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Edmund Brygott

(d. 1562)

D. Th. (Oxford) 1530 and Parson of Much Hadham, Hertfordshire (Emden)

Brygott received four livings in London diocese from Bishop Bonner in the years 1545-49 (PROE334/3 fols. 2r, 22r and 70r; London, Guildhall MS 9531/12, fols.161r, 167v, 171r and 173v).

Testified against Stephen Gardiner during the latter's trial in 1551 (1563, p. 842).

In 1554, Brygott was collated to a prebend in St Paul's by the newly restored Bishop Bonner (Fasti).

When Bonner came to Hadham on his visitation in 1554, he was not greeted and he also found that there was no rood erected in the parish church and no sacrament over the altar. Bonner called Brygott a heretic and struck at him but inadvertantly hit Sir Thomas Joscelyn, a knight in his retinue instead (1570, pp. 1645-46; 1576, pp. 1403-40 (recte 1404); 1583, p. 1474). Bonner's rage against Brygott may be partially explained by by a sense that the latter was displaying ingratitude despite the bishop's continued patronage of Brygott.

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Foxe refers to Brygott as 'Bricket'.

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Fulk Dutton

(d. 1558)

Mayor of Chester (1555) [VCH, Cheshire, V, I, p. 63]

Fulk Dutton ridiculed a rood erected by the citizens of the nearby village of Crockerham (1570, p. 1646; 1576, p.1440 [recte 1404]; 1583, pp. 1474-75).

He is described by Foxe as 'an olde favourer of the gospel'. Dutton supplied George Marsh with meat and drink during his imprisonment in Lancaster castle (1570, p. 1646; 1576, p. 1440 [recte 1404]; 1583, p. 1475).

Dutton was present at George Marsh's trial. 1563, p. 1119; 1570, p. 1736; 1576, p. 1477 [recte 1483]; 1583, p. 1565.

[Foxe calls him the Mayor of Dancaster.]

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John Bale

(1489 - 1563) [DNB]

Foxe states that 'maister Bale, in a certayne treatise hath sufficiently paynted out' Bishop Bonner's visitation articles (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

The reference is to John Bale, A declaration of Edmonde Bonners articles ..... 1554 (London, 1561), STC 1289.

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John Cardmaker

(d. 1555)

Franciscan friar. Vicar of St Bride's, London. Chancellor of Wells. Martyr. [DNB]

In 1554 Cardmaker attempted to flee England with his bishop, William Barlow, but both were arrested and imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, p. 1141; 1570, p. 1749; 1576, p. 1494; 1583, p. 1578.

On 9 November 1554 he was brought before the Star Chamber and then put in the Fleet (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

He was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Ovary's on 28 January 1555. Cardmaker submitted to Gardiner (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Barlow and Cardmaker appeared to be ready to recant. Cardmaker was imprisoned in the Counter in Bread Street where he had a 'Christian and comfortable conference' with Laurence Saunders who had been sent there after being condemned by Gardiner; Saunders persuaded Cardmaker not to recant. Thomas Martin and other catholics urged Cardmaker to recant. 1570, p. 1047; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500; also see 1563, pp. 1141-42; 1570, p. 1750; 1576, pp. 1494-95; 1583, p. 1578.

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Articles presented to Cardmaker by Bishop Bonner on 24 May 1555 and Cardmaker's answers are recorded. 1563, pp. 1142-43; 1570, pp. 1750-51; 1576, p. 1495; 1583, pp. 1578-79.

Foxe records Cardmaker's confession of faith 1563, pp. 1143-1135 [recte 1145].

Beard visited Cardmaker in Newgate a few days before Cardmaker's execution and tried to persuade him to recant; Cardmaker refused. 1570, p. 1754; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1581.

Cardmaker wrote a letter to a friend, denying that he had recanted. 1570, pp. 1753-54; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1581.

Cardmaker was executed on 30 May 1555. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, pp. 1751-52; 1576, pp. 1496-97; 1583, pp. 1579-80.

