Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Edward Saunders

(1506 - 1576) [Bindoff, Commons]

Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench; brother of Laurence Saunders [DNB]

Edward Saunders wrote to Laurence Saunders in prison, seeking to re-convert him to catholicism. 1570, p. 1647; 1576, pp. 1428-29; 1583, p. 1502.

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James Basset

(1526? - 1558)

James Basset is described by Foxe as a darling of Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2094.

Basset wanted to meet with Sir Henry Bedingfield. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2094.

Basset was a conspirator in plots to murder Elizabeth. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2094.

[Son of Honor, Lady Lisle. Married Mary, daughter of William Roper (c. June 1556). Member of Gardiner's household and King Philip's privy chamber (Bindoff).]

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John Glover

(d. 1555)

Gentleman. Elder brother to Robert Glover, the martyr, and brother to William Glover. Of Mancetter, Warwickshire.

Laurence Saunders sent John and Robert Glover a farewell letter on the morning he was burned.1570, p. 1674; 1576, p. 1428; 1583, p. 1502.

John Glover is described by Foxe as a constant professor of the gospel, who was 'exempted' after his death and cast out of the same church. 1563, p. 1277, 1570, p. 1891, 1576, p. 1615, 1583, p. 1714.

He wanted to take the place of his brother, Robert, but others persuaded him to avoid such risks. A search was then made for him late in Mary's reign by the authorities. 1563, p. 1277, 1570, p. 1892, 1576, p. 1615, 1583, p. 1714.

The mayor of Coventry warned John Glover of his impending arrest. 1563, p. 1277, 1570, p. 1892, 1576, p. 1615, 1583, p. 1714.

John Glover escaped being arrested as he was fit enough to flee, although his brother Robert was ill and so was apprehended. 1570, p. 2275, 1576, p. 1964, 1583, p. 2071.

John Glover hid in the woods while the authorities looked for him and examined his wife, Agnes. He died of an ague brought on by hiding in the woods. 1563, p. 1277, 1570, p. 1892, 1576, p. 1620, 1583, p. 1714.

John Careless sent greetings to John Glover in a letter to Augustine Bernher. 1570, pp. 2109-10, 1576, pp. 1820-21.1583, pp. 1927-28.

After his death John Glover was buried in the churchyard but Chancellor Draycot demanded that he be dug up. The priest protested, as Glover had been buried for six weeks and therefore stank, so Draycot insisted that Glover be denounced as damned from the pulpit and then dug up after one year and his bones be thrown over the wall into the highway. This information was given by the parson of the town to Hugh Burrows of Fynden in Derbyshire and to Glover's wife, Agnes, who gave the information to Foxe. 1563, p. 1277, 1570, p. 1892, 1576, p. 1620, 1583, p. 1714.

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John Hooper

(d. 1555)

Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester. Martyr. (DNB)

Foxe recounts Hooper's life and career before becoming a bishop (1563, pp. 1049-50; 1570, pp. 1674-76; 1576, pp. 1429-1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, pp. 1502-3).

Hooper refused to wear vestments at his consecration and was consequently imprisoned. Ultimately he made a qualified submission (1563, pp. 1050-52; 1570, pp. 1676-77; 1576, pp. 1403 [recte 1430]-31; 1583, pp. 1503-5).

Foxe relates his conduct as bishop (1563, pp. 1052-53; 1570, pp. 1677-78; 1576, pp 1431-32; 1583, p. 1505).

Hooper was summoned to London on Mary's accession and imprisoned (1563, pp. 1053-54; 1570, p. 1678; 1576, p. 1432; 1583, p. 1505).

He was ordered to attend the privy council on 22 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 31 August, Hooper appeared before the council and he was committed by them to the Fleet on the next day (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]). (APC IV, p. 337, has Hooper appearing on 1 September and committed to the Fleet the same day).

Foxe gives accounts of Hooper's imprisonment and examinations. 1563, pp. 1055-57; 1570, pp. 1678-80; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, pp. 1506-7.

He was deprived of his bishopric, but he defended the validity of clerical marriage at his deprivation (1563, pp. 1054-55; 1570, pp. 1678-79; 1576, pp. 1432-33; 1583, p. 1403 [recte 1430]).

Hooper was rumored to have recanted after he was condemned; he wrote denying this. 1563, p. 1057; 1570, pp. 1680-81; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, pp. 1507-8.

