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Julius III

Pope (1550 - 1555)

Born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte

Received a letter dated 30 November 1554 from King Philip of England announcing the restoration of Catholicism to England (1563, pp. 1011-12; 1570, p. 1650; 1576, pp. 1407-8; 1583, p. 1478).

Received a letter from Cardinal Pole, dated 30 November 1554, announcing the restoration of Catholicism to England (1563, pp. 1012-13 [in Latin, only in this edition]; pp. 1013-14; 1570, pp. 1650-51; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, pp. 1478-79).

Received a message from Parliament asking him to confirm the purchasers of monastic lands and chantry lands in their current ownership (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

Reconciled England to Rome and absolved the English (1563, pp. 1083-84; 1570, p. 1707; 1576, p. 1457;1583, p. 1531).

Issued a bull excommunicating anyone who retained monastic lands or Church property (1570, p. 1729;1576, p. 1477; 1583, pp. 1559-60).

Permitted homosexuality in the papal court (1563, p. 1117; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

Proclaimed a jubilee, presided over the Council of Trent and sponsored the shrine of Our Lady ofLoretto (1563, p. 1117; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

Foxe relates anecdotes concerning his gluttony (1563, pp. 1117-18; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583,p. 1560).

Stephen Gardiner issued instructions for Julius's funeral in April 1555 (1563, p. 1118; 1570, p. 1730;1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

A London woman was imprisoned for refusing to pray for Julius III at his funeral ceremonies (1563, p.1118; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

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Reginald Pole

(1500 - 1558)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1555 - 1558) and cardinal. [DNB] Papal legate (1554 - 1557) [Hillerbrand, Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation; T. F. Mayer, Reginald Pole, Prince and Prophet (2000)]

On 7 November 1554, two ambassadors were sent abroad. The rumour was that they were sent to escort Pole to England (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

Pole landed at Dover on 21 November 1554 and on the same day an act was passed in parliament repealing the act of attainder passed against him in Henry VIII's reign (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475; cf. the account of this in 1563, p. 1008). Another notice of the act of attainder against Pole being repealed (1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1481).

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Pole arrived at Lambeth on 24 November 1554 (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475).

He arrived at parliament on 27 November 1554 and made an oration there, praising England's previous catholic fidelity, deploring the reformation and extolling papal power (1563, pp. 1008-10; 1570, pp. 1647-49; 1576, pp. 1405-7; 1583, pp. 1476-78).

He pronounced a papal absolution in parliament on 28 November 1554 (1563, pp. 1010-11; 1570, p. 1649; 1576, p. 1407; 1583, pp. 1477-78).

Reginald Pole sent a letter to Pope Julius III on 30 November 1554 announcing the restoration of catholicism in England. 1563, pp. 1013-14 [in Latin, only in this edition, pp. 1012-13] ; 1570, pp. 1650-51; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, pp. 1478-79; also see 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

He was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 2 December 1554 (1563, p. 1018; 1570, p. 1651; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

He absolved convocation on 6 December 1554 for their perjuries, heresies and schisms (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

As legate to Julius III, Pole reconciled England to Rome and absolved the English. 1563, pp. 1083-84; 1570, p. 1707; 1576, p. 1457; 1583, p. 1531.

In an attempt to reinstate catholicism at the University of Cambridge, a commission under the direction of Cardinal Pole ordered the condemning and burning of the bones and books of Phagius and Martin Bucer. Members of the commission were Cuthbert Scott, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole. Ormanet was chosen because he had the trust of Pope Julius III. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

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Thomas Causton appealed his conviction to Pole. 1563, p. 1107; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1541.

Robert Ferrar appealed his conviction to Pole. 1563, p. 1099; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

The examination of Ridley and Latimer by White (Lincoln) and Brookes (Gloucester) was held on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from 'Cardinall Poole'. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

William Stannard, Thomas Freeman and William Adams were condemned to be burned 13 June 1556 but Cardinal Pole sent dispensation for their lives. 1563, pp. 1525-26, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1798, 1583, p. 1916.

Pole chose Cuthbert Scot, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole to be a persecutors of the University of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1537, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.

Peter Martyr's wife was reburied in Richard Marshall's dunghill after Cardinal Pole ordered him to oversee the exhumation of her body. 1563, p1559., 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

Reginald Pole died the day after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2298, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

[Not related to David Pole.]