Stephen Gardiner told John Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Cardmaker sent greetings to John Bradford via the servant of an unnamed gentlewoman. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

When examined by Bonner, John Leafe (who was burned with John Bradford) denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a 'scholer' of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Copy of his submission. [BL Harley 421, fo.39v. Not printed in AM or LM. Gingerly described in 1563, p. 1141 et seq.]

[Alias Taylor.]

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John Cater

One of four members of the jury which acquited Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, and confessed their fault, submitting to the authorities and therefore being exempted from punishment. (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p 1403; 1583, p. 1473). Foxe had earlier characterized those jurors as 'weakelyngs' (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

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Foxe calls this juror 'Master Cater'. Brigden states that his name was John Cater and that he was the governor of a London hospital (Susan Brigden, London and the Reformation (Oxford, 1989), p 554).

'Master Catter' is described, along with 'Master Low' [see Simon Lowe] as mourners at the funeral of Maurice Griffith at St Magnus, London (J. G. Nicholas, ed., The Diary of Henry Machyn, Camden Society Original series 42 (London, 1878), p. 180). This may indicate that Cater came from this parish.

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John Feckenham

(1518? - 1585)

Dean of St Paul's. Last abbot of Westminster. [DNB]

Feckenham was made dean of St Paul's on Midsummer's Day, 1554. 1563, p. 1151; 1570, pp. 1636 and 1760; 1576, pp. 1396 and 1551 [recte 1503]; 1583, pp. 1467 and 1587

He conversed with Thomas Hawkes in June 1554 trying to persuade him to recant. 1563, pp. 1153-54; 1570, p. 1762; 1576, p. 1505; 1583, pp. 1588-89

In the letter exhibited by Bonner about Bartlett Green, reference was made to John Dee and Feckenham. 1563, pp. 1444-45, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, pp. 1721-22, 1583, p. 1828.

Feckenham traveled to Colchester with Bishop Bonner to try to win Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed back to catholicism. 1563, p. 1104; 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

He tried to persuade Hooper to recant after he was condemned on 29 January 1555. The effort was unsuccessful but false rumors spread that Hooper had recanted. 1563, p. 1057; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, p. 1507.

Feckenham was one of those who presided over an examination of Thomas Tomkins on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1461; 1583, p. 1535.

He was one of those who examined first Thomas Causton, and then Thomas Higbed, in Bonner's palace on 8 March 1555. 1563, p. 1105; 1570, p. 1718; 1576, p. 1466; 1583, p. 1540.

He wrote a ballad, Caveat emptor , on the subject of the restoration of monastic lands. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1497; 1583, p. 1559.

Feckenham received a letter from William Paulet. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

He discussed eucharistic doctrine with Bartlett Green. 1563, pp. 1463-64, 1570, pp. 2025-26, 1576, p. 1746, 1583, p. 1854.

Feckenham claimed that Green was converted by Peter Martyr's lectures and that Zwingli, Luther, Oecolampadius and Carolostadius could never agree doctrine. 1563, pp. 1463-64, 1570, pp. 2025-26,, 1576, p. 1746, 1583, p. 1854.

[In a letter that was never delivered] Bartlett Green told John Philpot of his presentment on 17 November before Bonner and two bishops, Master Dean, Roper, Welch, John Harpsfield, and two or three others. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

A letter by the thirteen prisoners reproaching Feckenham for his slander dated Feckenham's sermon as 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

Feckenham spoke up in defence of John Cheke. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

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Mrs. Persons

Married to one Persons, a nephew of Edmund Bonner. When Bishop Bonner visited her husband at Stortford, Hertfordshire, he took great pleasure in her playing at the virginals. Foxe suggests that Bonner's interest in her was lascivious (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

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Nephew of Edmund Bonner. Visited at his home in Stortford, Hertfordshire, by Bonner (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

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Richard Pointer

One of four members of the jury which acquitted Sir Nicholas Throckmorton and confessed their fault, submitted to the authorities and were therefore exempted from punishment (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473). Foxe had earlier characterised these four jurors as 'weakelyngs' (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

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Foxe calls this juror 'Master Poynter'. Susan Brigden gives his name as Richard Pointer and states that he was a draper (Susan Brigden, London and the Reformation (Oxford, 1989), pp. 553-54 and 627).