Foxe records his degradation, journey to Gloucester and execution. 1563, pp. 1057-62 and 1064; 1570, pp. 1681-86; 1576, pp. 1434-39; 1583, pp. 1508-12.

Hooper was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His letters: 1563, pp. 1062-63; 1570, pp. 1686-93; 1576, pp. 1439-45; 1583, pp. 1512-18.

Hooper was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

On 3 January 1555, a letter was sent to Hooper informing him of the arrest of Thomas Rose's congregation at the churchyard of St. Mary-le-Bow on 1 January 1555 (1563, p. 1020).

Hooper wrote an answer to this letter (1563, p. 1020; 1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1482).

Hooper also sent a letter of encouragement to the members of Rose's congregation imprisoned in the Counter in Bread Street (1563, pp. 1021-22; 1570, pp. 1654-55; 1576, pp. 1411-12; 1583, pp. 1482-83).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St. Mary Overy's on 28 January 1554 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley speaks of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, p. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

During his examination, John Hallingdale said that Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley and Hooper were not heretics. 1563, p. 1638, 1570, p. 2222, 1576, p. 1919, 1583, p. 2026.

Hooper's Latin epistle touching matters of religion was sent to Convocation House. 1583, pp. 2135-36.

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Richard Smith

(1500 - 1563)

1st Regius Professor of Divinity (1535 - 1548, 1554 - 1556, 1559 - 1560) (DNB)

According to Foxe, Richard Smith forced Hooper to leave Oxford University because of his evangelical convictions (1563, p. 1049; 1570, p. 1674; 1576, p. 1429; 1583, p. 1502).

Foxe prints a letter of Smith's, written in Edward VI's reign, to Cranmer, in which Smith offered to write in defence of clerical marriage and declared that it would be against his conscience to write against Cranmer's treatise on the Eucharist and the Reformed doctrine of Edward VI (1570, p. 1606; 1576, p. 1370; 1583, p. 1441).

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Richard Smith was appointed as one of the official disputants in the Oxford Disputations of 1554 (1563, p. 932).

According to an account of the Oxford disputation of 1554, which was only printed in 1563, Anthony Smith was appointed to debate with Cranmer on Monday 16 April 1554 (1563, p. 933). Almost certainly Richard Smith was meant.

Cranmer, during his disputation on 16 April 1554, when pressed on alleged inaccuracies in his translations, countered that some translation had appeared in a work of Smith's. Queried about this by Weston, Smith refused to answer (1563, p. 951; 1570, p. 1602; 1576, p. 1367; 1583, p. 1437).

Smith is mentioned in a brief account of the Oxford Disputations, as disputing with Ridley (1563, p. 934; 1570, p. 1606; 1576, p. 1371; 1583, p. 1441).

Richard Smith was Ridley's main opponent during the Disputations; he also debated sporadically with Latimer and participated briefly in Cranmer's debate with John Harpsfield (1563, pp. 932-34, 958-59, 963-67, 974-75, 978, 981-85 and 988; 1570, pp. 1606, 1612-15, 1617, 1620-22, 1624-27 and 1629; 1576, pp. 1372, 1375-78, 1380, 1382-84 and 1386-88; 1583, pp. 1442-43, 1446-48, 1450-54, 1456-58 and 1461).

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He was one of those who examined Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed on 18 February 1555 (1563, p. 1104). He volunteered to rebut the joint confession of Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed, but Bonner would not let him speak, ordering John Harpsfield to answer them instead (1563, p. 1107; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1541).

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Robert Glover

(d. 1555)

Martyr. Of Baxterley, Warwickshire; lived in Mancetter, Warwickshire. Married a niece of Latimer's. [DNB]

Laurence Saunders sent John and Robert Glover a farewell letter on the morning Saunders was burned. 1570, p. 1674; 1576, p. 1428; 1583, p. 1502.

Robert Glover was too ill to avoid being apprehended. 1563, p. 1773, 1570, p. 2275, 1576, p. 1964, 1583, p. 2071.

Robert Glover wrote a letter to his wife. 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, pp. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

In the letter to his wife, Glover stated that he was examined before bishop of Gloucester in Denton's house . 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, pp. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

In the letter to his wife, Glover stated that he spoke with the sheriff [John Parker or Richard Hawtrey] before he was imprisoned. 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, pp. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

In the letter to his wife, Glover stated that, while he was imprisoned, Hopkins and Dudley spoke to Glover about liberty of conscience. 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, pp. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

In the letter to his wife, Glover stated that William Brasburge, Katherine Phines and Nicholas Hopkins visited him in prison.1563, p. 1276, 1570, p. 1887, 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1711.

