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Thomas CranmerWilliam Tresham
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Thomas Cranmer

(1489 - 1556)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1533 - 1553) [Fasti; DNB; MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer, 1996]. Martyr

Foxe records the life, condemnation and death of Cranmer. 1563, pp. 1470-1503, 1570, pp. 2032-71, 1576, pp. 1752-82, 1583, pp. 1859-90.

Foxe records Cranmer's formative years and early career. His mother was Agnes Hatfield. Cranmer read the works of Faber, Erasmus and Luther. 1563, pp. 1470-71, 1570, pp. 2032-33, 1576, pp. 1752-53, 1583, pp. 1859-60.

Cranmer was asked by Dr Capon to be a founding fellow of Wolsey's college. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

Alexander Seton and Edward Foxe lodged with Cressey while Thomas Cranmer was there and dined with him. The following day Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

Cranmer was sent as Henry VIII's ambassador to the emperor. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

He was made archbishop of Canterbury. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

Cranmer was asked by Henry VIII to search the scriptures for a case for his divorce from Catherine of Arragon. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1860.

Henry VIII asked the earl of Wiltshire to allow Cranmer to stay at his house in Durham. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1861.

Cranmer went to Mr Cressey's house at Waltham Abbey during the summer plague season. Cranmer's wife was a relative of Cressey. 1570, p. 2033 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1860.

Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

The pope's authority was discussed at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, where it was concluded that Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Arragon was not legal, and the pope's authority was denounced. Cranmer, the earl of Wiltshire, Stokesley, Carne and Benet were then sent before the pope to deliver these conclusions. 1563, p. 1472, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1861. [1563 has the commission as consisting of: Bonner, Winchester, Sampson, Repps, Goodricke, Latimer, Shaxton, and Barlow.]

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Cranmer met with Cornelius Agrippa. 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1861.

Cromwell was sent with Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer at Lambeth. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1862.

Chersey, a grocer in the city of London, had a kinsman who was a priest and who spent more time in the alehouse than his church. This priest spoke against Cranmer in the alehouse one day. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1863.

The priest was sent to the Fleet. Cromwell forgot about him and eventually sent him to Cranmer. Cranmer in time spoke to the priest and set him free. 1570, pp. 2036-38, 1576, pp. 1756-57, 1583, pp. 1863-64.

Cranmer investigated the case of a woman accused of committing adultery. 1563, pp. 1477-78, 1576, pp. 1570-71.

Cranmer sent a token via W. P. [William Porrege] to a woman falsely accused of adultery, asking for forgiveness for the treatment she received while in custody. 1563, p. 1478, 1576, p. 1751.

Lord Wryosley wept at the bedside of King Henry VIII and saved the life of Mary, Henry and Catherine's daughter. 1563, p. 1478.

Thomas Seymour spoke against Cranmer to the king, which he later regretted. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

Richard Neville, noting that Sir Thomas Seymour was hoping to see Cranmer, brought him to the archbishop at dinner. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

After Cromwell was apprehended, bishops Heath and Skip forsook Cranmer and stood against him. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, pp. 1865-66.

Winchester and others tried to take Cranmer out of the king's favour. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

The king sent Sir Anthony Denny to commit Cranmer to the Tower. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

Cranmer spoke with the king. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

Buttes, the king's physician, spoke to the king about the fact that Cranmer was being forced to wait like a lackey to come into council. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1866.

The king and the council made their peace with Cranmer. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Sir John Gostwicke accused Cranmer of heresy before parliament, citing his sermons at Sandwich and his lectures at Canterbury as evidence. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Prebendaries and justices of Kent accused Cranmer of heresy. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Articles were put to Henry VIII against Cranmer. Henry VIII told Cranmer what these articles were. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

A commission was sent to Kent to find out the truth about Cranmer's beliefs and the charges of heresy against him. The commission members were Dr Belhouse, Chauncellor Cox and Hussey the registrar. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1867.