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Simon Lowe

One of four members of the jury which acquited Sir Nicholas Throckmorton and later confessed their fault, submitted to the authorities and were exempted from punishment (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473). Foxe had earlier characterised these four jurors as 'weakelyngs' (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

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Foxe calls him 'Master Loe'. His name is given as Simon Lowe, and his occupation as Merchant Taylor in C. L. Kingsford, ed. 'Two London Chronicles from the Collections of John Stow' in London Miscellany XII (London, 1910), pp. 35 and 39).

'Master Low' is described with 'Master Catler' [see John Cater] as mourners at Maurice Griffith's funeral at St. Magnus, London (J. G. Nicholas, ed. The Diary of Henry Machyn, Camden Society Original series 42 (London, 1848), p. 180). This may indicate that Lowe came from this parish.

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Sir Thomas Joscelyn

Of Hyde Hall, Hertfordshire and High Roding, Essex (DNB, sub 'Joscelyn, John')

In Bonner's retinue when the Bishop conducted his visitation of Hertfordshire and Essex in 1554. Inadvertently struck by Bonner, who was trying to strike Edmund Brygott, the parson of Much Hadham, Hertfordshire. Jested about Bonner's sanity to Feckenham, who tried to apologise for the Bishop (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403-40 [recte 1404]; 1583, p. 1474).

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Sir Thomas's son John was Matthew Parker's secretary and probably was also one of Foxe's sources for this incident.

Also referred to as Sir Thomas Josselin.

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Thomas Kightely

One of the jurors who refused to convict Sir Nicholas Throckmorton; fined £2,000 in consequence (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

[NB: Foxe calls him 'Master Kyteley' but Susan Brigden gives his name as Thomas Kightely (Susan Brigden, London and the Reformation, (Oxford, 1989), pp. 553-54)].

One of three Throckmorton jurors released from prison on 21 December 1554, after declaring that they could not pay their fines of £220 and paying £40 instead (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 1480; C. L. Kingsford, ed. 'Two London Chronicles from the Collections of John Stow' in Camden Miscellany XII (London, 1910), p. 71).

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William Barlow

(d. 1568)

Bishop of St Asaph (1536). Bishop of St David's (1536 - 1548). Bishop of Bath and Wells (1548 -1553). Bishop of Chichester (1559 - 1568) [DNB]

Robert Ferrar maintained that Barlow had leased Ramsey Island to William Brown. 1563, p. 1091; 1583, p. 1548.

On 9 November 1554 he was brought before Star Chamber, then put in the Fleet (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

Barlow was apprehended with Cardmaker and imprisoned at the beginning of Mary's reign. Examined by Stephen Gardiner in January 1555, he appeared to be ready to recant. Barlow was 'delivered' from the Fleet and went into exile. 1563, p. 1141; 1570, p. 1750; 1576, p. 1494; 1583, p. 1578.

[NB: Although Foxe cleverly words his account to avoid acknowledging this, Barlow was released from prison after recanting. He then fled into exile (DNB)].

Stephen Gardiner told John Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Henry VIII appointed Richard Stokesley (Bishop of London), Stephen Gardiner (Bishop of Winchester), Richard Sampson (Bishop of Chichester), William Repps (Bishop of Norwich), Thomas Goodrich (Bishop of Ely), Hugh Latimer (Bishop of Worcester), Nicholas Shaxton (Bishop of Salisbury) and William Barlow (Bishop of St David's) to compose a book of ecclesiastical institutions called the Bishops' Book. 1563, p. 1472.