Glover wrote a letter to to the mayor of Coventry. 1563, p. 1280, 1570, p. 1889, 1576, p. 1615, 1583, p. 1712.

Glover believed that when the bishop of Lichfield and Coventry and the chancellor had read his letter to the mayor of Coventry they had decided to try to do away with Glover while he was in prison. 1570, p. 1888, 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

He was sent to Lichfield and received by Telphcot, the chancellor's man sent from Coventry. 1570, p. 1889, 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

Telphcot and the bishop's servant, named Persey, were cruel to Glover. Persey became his jailor. 1570, p. 1889, 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

The chancellor and a prebendary named Temsey visited him in prison. 1570, p. 1889, 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

Telphcot and the jailor spoke to Glover in prison. 1563, p. 1281, 1570, p. 1889., 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

The chancellor and Temsey visited Glover and urged him to repent. 1563, p. 1281, 1570, p. 1889., 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

Robert Glover was examined and condemned by Draycot and Bayne. 1563, p. 1281, 1570, p. 1889., 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

Robert Glover was burned at Coventry with Cornelius Bungey on 19 September 1555. 1563, pp. 1278, 1282, 1570, p. 1891, 1576, p. 1619, 1583, p. 1713.

Information of Robert Glover's death was given to Foxe by Augustine Bernher. 1570, p. 1890, 1576, p. 1619, 1583, p. 1713.

He wrote a letter to his wife [BL, Harley Ms. 416, fos.8r-13r. Printed in 1563, pp. 1273-77 et seq.].

[Brother of John Glover.]

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Thomas Arundell

(d. 1552)

Sheriff of Dorset. Alleged conspirator, second son of Sir John Arundell, knight-banneret of Lanherne [DNB]

John Hooper became steward in Arundell's household after leaving Oxford. Sir Thomas, learning of Hooper's heretical opinions, sent him to Stephen Gardiner but with instructions that Hooper was to be returned to Sir Thomas's household. 1570, p. 1674; 1576, p. 1429; 1583, pp. 1502-03.

1526 [1502]

Queene Mary. Letters of Iustice Saunders to his brother. The story of B. Hooper.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. February.thou hast the wordes of euerlasting life. This comfort haue I when the geuer thereof doth geue it. But I looke for battels with the roote of vnfaythfulnes, the which I feele in me, will most egerly geue vnto my conscience, when wee come once to the combate. We be (I wene) within the soūd of the triumpe of our enemies. Play ye that be abroade the part of Moyses, Orantes in omni loco, sustollentes puras manus. i. Marginalia1. Tim. 2.Praying in all places, lifting vp pure hands, & Gods people shal preuayle: yea our bloud shalbe theyr perditiō who do most triumphantly spill it, & we then being in the handes of our God, shall shine in his kingdome, and shal stād in great stedfastnes, agaynst thē which haue dealt extremely with vs: And whē these our enemies shall thus see vs, they shalbe vexed with horrible feare, and shall wonder at the hastines of the sodaine health, and shall say with themselues, hauing inward sorow and mourning for very anguish of minde: These are they whom we sometime had in derision and iested vpon: we fooles thought their liues to be verye madnes, and their end to be without honor; but loe how they are accounted among the childrē of God. MarginaliaSapien. 5. The blessing of God be with you all. &c. 

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Foxe deleted a final paragraph from this letter: cf. Letters of the Martyrs, p. 195.

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Laurence Saunders.

¶ To his wife a litle before his burning. 
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First in Letters of the Martyrs, p. 205.

MarginaliaA letter of Laurence Saunders to his wyfe.GRace and comfort in Christ, Amen. Deare wife be mery in the mercies of our Christ, & ye also my deare frendes. Pray, pray for vs euery body. We be shortly to be dispatched hēce vnto our good Christ. Amen, Amen. MarginaliaHe writeth for his shirte wherein he should be burned.Wife I would you sent me my shyrte which you know wherunto it is cōsecrated. Let it be sowed down on both sides and not open. Oh my heauenly father look vpon my in the face of thy Christ, or els I shall not be able to abide thy countenaunce: such is my filthines. He will do so, and therefore I will not be afrayd what sinne, death, hell, and damnation cā do agaynst me. O Wyfe alwayes remember the Lord. God blesse you, yea he will blesse thee good wyfe & thy poore boy also: onely cleaue thou vnto him, and he will geue thee all thinges. Pray, pray, pray.