Cranmer's secretary wrote to Buttes and Denny asking for Dr Lee to join the commission, lest nothing be learned by the commission. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

A conspiracy against Cranmer was discovered through some letters that were found, including one by the suffragen of Dover and one by Barbar, a civilian maintained in Cranmer's household as a counsellor in matters of law. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer spoke with Dover and Barber. Barber said that hanging was too good for villains. They asked for Cranmer's forgiveness. 1570, pp. 2042-43, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer was confirmed in his reformist beliefs after a conference with Ridley. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer's wife is mentioned as a niece to the wife of Osiander. Cranmer was married while acting as the king's ambassador to Charles the emperor. 1563, p. 1478, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer was opposed to the writings of Gardiner. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Rowland Taylor left Cranmer's household to become rector of Hadleigh (1563, p. 1065; 1570, p. 1693; 1576, p. 1495; 1583, p. 1519). [Actually Taylor was Cranmer's chaplain.]

Cranmer commanded Rowland Taylor to make Robert Drakes a deacon. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

In the third year of Edward's reign Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Robert Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Foxe states that at his death Edward VI bequeathed the throne to Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer refused to swear allegience to Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, pp. 2045-46, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

The dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk were executed for their support of Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Lady Jane and her husband were beheaded. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe states that those who were blinded with ignorance or malice thought Peter Martyr not a learned man. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472].

A mass was said at Canterbury by Thornden after the death of Edward VI. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Scory, bishop of Rochester, visited Cranmer. He took a copy of Cranmer's writings about the rumour that he had said the mass (when Thornden had in fact said it) and had it published. Cranmer was commanded to appear before the council and bring an inventory of his goods. 1563, p. 1479, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

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Heath questioned Cranmer about his bill against the mass. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, pp. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

Cranmer was examined by Brookes, Martyn and Story. 1563, pp. 1479-83, 1570, pp. 2046-47, 1576, p. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

Cranmer was accused of conspiring with John Dudley, duke of Northumberland. 1563, p. 1483, 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Thomas Cranmer met with Peter Martyr, about 5 September 1553, in London, to discuss a projected disputation where they would defend the Book of Common Prayer. Cranmer was then arrested (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 13 September Cranmer was ordered to appear before the privy council. On 14 September he was charged by the privy council with treason and spreading seditious libels and was committed to the Tower (1583, p. 1410).

He was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was cited to appear before the queen's commissioners on 27 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1465).

Rumoured to have celebrated a mass at Canterbury, Cranmer issued a denial or 'purgation' of the rumours on 7 September 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1465).

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1553 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

He was committed to the Tower on 14 September 1553 (1570, p. 1466; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1466).

A rumor spread that Cranmer had recanted his protestant conviction and allowed a mass to be celebrated at Canterbury; he issued a printed denial of this. In the denial, he offered to defend his religious beliefs in open debate together with Peter Martyr. Cranmer was imprisoned and arraigned for treason but ultimately pardoned. He was still charged with heresy (1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418).

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He was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, pp. 932 and 937; 1570, pp. 1592-93; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; and 1583, p. 1429).

[NB: There is a summary of Cranmer's disputation on Monday 16 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, p. 933.]

Cranmer disputed with the catholic doctors on 16 April 1554 (1563, pp. 938-56; 1570, pp. 1593-1606; 1576, pp. 1360-70; and 1583, pp. 1430-41).

He disputed with John Harpsfield on the nature of the eucharist as part of Harpsfield's obtaining his D.D. on 19 April 1554 (1563, pp 987-90; 1570, pp. 1629-31; 1576, pp. 1390-91; and 1583, pp. 1460-62).

Cranmer wrote to the privy council on 23 April 1554, protesting at the way in which the Oxford disputations were conducted. Weston opened the letter and refused to deliver it (1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, p. 1464).

The queen's letter ordering Cranmer to be held in the custody of the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford during the disputation is printed in 1563, p. 999.

A new commission was sent to Rome for the restoration of the pope's authority to allow the condemnation of Cranmer. Those sent were: James Brookes, Martyn and Story . 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

He was summoned, together with Ridley and Latimer, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant his opinions and denied Weston's claim that he had been defeated in the disputation, claiming that the questions and challenges flew at him without order or giving him time to answer. He was condemned and taken to Bocardo (1563, pp. 935-36; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; and 1583, pp. 1463-64).