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Katherine Brandon and her husband devised with Barlow, former bishop of Chichester, to travel with him to the Continent to avoid persecution under Mary. 1570, p. 2286, 1576, p. 1972, 1583, p. 2078.

Foxe refers to his installation as bishop of Chichester after Elizabeth's accession. 1583, p. 2128.

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William Beswick

One of the jurors who acquitted Sir Nicholas Throckmorton; also one of four members of this jury who confessed their fault and submitted themselves to the government and were therefore exempted from punishment. (1570, p. 1675; 1576, p 1403; 1583, p. 1474). Foxe had earlier characterized these four as 'weakelyngs' (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

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Foxe calls him 'Master Beswicke' but Susan Brigden gives his name as William Beswick (Susan Brigden, London and the Reformation (Oxford, 1989), p. 554).

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William Somers

(d. 1560)

See DNB, sub 'Summers, William'.

Henry VIII's fool.

Referred to 1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1440 [recte 1404]; 1583, p. 1474.

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Cockerham, Lancashire
NGR: SD 465 525

Parish in the Hundred of Lonsdale, south of the Sands and six miles south of Lancaster. A discharged vicarage in the archdeaconry of Richmond, diocese of Chester.

Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

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Dancaster [Doncaster]
NGR: SE 575 024

A parish comprising the borough and market town of Doncaster, which has separate jurisdiction, the townships of Balby with Hexthorpe and Long Sandal with Wheatley in the Soke of Doncaster, and the township of Langthwaite with Tilts in the northern division of the wapentake of Strafforth with Tickhill, west Riding of the County of York. 37 miles south by west from York. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry and diocese of York, and the patronage of the Archbishop of York.

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Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

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Hadham Hall

Little Hadham, near Bishop's Stortford


OS grid ref: TL 455 225

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Sterford [Herts]
NGR: TQ 595 795

Stifford. Parish in the Hundred of Chafford, Essex. 1.75 miles north-by-west from Grays Thurrock. A rectory in the archdeaconry of Essex, diocese of London.

Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

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NGR: NGR: TL 365 144

Market town and parish in the hundred of Broughton, county of Hertford. 2.75 miles east north east from Hertford, 21 miles north from London. The living is a vicarage with that of Thundridge annexed, in the Archdeaconry of Middlesex, diocese of London; in the patronage of the Master and fellows of trinity College, Cambridge.

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Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

1498 [1474]

Queene Mary. Boner in his visitation. Setting vp of Roodes by Boners commaundement.

before at Bruxelles, and it was thought: they were sent to accompany and conducte him into England, where at that time MarginaliaCardinall Poole nominated Archbishop of Cant.he was nominated and appoynted Byshoppe of Caunterbury.

MarginaliaAnno 1554. AprillVpon the Friday folowing the 9. of Nouember Mayster Barlow late Byshop of Bathe, and M. Cardmaker were brought before the counsell in the Starre Chamber, where after communication they were commaūded to the Fleete.

MarginaliaNouem. 10.Vpon the Saterday being the tenth of Nouember, the Sheriffes of London had commaūdement to take an inuētory of euery one of theyr gooods which were of M. Throgmortons quest, & to seale vp theyr doores, which was done the same day. M. Whetstone, maister Lucas, and Mayster Kyteley, were iudged to pay 2000. pounds a piece and the rest 1000. Markes a piece, to be payd within one fortnight after. From this payment were exempted those 4. whiche confessed a fault and submitted themselues whose names are these, M. Loe, M. Poynter, M. Beswicke, and M. Cater.

