Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Reginald Pole

(1500 - 1558)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1555 - 1558) and cardinal. [DNB] Papal legate (1554 - 1557) [Hillerbrand, Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation; T. F. Mayer, Reginald Pole, Prince and Prophet (2000)]

On 7 November 1554, two ambassadors were sent abroad. The rumour was that they were sent to escort Pole to England (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

Pole landed at Dover on 21 November 1554 and on the same day an act was passed in parliament repealing the act of attainder passed against him in Henry VIII's reign (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475; cf. the account of this in 1563, p. 1008). Another notice of the act of attainder against Pole being repealed (1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1481).

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Pole arrived at Lambeth on 24 November 1554 (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475).

He arrived at parliament on 27 November 1554 and made an oration there, praising England's previous catholic fidelity, deploring the reformation and extolling papal power (1563, pp. 1008-10; 1570, pp. 1647-49; 1576, pp. 1405-7; 1583, pp. 1476-78).

He pronounced a papal absolution in parliament on 28 November 1554 (1563, pp. 1010-11; 1570, p. 1649; 1576, p. 1407; 1583, pp. 1477-78).

Reginald Pole sent a letter to Pope Julius III on 30 November 1554 announcing the restoration of catholicism in England. 1563, pp. 1013-14 [in Latin, only in this edition, pp. 1012-13] ; 1570, pp. 1650-51; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, pp. 1478-79; also see 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

He was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 2 December 1554 (1563, p. 1018; 1570, p. 1651; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

He absolved convocation on 6 December 1554 for their perjuries, heresies and schisms (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

As legate to Julius III, Pole reconciled England to Rome and absolved the English. 1563, pp. 1083-84; 1570, p. 1707; 1576, p. 1457; 1583, p. 1531.

In an attempt to reinstate catholicism at the University of Cambridge, a commission under the direction of Cardinal Pole ordered the condemning and burning of the bones and books of Phagius and Martin Bucer. Members of the commission were Cuthbert Scott, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole. Ormanet was chosen because he had the trust of Pope Julius III. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

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Thomas Causton appealed his conviction to Pole. 1563, p. 1107; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1541.

Robert Ferrar appealed his conviction to Pole. 1563, p. 1099; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

The examination of Ridley and Latimer by White (Lincoln) and Brookes (Gloucester) was held on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from 'Cardinall Poole'. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

William Stannard, Thomas Freeman and William Adams were condemned to be burned 13 June 1556 but Cardinal Pole sent dispensation for their lives. 1563, pp. 1525-26, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1798, 1583, p. 1916.

Pole chose Cuthbert Scot, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole to be a persecutors of the University of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1537, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.

Peter Martyr's wife was reburied in Richard Marshall's dunghill after Cardinal Pole ordered him to oversee the exhumation of her body. 1563, p1559., 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

Reginald Pole died the day after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2298, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

[Not related to David Pole.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Richard Gravell

Gravell struck Robert Ferrar on the head, killing him, as the bishop was burning. 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

 
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Richard Jones

(1534? - 1577 or later)

MP (1555, 1559). Second son of Sir Thomas Jones [Bindoff, Commons].

Richard Jones visited Robert Ferrar and commiserated with him over the pain he would suffer while burning. Ferrar told Jones that if he stirred while burning, then Jones should give no credit to Ferrar's doctrines. 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

 
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Thomas Goodrich

(d. 1554)

Bishop of Ely (1534 - 1554) [Fasti] and Lord High Chancellor of England (1552 - 1553) [DNB]. Chaplain to Anne Boleyn. [Fasti]

As a member of the privy council, he signed a letter from the privy council to Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Lady Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

Foxe prints two letters which he claims that Robert Ferrar wrote to Goodrich 1563, pp. 1091-98; 1570, pp. 1725-26; 1576, pp. 1472[recte 1474] -80; 1583, pp. 1552-53 and 1555-56. [NB: See Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), pp. 166-67, for a persuasive argument that these letters were not written to Ferrar.]

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Pygot and Wolsey were visited in prison by a chaplain of Bishop Goodrich, Peter Valentius, who was of French birth and who was almoner there for twenty years prior to his meeting with them. Valentius questioned them on their beliefs. 1570, p. 1893, 1576, p. 1621,1583, p. 1715.