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Bullinger sent commendations to Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554. 1570, pp. 1692-93; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer. 1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Ridley was converted through reading Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1895 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, p. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe records Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he made reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Ridley hoped to see Cranmer before his death, but Cranmer was with Friar Soto. 1570, p. 1936, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Cranmer was condemned by Weston and others of the university. He was committed to the mayor and sheriffs of Oxford. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

On 21 April 1554, Cranmer was compelled to observe, from Bocardo, a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried the canopy over Weston (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; and 1583, pp. 1463-64).

A ten-foot high scaffold was set up in St Mary's church at the east end for Brookes to represent the pope, from which Cranmer was condemned. 1563, p. , 1570, p. 2047 , 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe records Martyn's oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2049-50, 1576, pp. 1767-68, 1583, p. 1874.

Cranmer's profession of his faith was spoken in St Mary's church before those who condemned him. 1570, pp. 2050-52, 1576, pp. 1768-69, 1583, pp. 1874-75.

Foxe records Story's oration against Cranmer. 1576, pp. 1769-70, 1583, pp. 1875-76.

Foxe records Brookes' oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2054-56, 1576, pp. 1772-73, 1583, pp. 1878-79.

There was a talk between Martyn and Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2052-53, 1576, pp. 1770-72, 1583, pp. 1876-77.

Foxe records interrogatories and answers. 1570, p. 2054, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, pp. 1877-78.

The witnesses against Cranmer were Dr Marshall, commissary and dean of Christ's Church; Dr Smith, under commissary; Dr Tresham; Dr Crooke, London; Mr Curtop; Mr Warde; Mr Serles. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, p. 1879.

Story said that they were true witnesses, as they swore allegience to the pope. Cranmer was sent to Gloucester by Story. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1773, 1583, p. 1879.

Foxe records Cranmer's full answer to Brookes' oration against him. 1570, pp. 2057-58., 1576, pp. 1774-75, 1583, pp. 1880-81.

Cranmer stated that he was ambassador in Germany when Warham died. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1774, 1583, p. 1880.

Cranmer met with Dr Oliver and other civil lawyers to discuss the pope's authority. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

Martyn had demanded to know who Cranmer thought was supreme head of the church of England. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

A commission was sent from the pope regarding the sentencing of Cranmer. 1563, pp. 1490-91.

Thirlby and Bonner came to Cranmer with a new commission on 14 February 1556. 1570, pp. 2058-59, 1576, pp. 177576, 1583, pp. 1881-82.

Cranmer appealed. 1570, pp. 2059-61, 1576, pp. 1776-77, 1583, pp. 1882-83.

Cranmer's appeal was put to the bishop of Ely. 1570, p. 2062, 1576, p. 1777, 1583, p. 1883.

Bullinger sent commendations to Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554 (1570, pp. 1692-93; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Cranmer received a letter from Ridley, together with copies of Ridley's account of the disputation, and news about recent developments (1570, pp. 1633-34; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, pp. 1464-65; not in LM).

Foxe mentions Cranmer's condemnation and disputation in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer (1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97).

Cranmer was degraded. 1563, p. 1493.

Cranmer recanted. 1563, pp. 1497-98, 1570, p. 2062, 1576, pp. 1778-80, 1583, p. 1884.

Witnesses to Cranmer's recantation were Henry Sydall and Friar John de villa Garcina. 1570, pp. 2062-63, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1884.

Lord Williams, Thomas Bridges and Sir John Bourne arrived in Oxford, prior to Cranmer's martyrdom. 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

Cole was secretly asked to prepare a funeral sermon. 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

The deaths of Northumberland and Thomas More are referred to in the description of the death of Cranmer. 1570, p. 2064, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1885.

Foxe records Cranmer's prayer. 1570, pp. 2064-65, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1886.

Cranmer was pulled from the pulpit. 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1887.

