet seipsum in deed, and therfore it importeth the Masculine gender.

Latimer. What then? I trowe when the woman touched Christ, he said: Quis tetigit me? Scio quod aliquis me tetigit: that is, Who touched me? I know that some man touched me.

Weston. I will be at host with you anone. MarginaliaArgument.When Christ was at his supper, none were with hym, but his Apostles onely.

Ergo, he ment no woman, if you will haue this institution kept.

MarginaliaThe Apostles represented the whole Church.Lati. In the twelue Apostles was represented the whole Church, in which you will graunt both men and women to bee.

West. So thorough the whole hereticall translated Bible, ye neuer make mention of Priest, tyll ye come to the putting of Christ to death. Where find you then that a priest or minster, MarginaliaWeston scorneth the name of Minister.(a minstrel I may cal him wel enough) should do it of necessitie?

MarginaliaThe name of Minister more fit thē the name of Priest.Lat. A minister is a more fit name for that office, for þe name of a priest importeth a sacrifice.

West. Well, remember that ye cannot find that a woman may receiue by scripture. M. Opponent fall to it.

Smith. Because I perceiue that this charge is layd vppon my necke, to dispute with you: to the ende that the same may go forward after a right maner and order, I wil propose three questions, so as they are put forth vnto me. And first I aske this question of you, although the same in deed ought not to be called in question: but such is the condition of the Church, that it is alwayes vexed of the wycked sort. I aske (I say) whether Christes body be really in the sacrament?

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Lat. I trust I haue obteined of M. Prolocutor, that no mā shall exact that thyng of me, which is not in me. MarginaliaM. Latimer modestly maketh himselfe vnable to dispute.And I am sory that this worshipfull audience should be deceyued of their expectation for my sake. I haue geuen vp my mynde in writing to M. Prolocutor.

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Smith. Whatsoeuer ye haue geuen vp, it shall be registred among the Acts.

Latimer. Disputation requireth a good memory: Ast abolita est mihi memoria, My memorie is gone cleane, and maruellouslye weakened, and neuer the better Iwis for the pryson.

West. How long haue ye bene in prison?

Lat. These three quarters of this yere.

West. And I was in prison sixe yeres.

Lat. The more pitie Sir.

West. How long haue you bene of this opinion?

Lat. It is not long sir that I haue bene of this opinion. 

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In later editions, Latimer states, 'It is not long, Syr, since I have bene of this opinion' (1570, p. 1624; 1576, p. 1386; 1583, p. 1456); in 1563 (p 981) he says, 'It is long, Syr, since I have bene of this opinion'. (The 1563 version was clearly in error for the Rerum reads: 'Non valde diu, a bone').

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Weston. The tyme hath bene when you sayd Masse full deuoutly. 

Commentary  *  Close

In the edition of 1563, Weston says, 'Ye have sayde masse at Grenewyche full devoutely' (1563, p. 981), while in later editions this is rendered: 'The tyme hath bene when you sayd Masse full devoutly' (1570, p. 1624; 1576, p. 1386; 1583, p. 1456). (Rerum, p. 690, does not mention Greenwich in its translation of the remark).

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Lat. Yea, I cry God mercy hartily for it. MarginaliaThen they hist and clapt their handes at him.

West. Where learned you this new fanglenes?

Lat. I haue long sought for the truth in this matter of the Sacrament, and haue not bene of this mynde past seuen yeres: MarginaliaM. Latimer confirmed by Doct. Crāmers booke.and my L. of Canterbury his booke 

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The text Latimer repeatedly cited as 'Cranmer's book' was Thomas Cranmer, A defence of the true and catholike doctrine of the sacrament of the body and bloud of Christ (STC 6000-6002).

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 505, fn 2

"Cranmer's Book. A Defence of the trve and catholike Doctrine of the Sacrament of the body and bloud of our Sauiour Christ." 4to. Lond. 1550. - ED.

hath especially confirmed my iudgement herein. If I could remember all therein conteined, I would not feare to answer any man in this matter.

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Tres. There are in that booke sixe hundred errors.

West. You were once a Lutheran.

Lat. No, I was a Papist: For I neuer could perceiue how Luther could defend his opinion without transubstantiation. MarginaliaThe zeale of M. Latymer sometymes in Popery agaynst the Tygurines.The Tigurines once did write a booke agaynst Luther, 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 505, fn 3

Several treatises upon this question will be found in "Operum Huld. Zuinglii pars secunda." Tiguri, 1581; pp. 313 to 376. - ED.

and I oft desired God that he might liue so long to make them answer.

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Weston. Luther in hys booke De priuata Missa, sayd, that the deuill reasoned with hym, and perswaded hym that the Masse was not good. 

Commentary  *  Close

Weston, in alleging that Luther declared the devil taught him that the mass was evil (1563, p. 981; 1570, p. 1624; 1576, p. 1386; 1583, p. 1456), was repeating a charge levelled at Luther by Johannes Cochlaeus and repeated by such leading polemicists as Fredericus Staphylus, Stanislaus Hosius and Nicholas Harpsfield. It was based on Luther's declaring, in the work cited by Weston, that the devil tempted him to despair by charging him with hypocrisy in performing the mass even though he did not believe in transubstantiation.

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Fol. 14. Contigit me, &c. MarginaliaIn that booke the deuill doth not dissuade him so much from saying Masse, as to bring him to desperation for saying Masse, such temptatiōs many times happen to good men. Wherof it may appeare, that Luther said Masse, and the deuill disswaded hym from it.

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Lat. I do not take in hand here to defend Luthers sayings or doyngs. If he were here, he would defend himself well enough I trow. I told you before that I am not meete for disputations. I pray you read myne aunswer, wherein I haue declared my fayth.

West. Do you beleue this, as you haue written?

Lat. Yea Sir.

West. Then haue you no faith.

Lat. Then would I be sory Sir.

Tres. It is written, Iohn. 6. Except ye shall eate the fleshe of the sonne of man, and drinke his bloud, ye shall haue no lyfe in

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