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MarginaliaB. Boner goeth in his visitation.Mention was made a little before of the visitation of Ed. Boner bishop of Londō, 

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Foxe continues with anecdotes of Bonner's 1554 visitation of his diocese, also added in the 1570 edition (1570, pp. 1645-46; 1576, pp. 1403-1440 [recte 1404]; 1583, p. 1474). The purpose of these anecdotes was the assassination of Bonner's character. Foxe unsubtly implied that Bonner lusted after his nephew"s wife and behaved improperly with her (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474). Most of the narrative, however, is devoted to describing Bonner's choleric temper; this is the first of a number of anecdotes scattered throughout the Acts and Monuments relating Bonner's rages. As is often the case, however, in Foxe's anecdotes about Bonner, if one reads between the lines, one sees that Bonner's anger was not groundless. The bishop clearly suspected the religious allegiance of the parson of Hadham (probably rightly so, since the rood was not erected and there was no sacrament above the altar) and this, combined with the lack of greeting for Bonner, would have looked like open defiance. It should also be remembered that Bonner was in prison when Foxe heard this story and it probably lost nothing in the telling.

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That Foxe was drawing on oral sources for his narrative of Bonner's visitation is indicated by his statement that the incidents were: 'Testified by such as there and then were present, Rich. K. etc' (1570, p. 1646; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474). Who 'Rich. K.' and the others were may be impossible to determine, but the Sir Thomas Joscelyn who derided Bonner's temper was the father of John Joscelyn, Matthew Parker's secretary. I suspect that Foxe learned of the incident, and the names of witnesses to it, from John Joscelyn. In Foxe's papers (Harley 421, fol. 1r-v) is an incomplete, eyewitness account of a disastrous sermon given by Dr. Henry Bird (Bonner's suffragan and vicar of Dunmow, Essex), preached before Bonner during the same visitation. (In fact, the records of Bonner's visitation show that he visited Dunmow on Friday 12 October immediately before visiting Hadham (Guildhall MS 9537/1, fol. 46v)). It therefore seems probable that the story of Bird's sermon came from the same informant(s) as the story of Bonner striking Joscelyn; Foxe printed the latter but did not print the former which remained in his papers.

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whiche began (as is sayd) about the moneth of September: for the better preparation whereof were set forth certayne Articles to the number of 37. 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 562, line 21

These articles are in the Bonner Register, folios 365-370: whence they are printed by Wilkins.

Which articles partly for the tediousnes of them, partly for that maister Bale in a certayne treatise 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 562, fn 1

This book is entitled "A Declaration of Edmonde Bonner's Articles concerning the Cleargye of London Diocese, whereby that execrable Antichriste is, in his righte colours, reueled." London, 1554. - ED.

hath sufficiently paynted out the same in theyr coulours, partly also, because I will not infect this booke with them, I slippe them ouer, proceeding in the progresse of this bishop in his visitation in the Countye of Essex. Who passing through the sayde Countye of Essex being attended with diuers worshipfull of the shyre (for so they were commaunded) ariued at Sterford in Hertfordshyre where hee rested certayne dayes, MarginaliaB. Boners behauiour at Sterford.solacing himselfe after that paynefull peregrination with no small feasting and banqueting with his attendants aforesayd, at the house of one Persons his Nephew whose wife he commonly called his fayre Niece (and fayre she was in deede) he tooke there great pleasure to heare her play vpō the Virginals (wherin she excelled) in so much þt euery dinner (sitting by his sweete side) she rose and played three seuerall times at his request of his good and spirituall deuotiō towards her. These certeine daies thus passed in this bishoplike fashion, he proceded in his popish visitation towards Hadham his owne house and parish, not past two myles from Sterford, being there most solemnly rong out, as in all other places wheras he passed. MarginaliaBoners behauiour at Hadham.At lēgth drawing nere vnto Hadham, when he heard no bels there styrring in honor of his holines, he grew into some choler & the nearer he approched the hotter was his fit, & the quieter the bels were, the vnquieter was his moode. MarginaliaBoner in a pelting chafe.Thus rode he on chafing and fuming with himselfe. What meaneth (sayth he ) that knaue the Clarke, that he ringeth not, and the parson that he meeteth me not? with sundry other furious words of fiery element. There this patient prelate comming to the towne, alighted, calling for the key of the Church, which was then all vnready, for that (as they thē pretended) he had preuēted his time by two houres, whervpon he grew frō coler to plaine melancholy, so as no man willingly would deale with him to qualify the raging humor so farre incorporated in his brest. At last the Churchdoore being opened, the Byshop entred, and finding no sacrament hanged vp, nor roode loft decked after the Popysh precept (which hade commaunded about the same tyme a well fauoured Roode, and of able stature vniuersally in all Churches to be set vp) curtalled his small deuotions, and fell from al coler and melancholy to flat madnes in the vppermost degree, swearing and raging with an huntynge othe or two, and by no beggers, that in his owne Churche where he hoped to haue sene best order, he foūd most disorder (to his honors most heauy discomfort, as he sayde) calling the Parsō (whose name was Doctor Bricket) 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 563, line 12