Cole preached a sermon prior to the martyrdom of Cranmer. 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, pp. 1885-86.

Thomas Cranmer was burned. 1570, p. 2066, 1576, p. 1782, 1583, pp. 1887-88.

Cranmer's letters. 1563, pp. 1483-84, 1489, 1492-93, 1570, pp. 2067-72, 1576, pp. 1782-86, 1583, pp. 1889-93.

Henry VIII directed Cranmer and Cromwell (and others, including Stokesly) to examine John Frith. 1583, pp. 2126-27.

Buswell, a priest, spoke to Edward Benet whilst they were imprisoned together and gave him a copy of Cranmer's recantation. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Foxe includes a copy of the Pope's commission to proceed against Cranmer. 1583, p. 2132.

During his examination Weston and Smith challenged Cranmer over his book of the sacrament. 1583, p. 2135.

William Holcroft was charged with treason by Cole and Geffre for supporting Cranmer. 1583, p. 2135.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Tresham

(d. 1569)

Vice-Chancellor of Oxford (1532 - 1547, 1556 and 1558) [DNB]

William Tresham was one of the official disputants in the Oxford disputations of April 1554. He debated extensively and acrimoniously with Nicholas Ridley and claimed that Cranmer?s Defense of the Sacrament contained 600 errors (1563, pp. 933-34, 936-38, 948-50, 975-76, 981-82, 989-90; 1570, pp. 1592-93, 1600-01, 1606, 1620-21, 1624-25 and 1629-30; 1576, pp. 1358-59, 1365-66, 1371, 1382-83, 1386-87 and 1390-91; 1583, pp. 1428-30, 1436-37, 1441, 1453, 1456-57 and 1461-62).

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[NB: A brief account of the Oxford disputations, printed only in 1563, mentions Tresham as disputing with Cranmer (1563, p. 933)].

Tresham addressed the students of Christ Church, urging them to hear mass, discussing the different types of mass and promising them new copes and a new bell for their services (1563, pp. 1007-8; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475).

1484 [1460]

Queene Mary. Harpsfield disputeth for his Forme. Weston opposeth.

Harps. I deny the antecedent.

West. Iohn the 6. Dico veritatem vobis,&c. I speake the truth vnto you: It behooueth me that I go away from you. For vnlesse I do depart, that comforter cannot come, &c.

Vpon this I will make this argument.

MarginaliaArgument.Christ is so gone away as he did send the holy Ghost.

But the holy Ghost did verily come into the world:

Ergo, Christ is verily gone.

Harps. He is verily gone, and yet remaineth here. MarginaliaThis aunswere doth not satisfie the argument for the conclusion speaketh of a bodyly absence, the aunswere speaketh of a spirituall remayning.

West. S. Augustine sayth, that these wordes: Ego ero, &c. I wyll be with you euen to the end of the world, are accomplished, secundum maiestatem, According to his maiestie: But secundum præsentiam carnis, non est hic, By the presence of hys flesh, he is not here. The Church hath hym not in flesh, but by beliefe.

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Harps. We must diligently weigh that there are two natures in Christ: the diuine nature, & humane nature. The diuine nature is of such sort, that it cannot chuse but bee in all places. The humane nature is not such, that of force it must be in all places, althogh it be in diuers, after a diuers maner. So where that the doctors do entreat of hys presence by maiestie, they do commend the maiestie of the Diuine nature not to hinder vs of the Marginalia* If the naturall presence is here, then is it false that S. August. sayth. secundum presentiam carnis non est hic.* natural presence here in the sacrament.

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West. He sayth further: Me autem non semper habebitis: Ye shall not haue me alwayes with you, is to be vnderstanded in the fleshe.

Harpsfield. The presence of the flesh is to bee considered, that he is not here as he was woont to lyue in conuersation with them, to be seene, talked withall, or in such sort as a man may geue hym Marginalia* And how can we thē giue honor to him, to whom we can shew no charitye nor geue any thing els vnto?* any thyng: after that sort he is not present.

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West. But what say you to this of S. Augustine: Nō est hic, He is not here.