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Sir Henry Knyvet

In his Paul's Cross sermon of 2 December 1554, Stephen Gardiner stated that he and ‘M. Knevet' were sent as ambassadors to the Holy Roman Emperor (1563, p. 1019; 1570, p. 1651; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

In 1541, Gardiner and Sir Henry Knyvet had been sent as ambassadors to the Diet of Regensburg and Kynvet stayed on as ambassador to Charles V. Towards the end of April 1554, Henry VIII instructed Gardiner and Knyvet to ask Charles to arbitrate between England and the papacy as Gardiner describes in his sermon (Glyn Redworth, In defence of the Church Catholic (Oxford, 1990), pp. 130, 137-38 and 149).

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Sir Nicholas Throckmorton

(1515 - 1571)

[DNB] [Also Bindoff, Commons; Hasler, Commons]

Sir Nicholas Throckmorton was sent to the Tower on 22 February 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

He was brought to the Guildhall on 17 April 1554 and arraigned for treason. He defended himself so well, challenging the legality of the laws under which he was being prosecuted as well as arguing his innocence of any wrong doing, that the jury cleared him (1563, p. 1001; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1649).

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Eight members of the jury that acquitted Throckmorton refused to admit wrong doing and were sentenced by Star Chamber to pay 1000 marks apiece and were imprisoned (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

Three members of the jury that acquitted him, Whetstone, Lucar and Kightely, were ordered to pay fines of £2,000 each, another five were ordered to pay fines of a thousand marks each and four others, who confessed their fault and asked pardon, were exempted from any fines (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

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On 12 December 1554, five of the eight defiant jurors were released from prison after paying fines of £220 each. On 21 December the remaining three jurors were released from prison after declaring that they could not pay the fines and paid £40 each instead (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 1480).

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Throckmorton was released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

[Also referred to as 'Sir Nicholas Throgmorton' or 'Throgmerton']

1503 [4179]

Queene Mary. A somme of the Bishop of Winchesters Sermon at Paules Crosse.

MarginaliaAnno 1554. Nouember. cumspice & vide collectos filios tuos ab oriente sole usq; in occidētem, verbo sancto gaudentem. That is: Put of the stoole of sorow and vexation and put on comlinesse, whiche thou hast of God in euerlasting glory. For thy name shall be named of God euerlasting, peace of righteousnes, and honor of godlines: & then it shall be sayd: looke about and see thy sonnes gathered together from the sonne rising to the going downe of the same, reioysing in the holy worde. There is nothing truely (to speake of thy children gathered together in the West, which prepare thēselues to meet theyr mother) which they had rather see, thē her apparelled (that I may vse the wordes of the prophet) in that garment of righteousnes, wherwith God adorned her in times past. This one thing remayneth, that your holines ioy, and the ioy of all the vniuersall Church maye be perfited, which together with vs her vnworthy children, ceaseth not to pray to God for it. The almighty God preserue your holines long to continue in health, for the profite of his church. Frō London the last of Nouember. 1554.

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Your most humble seruaunt Re-
ginald Poole Cardinall.  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 574, note 4

Raynaldi has printed this letter, with the omission however of the sentences from "of the which" down to "in times past." Annales ad an. 1554, ¶ 16.


Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555

As occurs with other sections of text containing the words of the catholic enemy, these glosses contest and subvert the text. Thus Gardiner's 'dreaming' sermon is mocked with the implication that it is ungrounded in reason and a product of fancy. There are also examples of reworked points from the text. The finishing of Gardiner's Latin sentence in a derogatory way is unusually stark and unfounded in its criticism. The ongoing campaign to deride failed catholic prophecies continues .

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Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 575 - 77

{Cattley/Pratt here inserts a section entitled, 'A Lamentable Example of Cruelty showed upon John Bolton...', taken from Edition 1563, p. 1017.}
Addenda:See a letter of Moyer, somewhat correcting and explaining Bolton's statements, in Strype's Memorials, vol. vii. p. 278, Edit. 1816, No. 58.

Vpon the Sonday folowing, being MarginaliaDecember 2.the 2. of December the Byshop of Wynchester Lorde Chauncellour of England preached at Paules Crosse, MarginaliaA Sermon of Steuen Gardiner preached at Paules whiche Sermon was present the King and Cardinall Poole. Hee tooke for hys Theame this parte of the Epistle of S. Paule to the Komaynes the 13. chap. This also we know the season (brethren) that we should now awake out of sleep, for now is our saluation nearer, then when we beleued &c.