This Dr. Bricket had given evidence on Gardiner's trial.

MarginaliaD. Bricket Parson of Hadham called knaue of Boner.knaue, and hereticke. Who there humbled himselfe and yelded as it were, to his fault, saying he was sory his Lordship was come before that he and his parish looked for him: and therfore could not do theyr dueties to receiue him accordingly: & as for those thinges lacking, he trusted, a short time hereafter should cōpasse that, which hitherto he could not bring about. Therefore if it pleased his Lordship to come to hys poore house (where his dynner was prepared) he woulde satisfy him in those thinges, which his Lordship thought amisse. Yet thys so reasonable an aunsweare, nothyng could satisfy nor asswage his passion vnreasonable. For the Catholicke Prelate vtterly defied him and his chere, commaunding him out of his sighte saying: (as hys by worde was) before God thou art a knaue, auant hereticke, MarginaliaB. Boner striketh him that standeth next.and therwithal, whether thrusting or striking at him, so it was that with his hand he gaue syr Thomas Iosselin Knight

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(who was then amongest the rest, & stood next the bishop) a good flewet vpon the vpper part of the neck, euen vnder his eare (as some say which stood by) but as he himself said he hit him full vpon the eare: MarginaliaSyr Thomas Iosselyn stroken of Boner.wherat he was somewhat astonied at the sodennes of the quarrell for that time. At last, he spake and said, what meaneth your Lordship? haue you bene trayned in Will Somers scole, 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 563, line 31

William Sommers, or Sommer, was a buffoon or jester in Henry VIII's time. Ascham mentions a practice of his, here alluded to by Jocelyn: "They be not much unlike in this pointe to Wyll Sommers, the kinges foole, which smiteth him that standeth alwayes before his face, be he never so worshipfull a man, and never greatlye lokes for him which lurkes behinde an other man's backe, that hurte him in deede." (Ascham's Toxoph. p. 43.) See more in Nares's Glossary.

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to strike him who stādeth next you? The Bishop still in rage either heard not, or would not heare.

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Then M. Fecknam Deane of Paules seing the bishop stil in this bitter rage, said: MarginaliaFecknam excuseth B. Boner by the Marshalsey.O M. Iosselin, you must beare with my lord: for truly his long imprisonment in the marshalsey, and the misusing of him there hath altered hym, þt in these passions he is not ruler of himselfe, nor it booteth any man to geue him counsell vntill his heat be past, & then assure your selfe M. Iosselin my lord will be sory for those abuses that now he cānot see in himselfe. Wherunto he merily replied and sayd: MarginaliaSyr Tho. Iosselyns Apothegma touching B. it seemeth Maister Fecknam, for now that he is come forth of the marshalsey, he is ready to go to Bedlem. At which mery conciepte some laughed and moe smiled because the nayle was so truely hitte vpon the head. The Bishop nothing abashed at his own folly, gaue a deafe eare, as no maruell it was that hee shamed little to strike a straunger, which spared not the burning of so many good men.

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After this worthy combate thus finished and atchiued, this marshiall Prelate presently taketh him to his horse agayne (notwithstanding he was minded to tary at Hadhā 3. or 4. daies, and so had made prouisiō in his owne house) and leauing his dinner rode that night with a small company of his householde to Ware (where he was not looked for 3. dayes after) to the great wonder of all the countrey why he so preuented his day afore stalled.