Harpesfield. I do answer out of S. Augustine vpon Iohn, Tractatu. 25 vpon these woordes. Non videbitis me. Vado ad patrem, &c. I goe to the Father, ye shall not see me: That is, Such as I now am. Therefore I doe deny the Marginalia* What maner so euer ye giue to the body, if the substanciall body be here in deede, it cannot be auoyded, but eyther it must needes be false that S. Aug. sayth. Non est hic, or els Christ must haue 2. bodyes in 2. places together present here after one maner, & in heauē after an other maner.maner of hys presence.

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West. I wil ouerthrow S. Augustine with S. Augustine: who saith this also: Quomodo quis possit tenere Christum? fidem mitte & tenuisti: that is, How may a man hold Christ? send thy fayth, and thou holdest hym.

So he sheweth, that by sending our fayth, we do hold Christ.

Harpesfield. In deed no man holdeth Christ, vnlesse he beleeue in him, but it is another thing to haue Christ mercyful and fauourable vnto vs, and to haue him present in the Sacrament.

There s. Augustine speaketh of holding him by faith, as he is fauourable vnto vs.

West. Nay, he speaketh there how the Fathers had him in the fleshe, and teacheth that we haue him not so in fleshe, as they had him long tyme, sayeng: Your fathers dyd holde Christ present in the flesh, do you hold him in your heart. What wordes can be more plaine? Further he sayth, He is gone, & is not here: he hath left vs, and yet hath not forsaken vs. Hic est maiestate, abijt carne: He is here in maiestie, and gone touching the fleshe.

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Harps. I doe vnderstand Augustine thus: that Christ is here in his flesh to them that receiue him worthily: to such as doe not worthily receiue him, to them he is not present in the fleshe. I iudge S. Augustine meaneth so. We haue hym, and haue hym not: we haue him in receiuyng hym worthily, otherwyse not. MarginaliaNote what Harpsfield here holdeth, that the body of Christ is not present in the Sacrament, but onely to them that receiue him worthely.

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West. Nay, Tenere carnem est tenere corticem literæ: I wyll prosecute another argument. Cyrill doth say: By the maiestie of his diuinitie he is euer here, but the presence of hys fleshe hath he taken away.

Harpsfield. The sense of Cyrill is thus to be vnderstanded: The most true fleshe of Christ is at the right hande of the Father. Marginalia* If the presence of his flesh be taken away as Cyrill saith how then can the presence of his flesh be in the Sacrament. Thus the Fathers taught, and so they beleeued. Thus sayd Cyrill: Thus said Augustine, and because this is the foundation of our fayth, they did oftentymes teach it. Therefore, when they prooue this, (the body to bee in heauen,) they do not make agaynst the presence in the sacrament.

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So vnlesse ye can plainly shew, that the fathers do directly say, he is not in the sacrament, you make nothyng against me: for I haue shewed why the Fathers so spake. They did teach the great difference betwene the diuine nature, and the humane nature, as I haue before sayd.

Weston. I will then prooue, that he is not in the sacrament. Vigilius against þe heretike Eutiches, vpon these words: Me autem non semper habebitis, 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 513, fn 5

Rather upon "Expedit vobis ut ego eam." See Biblioth. Patrum. Paris, 1576, tom. v. col. 549. - ED.

sayeth: The sonne of God as touching his humanitie, is gone from vs, by his diuinitie hee remayneth with vs. And that same Vigilius in hys fourth booke, sayeth: Marginalia* Vigilius saith, his body is taken vp how then doth the same body remaine still vnlesse eyther ye make him to haue 2. bodyes: or els make 2. contradictoryes true in one proposition.Hee that is in the heauen, is not in the earth,

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speakyng of Christ.

Harps. I wyll shew you the reason of these wordes. The hereticke Eutiches did beleeue that the diuine nature of Christ was fastned on the crosse, and beleeued that Christ had no naturall body. To this Vigilius sayd, that the humane nature was taken vp and ascended, which could not so haue done, vnlesse he had had a body. This he sayd not, to take away the presence in the sacrament.