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Some notes whereof as they came to my hands faithfully gathered (as it appeareth by sundry copyes) I haue here thought good to set forth. 

Commentary  *  Close
Block 35: From Gardiner's Cross sermon to 1555

Even his almost innumerable enemies conceded Stephen Gardiner's mastery of rhetoric and the Paul's Cross sermon of 2 December 1554 was one of his masterpieces. The impact of the sermon is indicated by its rapid dissemination. A detailed précis of this sermon appears in John Elder, A copie of a letter sente unto Scotlande (London, 1556), STC 7552, sigs. E6r-F1r, and the sermon was also translated into Latin: Concio reveren. Stephani episcopi Wintonien. Angliae cancellari, habita domenica prima adventus, praesentibus sereniss. rege et reverendiss. legato apost. in maxima populi (Rome, 1555). Neither was Foxe's source. Elder does not record many important details in Foxe's version; conversely Foxe does not have details in the Latin translation, especially its discussion of the queen's pregnancy. (Admittedly, this omission could be due to censorship on Foxe's part, although the reason for such censorship is obscure). Most importantly, Foxe states that his version was based on 'Some notes whereof as they came to my hands faithfully gathered (as it appeareth by sundry copyes)' (1563, p. 1018; 1570, p. 1651; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

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MarginaliaA dreaming Sermō of the B. of Winchester.First, he shewed how the saying of S. Paul was verified vpon the gentiles, who had a long time slept in darke ignorance not knowing god: therfore S. Paul (quoth he) to stir vp theyr heauy dulnesse, willed them to wake out of theyr long sleepe, because theyr saluation was nearer then when they beleued. In amplifying this matter, & comparing our times with theyrs: he took occasiō to declare what difference the Iewish Sacramentes had, from those of the Christians, wherein he vsed these wordes:

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Euen as the Sacramentes of the Iewes did declare Christ to come, so doth our sacraments declare Christ to be already come: but Christ to come, and Christ to be come is not al one. For now that he is come, the Iewes sacramēts be done away, and ours only remayne, which declare þt he is already come, & is nearer vs then he was to the fathers of the old law: for they had him but in signes, but we haue him in the Sacrament of the aultar, euen his very bodye. Wherefore nowe also it is time that we awake out of our sleepe, who haue slept, or rather dreamed these xx. yeares past, as shall more easely appere by declaring at large some of the propertyes and effectes of a sleepe or dreame. And first, as men intending to sleep, do separate themselues frō company, and desire to be alone: euen so haue we seperated our selues from the sea Apostolick of Rome, and haue bene alone, no Realme in Christendome like vs.

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MarginaliaWinchester very expert (as it appeareth) in ghostly dreames.Secondly, as in sleep men dreame sometime of killing, sometime of maiming, sometime of drowning, or burning sometime of such beastlinesse as I will not name, but wyll spare your eares: so haue we in this our sleepe, not onely dreamed of beastlines but we haue done it in deede. For in this our sleepe, hath not one brother destroyed an other? Hath not halfe our money bene wiped away at one tyme? Aud agayn those that would defend their conscience, were slayne: and others also otherwise troubled, besides infinite other thinges: which you all know as well as I: whereof I report me to your owne consciences.

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Farther in a mans sleepe all his senses are stopped, so þt he can neither see, smell, nor heare, euen so wheras the ceremonies of the church were instituted to moue and stirre vp our senses, they being taken away, were not our senses (as ye would say) stopped and we fast a sleepe? Moreouer whē a man would gladly sleepe, he will put forth the candle MarginaliaWho putteth out the candell but they which extincte Gods word & forbid the Scriptures that should geue vs light?least peraduenture it may let his sleepe, & awake hym: So of late all such writers as did holde any thing with the Apostolick Sea were condemned, and forbiddē to be read and Images (whiche were Marginalia* They forbid lay mens bookes but you forbid the booke of God.* lay mens bookes) were cast downe and broken.