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¶ An other letter to M. Robert and Iohn Glouer, 
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There is another letter, which Foxe did not print, from Saunders to Robert and John Glover (Letters of the Martyrs, pp. 206-07). The ties between Saunders and the Glover brothers casts light on the martyrdom of Joyce Lewes. Her road to her martyrdom began with her witnessing Saunders' execution and she would be supported on that journey by her friend and spiritual mentor, John Glover.

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written the same morning that he was burnt. 
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First in Letters of the Martyrs, pp. 207-08.

GRace and consolatiō in our sweet Sauiour Christ, Oh my deare brethren whom I loue in the Lord, being loued of you also in the Lord, be mery & reioyce for me, now ready to go vp to that mine inheritance, which I my selfe in deed am most vnworthy of, but my deare Christ is worthye, who hath purchased the same for me with so deare a price. Make haste my deare brethrē, to come vnto me, that we may be mery, eo gaudio quod nemo tollet a nobis. i. with that ioy which no man shall take from vs. Oh wretched sinner that I am, not thankefull vnto this my Father, who hath vouched me worthy to be a vessell vnto his honor. But O Lorde, nowe accept my thankes, though they proceed out of a not enough circumcised hart. Salute my good Sisters your wiues, & good sisters feare the Lord. Salute all other that loue vs in the trueth. Gods blessing be with you alwayes. Amen. Euen now towards the offering of a burnt sacrifice. O my Christ helpe, or els I perish.

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Laurence Saunders.

¶ After these godly letters of M. Saūders diuersly dispersed and sent abroad to diuers of the faythfull cōgregation of Christ, as is afore to be seene, now in the latter end we will adioyne two other letters writtē not by Mayster Saunders the martyr, but by M. Ed. Saunders the Iustice his brother, sent to this our Saunders in prison, although conteining no great matter worthy to be known, yet to this intent that the reader may see in these two brethren so ioyned in nature, and so deuided in religiō, þt word of the Lord verified, truely saying: brother shalbe agaynst brother. &c. Marginalia Math. by the contentes of these two letters folowing may appeare. 

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Edward Saunders' letters are not in the Letters of the Martyrs, but first appear in 1570. How Foxe acquired them is mysterious; perhaps they came from a member of the Saunders family. These letters must be genuine; Edward Saunders, a staunch catholic, lived until 1576 and he would have had every incentive to impeach the letters if he had grounds for doing so.

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¶ A letter of Iustice Saunders, to his brother Laurence.

MarginaliaA letter of Iustice Saunders to Laurence Saunders his brother.AFter my most harty commendations, these bene to acertaine you that I haue spoken with M. Basset 

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This is James Basset, Laurence Saunders' successor as prebend of Botevant (York). Bassett held the living from 27 April 1554, which indicates that this letter was written between that date and Saunders' execution on 8 February 1555. It was highly unusual for deprived clergy to draw their final year's profits from their livings (Bassett apparently made this point); undoubtedly Edward Saunders' good offices secured generous treatment for his brother.

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, who hath shewed me that 4. pound (all deductions being allowed) is the whole that hath come to his handes of the profite of the Prebēdary at York, the which you shall haue although as he thinketh, it was not due vnto you by the reason of your depriuation: before it was due. As concerning your conscience in Religion, I beseech God it maye be lightened by the holy Ghost, and that you may also haue the grace of the holy Ghost to follow the counsell of Sainct Paule to Timothe. 2 Recte tractare verbum veritatis. That is. To handle rightly the word of truth. Wherein you ar dissenting from many

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holy and Catholicke men, especielly in the Sacramēt, maketh me in my conscience to condemne yours. For althoughe I haue not hitherto fancied to read Peter Martir & other such. &c. yet haue I had great desire to see Theophilact and diuers others of his sort and opinion both notable and holy Fathers MarginaliaIustice sayth. Audi Alteram partem.(if any credit be geuen to the writinges of our auncient fathers before vs) and surely the sentence and iudgementes of two or three of them hath more confirmed my conscience then 300. of the Zuinglians or as many of the Lutherians can or should doe. Thus in haste willing to reliefe you to the end you might conuert, if you shall need towardes your finding, if you shall require it of me, you shall vnfaynedly finde my mony ready, as knoewth our Lord, who send vs al thinges good for vs. Scribled this Thursday by your brother and petitioner to God.