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For what had he to referre this sentence to the Sacrament? Hee neuer dyd so much as dreame of the Sacrament.

West. MarginaliaCyrillus.Cyrill sayth: Although he be absent from vs in body, yet are we gouerned by his spirit.

Harps. By these wordes he gaue vs a cheerefulnesse, to aspire vpwards, seeking therehence our helpe. For as touching his conuersation, he is not so in the Sacrament, as one meet to be liued withall. But let hym teach vs that he is not there to feed vs: for after that sort he is there. MarginaliaThe body of Christ is here to feede our bellyes, but not to be liued withal.

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West. You haue satisfied me with your answers, in doyng the same learnedly, and catholikely. But now to an other argument.

Marginalia* The argument holdeth a proportione.*Christ is now so absent from the earth by his body, as he was absent from heauen when he liued here.

But when he did liue bodily on earth, the same naturall body was out of heauen.

Ergo, now whilest his naturall body is in heauen, it is not in earth.

Harps. I deny the Maior.

West. Fulgentus ad Transimundum Regem, libro secundo, saith: Secundum humanam substantiam absens erat cœlo, cum descēdit de cœlo. These are Fulgentius wordes touchyng hys humane substaunce. He was absent from heauen, when he descended from heauen, and touching the same substance, now he is in heauen, he is not on the earth: but concernyng the diuine nature, he neuer forsooke, neither heauen nor earth.

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¶ After these wordes, not waityng Harpsfields aunswer, he offered maister Cranmer to dispute: who began in this wyse.

Cranmer. I haue heard you right learnedly and eloquently entreat of the dignitie of the scriptures, which I doe both commend, & haue maruelled thereat within my selfe. But where as you referre the true sense & iudgement of þe scriptures to the catholicke churche as iudge thereof, you are much deceued, specially for þt vnder the name of the church you appoynt such Iudges as haue corruptly iudged, and contrary to the sense of the scriptures. MarginaliaThe opinion of M. Harpsfield reproued, referring the sence of the Scripture rather to the iudgemēt of the Church then to the diligent reading & conferring of places.I wonder likewyse why you attribute so little to the diligent readyng of the scriptures, and conferryng of places, seyng the scriptures do so much commend the same, as wel in diurs other places, as also in those which you your selfe haue alredy alleged. And as touching your opinion of these questiōs, it semeth to me, neither to haue any groūd of the word of god, nor of the Primitiue church. And to say the truth, þe scholemen haue spoken diuersly of them, and do not agree therein among themselues. Wherfore mynding here briefly to shew my iudgement also, I must desire you first to aunswere me to a fewe questions which I shall demaund of you. Which beyng done, we shall the better proceed in our disputation. Moreouer, I must desire you to beare also with my rudenes in the Latin tonge, which through long disuse is not now so prompt and ready with me, as it hath bene. And now all other things set apart, I mynd chiefly to haue regard to the truth. My first question is this: How Christes body is in the sacrament, accordyng to your mynde or determination?

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Then answered a Doctor, MarginaliaChrist present in the Sacramēt in substance, but not after the maner of substance.he is there as touching hys substance, but not after the maner of his substance.

Harpsfield. He is there in such sort and manner, as he may be eaten.

Cran. My next question is: Whether he hath his quantitie & qualities, forme, figure, and such like properties.

Harpsfield. Are these your questions, sayd Maister Harpsfield? I may likewise aske you when Christ passed thorough the virgines wombe, an ruperit necne? When they had thus a while contended, there were diuers opinions in this matter.

MarginaliaThe Rabines could not agree among themselues.All the doctors fell in a buzzing, incertaine what to answer: some thought one way, some another, and thus master Doctors could not agree.

Then maister Cranmer said thus: you put of questions with questions, and not with aunsweres. I aske one thyng of you, and you aunswer another. Once agayne I aske: Whether he haue those properties which he had on the earth?

MarginaliaChristes body without his properties in the Sacrament.Tresh. No, he hath not all the quantities and qualities be-

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