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The sleep hath continued with vs these xx. yeares, and we all that while without a head. For when King Henry did first take vpon him to be head of the church, it was thē no Church at all. After whose death, King Edward (hauing ouer him Gouernors and Protectours which ruled as them listed) coulde not be head of the Churche but was onely a shadow or signe of a head: and at length it came to passe, that we had no head at all, no, not so much as our 2. Archbishops. For on the one side, the Queene being a wo-

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man could not be head of the Church, and on the other side they both were conuicted of one crime & so deposed. Thus while wee desired to haue a supreame head among vs, it came to passe that we had no head at all. MarginaliaThen belike Christ is no head at all to geue life to his Church, vnlesse the Popes head also be clapt on the Churches shoulders.When the tumult was in the North, in the time of king Henry the 8. (I am sure) the king was determined to haue geuen ouer the supremacy agayne to the Pope: but the houre was not then come, and therefore it went not forward, least some would haue sayd, that he did it for feare.

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After this M. Kneuet, and I were sent Ambassadors vnto the Emperor to desire him that he would be a meane betwene the popes holines and the king, to bring the king to the obedience of the sea of Rome: but the time was neyther yet come. For it might haue bene sayd, that it had bene done for a ciuill pollicy. Agayne, in the beginning of Kyng Edwardes raigne, the matter was mooued, but the tyme was not yet: for it would haue bene sayd that the king (being but a child) had bene bought and solde. Neither in the beginning of the Queenes raigne was the houre come. For it would haue bene sayd that it was done in a tyme of weaknes. Likewise when the king first came, if it had bene done, they might haue sayd it had bene by force & violence. But now euen now, Marginalia* Imo potestas tenebrarum.* hora est, the houre is come, when no thing can be obiected, but that it is the mere mercy and prouidence of God. Nowe hath the Popes holynesse, Pope Iulius the 3. sent vnto vs this most reuerend father, Cardinall Poole, an Ambassadour from his side. MarginaliaSte. Gardiner claweth the Cardinall.What to doe? not to reuēge the iniuries done by vs agaynst his holines: sed benedicere maledicētibus, to geue his benedictiō to those which defamed and persecuted him.

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And that we may be the more meete to receiue the sayd benedictiō, I shall desire you that we may alway acknowledge our selues offēders agaynst his holines. I do not exclude my selfe forth of the number. I will flere cum flentibus, & gaudere cum gaudentibus, MarginaliaNote how the meaning of S. Paules wordes is here applyed.that is: weep with them that weep and reioyce with them which reioyce. And I shall desire you that we may deferre the matter no longer, for now hora est the houre is come. The King and the Queenes Maiesties haue already restored our holy Father the Pope to his supremacy and the three estates assembled in the Parliament representing the whole body of the Realme haue also submitted themselues to his holines, and his successors Marginalia* For euer Winchester a false Prophet.  

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 578, fn 4

{Cattley inserts the previous gloss here ('Note how the meaning of St. Paul's words are here applied,') and adds 'for ever.' He places 'Winchester a false prophet' as a marginal gloss.}

* for euer. Wherefore let not vs any longer stay. And euen as S. Paule sayd to the Corinthians, that he was theyr father, MarginaliaS. Paule though he was the father of many Churches in Christ Iesu: yet was he neuer so arragant to take vpon him to be supreme head of any church but left that soly to Christ, & laboured to bring all vnder may the Pope saye that he is our Father: for we receiued our doctrine first from Rome, therefore he may challenge vs as his owne. We haue all cause to reioyce, for hys holynesse hath sent hither, and preuēted vs before we sought him: such care hath he for vs. Therefore let vs say: Hæc est dies quam fecit Dominus, exultemus & lætemur in ea, Reioyce in this day which is of the Lordes working: that suche a noble man of byrth is come, yea suche a holye Father (I meane my Lord Cardinall Poole) which can speake vnto vs, as vnto brethren, and not as vnto straungers: who hath a long time bene absent. And let vs now awake, whiche so long haue slept, and in our sleepe haue done so much naughtines agaynst the Sacramentes of Christ, denying the blessed Sacrament of the Aultar, and pulled downe the Marginalia* So Ezechias pulled downe the hill Altars, which Manasses afterward did set vp: and yet we commend the doings of Ezechias & disproue the facte of the other.* aultars which thing Luther himselfe would not doe, but rather reproued them that did, examining them of theyr beliefe in Christ.

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This was the summe of this Sermon before his prayers, wherein he prayed, first for the Pope, Pope Iulius the 3. withall his Colledge of Cardinals, the B. of Londō with the rest of that order: then for the king and Queene & the nobility of this Realme, and last for the commons of the same, with the soules departed, lying in the paynes of Purgatory. This ended (the time being late) they beganne in Paules to ring to theyr Euening song, wherby the precher could not be well heard, whiche caused him to make a short end of this clerkly Sermon.