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Ed. Saunders.

¶ An other letter of Iustice Saunders to his brother wherein he seeketh to winne him to Popery.

MarginaliaGreeting with protestation.AS nature and Brotherly loue with godly charity requireth, I send you by these letters (quantum licet) most harty cōmendation, being sory for your fault and your disobedient handlyng of your selfe towardes my Lord Chauncellour, who I assure you, mindeth your good and preseruation, if you can so consider and take it. I would be glad to know whether you haue not had with you of late some learned men to talk with you by my Lord Chaūcellours appoyntment, and howe you can frame your selfe to reforme your errour in the opinion of the moste blessed and our most comfortable Sacrament of the aultar. Wherein I assure you I was neuer in all my life more better affected then I am at thys present, vsing to my great comforte hearing of Masse, MarginaliaHe meaneth peraduenture when the Sanctus is singing for then the Organs pipe merely and that may giue some Comfort.and somewhat before the sacring time, the meditation of S. Barnard, sette forth in the third leafe of this present booke. The accustomable vsing whereof I am fullye professed vnto during my life, and to geue more fayth vnto that confessiō of holy Barnarde, thē to Luther &c. or Latimer. &c. for that the antiquity, the vniuersality of the open church, and the consent of all holy Saynts and Doctors do confirme the same, acertayning you that I haue bene earnestly moued in mine owne cōscience these ten or twelue daies past, and also betweene God and my selfe, to mooue you to the same, most earnestly desiring you, and as you tender my naturall, godly, or frendly loue towardes you, that you would read ouer thys MarginaliaThe meditatiōs of S. Bernard sent by Iustice Saunders to his brother.booke this holy time, at my request, although you haue alreadye seene it, and let me know wherein you cannot satisfy your owne conscience. Thus fare you well for this time.

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By yours, from Seriantes Inne.
Ed. Saunders.

¶ The Life and Martyrdome of Mayster Iohn Hooper Byshop of Worcester and Glocester, 
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Hooper's Martyrdom

There are two striking features about the life and martyrdom of Hooper in the Rerum. The first is how little information Foxe has on the martyr's life before Edward VI's reign. There are only two sentences stating that Hooper studied at Oxford and was forced to flee due to the emnity of Dr Richard Smith and that he stayed in Basel until Edward VI's reign (Rerum, p. 279). Surprisingly neither Bullinger nor Zurich are mentioned. One can only conclude that Bullinger did not supply any information about Hooper while Foxe was in exile. (J. F. Mozley argues that Bullinger supplied Foxe with Hooper's writings which Foxe published in theRerum, [John Foxe, p. 125] but he supplies no evidence for this and, in the light of Bullinger's silence at this time on his friendship with Hooper, this must remain doubtful). Hooper's meteoric rise under Edward VI, his struggle with Cranmer and Ridley over vestments (the Rerum account is markedly more hostile to bishops in general than the Acts and Monuments versions would be), his arrest over this issue and release after a grudging capitulation are all recounted in the Rerum (pp. 279-81). The Rerum also contains the praise of Hooper as a bishop, the detailed description of his arrest and examinations, and the very detailed account of his journey to Gloucester and his execution, which would be reprinted without major changes in all the editions of theActs and Monuments. This is the work of Grindal's team and reflects their editorial priorities: detailed accounts, drawn from eyewitnesses, of the final journeys and deaths of themartyrs are very much a feature of the Rerum. (The accounts of Laurence Saunders and Rowland Taylor provide excellent examples of this).

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The 1563 edition provides little new material. Hooper's marriage is mentioned for the first time, but that is all that is added about his exile. Two interesting documents are added, both concerning the quarrel over vestments in Edward VI's reign: Edward VI's dispensation for Hooper to be ordained as bishop without wearing vestments and Ridley's later letter to Hooper holding out an olive branch on the subject. The first edition also adds an account of Hooper's degradation and a poem by Conrad Gesner memorializing Hooper.

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The 1570 edition saw the inclusion of much new detail on Hooper's early years and his friendship with Heinrich Bullinger. (The farewell to Bullinger and Hooper's prediction of his own martyrdom, now added for the first time, almost certainly came from Bullinger; it is possible that Henry Bull opened the floodgates for this information.) The Earl of Warwick's letter to Cranmer on behalf of Bullinger was also added in this edition. There was no change to this account in the second or third editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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burnt for the defence of the Gospell at Glocester. Anno. 1555. February. 9.