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At this hasty posting away of this Bishop, his whole trayne of attendants there left him. Also his Doctors and chaplaines (a few excepted) taryed behind, and dined at D. Brickets as merily as he rode towards Ware all chafingly: which diner was prepared for the bishop himself. Now whether the Bishoppe were offended at those solemnities which he wanted and was accustomed to be saluted withall in other places where he iornied, ioyning to þt his great God was not exalted aboue ground ouer þe aultar, nor his blocke almighty set seemely in the roode loft to entertayne straungers, and therupō took occasion to quarrell with D. Bricket (whose religion percase he somewhat suspected) I haue not perfectly to say, but so it was supposed of diuers the cause therof to rise, MarginaliaB. Boner driuē from a good dinner.which draue the bishop so hastily frō such a dinner. Testified by such as there and thē were present, Rich. K. &c.

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¶ A story of a Roode set vp in Lankashyre. 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 31: The Lancashire Rood

The story of the ill-fated erection of a rood in Cockerham, Lancashire, was also added to the 1570 edition (1570, p. 1646; 1576, p. 1440 [recte 1404]; 1583, pp. 1474-75). This story came to Foxe from an individual anonymous informant, whose account survives in the martyrologist's papers (ECL 260, fols. 96r-97v). Foxe reproduced this account fairly faithfully, although he abridged it slightly.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
The Lancashire Rood

The glosses encourage the reader's sympathies in a protestant direction. The phrase 'theyr Roode' emphasises the human institution of the rood as object and devotional focus, recalling the earlier reference to the rood as Bonner's God. At one level critical of popish religion as appealing to the immature instincts of the people a literal (mis)reading is permitted: the rood as a rood (not only a badly made one) drove children away. The fact that the Gloss, with its implication that the roodmaker may have deliberately spoiled his work on reformed principles, was dropped after 1570 perhaps provides an example of the kind of unsubstantiated claim Foxe came to regret and exclude.

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MarginaliaA story of a Roode set vp in Lankeishire.In this Visitation of Bishop Boner aboue mentioned, ye see how the bishop tooke on for not setting vp the Roode and ringing the bels at Hadham. Ye heard also of the precept, which commaūded in euery parish a Rood to be erected both well fauoured and of an hable stature. By the occasion whereof, it commeth in mind (and not out of place) to storye likewise what happened in a certayne Towne in Lankashyre nere to Lancaster called Cockram, where the Parishioners & Churchwardens hauing the same time a like charge for the erecting of a rood in theyr parish church had made theyr bargayn and were at a price with one that could cunningly karue & paynt such idols, for the framyng of theyr Roode: who according to his promise, made them one, & set it vp in theyr Church. This done, he demaunded his mony. MarginaliaThe men of Cockram not pleased with theyr Roode.But they misliking his workemanship, refused to pay him, whereupon he arrested them, and the matter was brought before the Maior of Dancaster, who was a very meet man for such a purpose, and an olde fauourer of the Gospell, which is rare in that country. Then the karuer began to declare how they had couenaunted with him for the making of a Rood, with the appurtenaunces ready karued and set vp in theyr Churche, which he according to his promise had done and nowe demaunding his money they refused to pay him. Is this true, quoth the Maior to the Wardens? Yea Syr, sayd they. And why do ye not pay the poore man his due, quoth he? And it please you Mayster Maior (quoth they) because the Roode wee had before was a welfauored man, and he promised to make vs such an other: but this that he hath set vs vp now, is þe worst fauored thing that euer you set your eies on, gaping & grinning in such sort that MarginaliaThe Roode of Cockram driuing the childrē out of the Church.none of our Children dare once looke him in the face or come nere him. The maior thinking that it was good enough for þt purpose if it had bene worsse, my maisters (quoth he) howsoeuer the rood like you, the poore mans labor hath bene neuer the lesse, and it is pity that he

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