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Commentary  *  Close

No other events for the year 1554 are described in the 1563 edition. In the 1570 edition, accounts were added of events in London and at court during December 1554 (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, pp. 4179 [recte 1479]-1480. These events seem to have come from Foxe's lost chronicle source(s).

About this very time a Poste or Messenger was sent frō the whole Parliament to the Pope, to desire him to cōfirme and establish the sale of Abbey landes and Chauntry landes: 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 579, fn 1

"To establish the sale of abbey-lands." [Strype writes under the year 1555: "Notwithstanding the law that was made in the parliament last year, confirming church lands to the present owners, yet so cautious was sir W. Petre, one of the principal secretaries of state, that he thought it not sure enough to rely upon it, and therefore obtained a bull this year from the pope, for the ratification of the manors and lands, that he had purchased of king Henry VIII., which had formerly belonged to monasteries, &c. This bull is extant in Dugdales' Monasticon, where it is specified, that sir W. Petre was ready to assign and demise the said lands to spiritual uses. The original bull was in the keeping of William Lord Petre (descended from the said secretary) anno 1672." Chap. xxxiv. p. 465.]
Appendix: That this was never done unreservedly, and that members of the church of Rome especially are bound to, and that the bishop of Rome, had he power sufficient, would enforce, a total restitution of secularized church property (so called), see proved, as regards Cardinal Pole, in "A Letter written to Dr. Burnet, giving an account of Cardinal Pole's secret Powers," Lond. 1685, where we read (p. 10): "It is plain by the progress of this matter, that the court of Rome never intended to confirm the abbey-lands; for all that was done by Pool was only an artifice to still men's fears, and to lay the clamour which the apprehension of the return of Popery was raising; that so it might once enter with the less opposition, and then it would be easy to carry all lesser matters, when the great point was once gained, as the saddle goes into the bargain for the horse." Again: "The Pope according to this decree (Canon Law, Causa xii. quæst. 2, ¶ 20) could not confirm the alienations that had been made by Henry; and if he did confirm them, the act must be null in law, and could be no prejudice to the present incumbent or his successor, to claim his right. Therefore pursuant to this the powers given to Pool, authorize him only to indemnify and discharge the possessors of the church-lands for the goods they had embezzled, and for the rents they had received; for it runs in these words (which I have marked in the Breve itself, that you may readily turn to it), And to agree and transact with the possessors of the goods of the Church, for the rents which they have unlawfully received, and for the moveable goods which they have consumed; and for freeing and discharging them for them, they restoring first (if that shall seem expedient to you) the lands themselves that are unduly detained by them. By these powers it is plain, that the Pope only forgave what was past, but stood to the right of the church, as to the restitution of the lands themselves: and that clause - if that shall seem to you expedient - belongs only to the order and point of time; so that the discharging what was past, might have been done by Cardinal Pool before or after restitution, as he pleased; but restitution was still to be made; and he had by these powers no authority to confirm the alienations that had been made by Henry the 8th for the time to come." (pp. 7, 8.)
For later times, "Romanism as it rules in Ireland," vol. ii. pp. 240, 248, will furnish proof that there is no relinquishment of claim, grounded on extracts from the Bullarium of Benedict XIV.

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For the Lordes and the Parliament would graūt nothing in the Popes behalfe before theyr purchases were fully confirmed.  
Commentary  *  Close

When Foxe states that parliament asked the pope 'to Confirme and establish the sale of Abbey landes and Chantry landes,' he means that Parliament asked the pope to confirm the purchasers of such lands in their ownership and not to reclaim them.

Vpon the Thursday folowing, being MarginaliaDecemb. 6.the 6. day of december, and S. Nicholas day, all the whole Conuocation both Bishops and other: were sent for to Lambeth to the Cardinall, MarginaliaThe Chapter of Paules absolued by the Cardinall.who the same day forgaue them all theyr periurations, schismes, and heresies, and they all there kneeled downe and receiued his absolution, and after an exhortation and gratulation for theyr conuersion to the catholicke church made by the Cardinall, they departed.

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MarginaliaDecember 12.Vpon the Wednesday being the 12. of December, fiue of the 8. menne (which lay in the Fleete, that were of M. Throgmortons quest) were discharged and set at libertye

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