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Material similar to the glosses of the previous section can be found in the margins of this section, although they also perhaps reflect what seems to be Foxe's sense that Hooper was a somewhat grander, more confident figure than Saunders (as in the gloss 'Discretion how ministers and preachers ought to behaue themselues' which comments on Hooper's austere manner, framing the point in terms of the difficulties this presented for those who sought spiritual comfort from Hooper). Thus there are glosses linking catholicism and insanity ('This Morgan shortly after fel into a phrensy, and madnes and dyed of the same') and pointing out the catholic reliance on 'force and extremitie' ('The popes religion standeth onely vpoon force and extremitie'). Hooper endures a somewhat more thoroughgoing examination than Saunders and, as a result, some glosses in this section fulfill a similar function to those found in the Oxford disputations section; thus Foxe takes Hooper's point that the Council of Nice ruled that no minister should be separated from his wife as proving that the Council permitted clerical marriage, a rather wider point ('The coūcel of Nice permitteth Priests mariage'); also 'Gardiner exhorteth M. Hooper to returne to the Popes church', (Gardiner says 'Catholique Church' in the text), 'Queene Mary will shew no mercy but to the Popes friendes' (the text says, 'the Queene would shew no mercy to the Popes enemies'). A repetition of the term 'care' in two glosses ('The diligent care of B. Hooper in his Dioces'; 'The care of M. Hooper in instructing his family') show how the marginalia could be used to make a point with economy and subtlety; in this that there was a profound analogy between Hooper's godly governance of his home and his concern for his pastoral flock, a point which made the catholic opposition to marriage appear all the more destructive and misguided. There are also some glosses which are badly positioned in editions after 1570.

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MarginaliaThe story, life. & Martyrdome of M. Iohn Hooper Martyr.IOHN HOOPER Student and graduate in the vniuersity of Oxford, after the study of other sciēces, wherin he had aboundantly profited and proceeded, through Gods secret vocation was styrred with feruēt desire to the loue & knowledge of the Scriptures. In the reading & seaching whereof, as there lacked in him no diligence, ioyned with earnest prayer: so neyther wanted vnto him the grace of the holy Ghost to satisfy his desire, and to opē vnto him the light of true Diuinity.

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Thus Mayster Hooper growing more and more by Gods grace, in ripenes of spirituall vnderstanding, and shewing withall some sparckles of his feruent spirite being then about the beginning of the 6. Articles, in the time of king Henry the 8. fell eftsoones into displeasure & hatred of certaine Rabbines 

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Foxe is using rabbis as a prejorative term for catholic scholars. It suggests, at least to sixteenth-century Christians, a blind adherance to law and tradition, combined with an emnity to the gospel.

in Oxford, who by and by began to styr coales agaynst him, wherby, and especially by the procurement of Doctour Smith, he was compelled to voyde the Vniuersity,  
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This is extremely unlikely. Hooper apparently left Oxford in 1519 and entered the Cistercian monastery at Cleve, Somerset. One of the commissioners in charge of suppressing Cleve was Sir Thomas Arundel, who visited the house in 1537. David Newcombe suggests that this was when Hooper entered Arundel's service. Newcombe also points out that Hooper was rector of Lidington, Wiltshire, from 1537 to 1550, a living which was in Arundel's gift. (Newcombe, pp. 12-18). Richard Rex has suggested that Hooper was a friar (Rex, p. 47); in the weight of Newcombe's evdence this seems lesslikely, but it still involves Hooper having left Oxford well before Richard Smith's heyday there.

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and so remouing from thence, was retayned in the house of Syr Thomas Arundell, and there was his Steward, till the time that Syr Thomas Arundell hauing intelligence of his opinions & religion, which he in no case did fauor, and yet exceedingly fauouryng the person & conditions of the man, MarginaliaM. Hooper sent to the Bishop of Winchester.found the meanes to send him in a message to the Bishop of Winchester, writing his letter priuily to the bishop, by conference of learning to do some good vpon him, but in any case requiring him to send home his seruaunt to him agayne.

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Winchester after long conference with M. Hooper 4. or 5. dayes together, when he at length perceiued that neither he could do that good, which he thought, to him, nor that he would take any good at his hand, according to M. Arun-

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