A letter regarding Green's treason was sent to Bonner by privy council on 11 November 1555 but not delivered until 17 November. It was signed by Winchester, Penbroke, Thomas Ely (Goodrich), William Haward, John Bourne, Thomas Wharton. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

Henry VIII appointed Richard Stokesley (bishop of London), Stephen Gardiner (bishop of Winchester), Richard Sampson (bishop of Chichester), William Repps (bishop of Norwich), Thomas Goodrich (bishop of Ely), Hugh Latimer (bishop of Worcester), Nicholas Shaxton (bishop of Salisbury) and William Barlow (bishop of St David's) to compose a book of ecclesiastical institutions called the Bishops' Book. 1563, p. 1472.

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Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1556 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

[Foxe also refers to him as 'Goodricke'.]

1579 [1555]

Queene Mary. Bishop Farrar his Condemnation, Degradation, and constant Martyrdome.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. March.Notary George Constantine, exhibited in a written paper, his mynd & answer to the foresayd Articles, which the Bishop had twise now obiected agaynst hym before. To the which Articles and aunsweres, he dyd so subscribe, addyng these wordes, as tenens se de æquitate & iustitia esse Episcopum Meneuensem, that the Bishop assigned the next Wednesday in the fore noone, to heare his finall and definitiue sentence.

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¶ The last appearance of Bishop Farrar.  
Commentary  *  Close

The accounts of Ferrar's examinations in Carmarthen and the copies of his condemnation and degradation were taken from official records which are now lost. They may well have been sent to Foxe by the person or persons who sent him the records of Ferrar's troubles in Edward VI's reign.

MarginaliaThe last appearaunce and examination of the blessed bishop M. Farrar.THe which day and place the said B. and true seruaunt of God M.Farrer, personally there appearyng, was demanded of Henry the pretensed B. of S. Dauids, whether he would renounce and recant his heresies, schismes, and errours (as hee called them) which hitherto hee had mainteined, and if he would subscribe to the catholike articles, otherwise then he had done before.

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After this the sayd godly M. Farrer did exhibite a certayne schedule written in English, and remayning in the Actes, MarginaliaB. Farrar appealeth from the B. of S. Dauids to the Cardinall. appealyng withall by expresse word of mouth from the Bishop, as from an incompetent Iudge, to Cardinall Poole, &c.

MarginaliaSentence pronounced against B. Farrar.All which notwithstandyng, the sayd B. proceeding in hys rage, pronounced the definitiue sentence agaynst him, conteyned in writyng, and there left in the Actes: by the which sentence he pronounced hym as an heretike excommunicate, & to be geuen vp forthwith to the secular power, namely to the Shiriffe of the towne of Carmarthen, M. Leyson.  

Commentary  *  Close

Notice that in 1563, this is followed by a comment of Ferrar's denouncing vestments. It was probably lost when Foxe replaced the account of Ferrar's execution in 1570.

The tenour of which sentence, as well of hys condemnation, as of his degradation here followeth.

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¶ The sentence of condemnation agaynst Bishop Farrar.  
Commentary  *  Close

The accounts of Ferrar's examinations in Carmarthen and the copies of his condemnation and degradation were taken from official records which are now lost. They may well have been sent to Foxe by the person or persons who sent him the records of Ferrar's troubles in Edward VI's reign.

IN Dei nomine. Amen. Nos Henricus permissione diuina Meneuen. episcopus iudicialiter, & pro tribunali sedentes, in quodam inquisitionis & hæreticæ prauitatis, negotio, contra te Robertum Ferrar præsbyterum, coram nobis in iudicio personaliter comparentem, & nobis super hæretica prauitate traditum, ac fama, & notorietate facti delatum, ac in ea parte legitime procedendo auditis, visis, & intellectis, rimatis, ac matura deliberatione discussis, & ponderatis dicti negotij meritis & circumstantijs, seruatisque in omnibus & per omnia in eodem negotio de iure seruandis, ac quomodolibet requisitis, Christi nomine inuocato, ac ipsum solum deum præ oculis nostris habentes: Quia per acta inactitata, deducta, confessata & ex parte tua coram nobis in eodem negotio, sæpius recognita, asserta, & confirmata, comperimus te, tum per confessions tuas varias, tum per recognitiones tuas iudiciales, coram nobis iudicialiter factas, errores, hæreses, & falsas opiniones subscriptas, iure diuino, ac Catholicæ vniuersalis & Apostolicæ ecclesiæ determinationi obuiantes, contrarias, & repugnantes tenuisse, credidisse, affirmasse, prædicasse, & dogmatizasse infra diœcesem nostram Meneuen. Viz. Quod licet cuicumque religioso etiam expresse professo & præsbytero post susceptam professionem, & post susceptum præsbyteratus ordinem, ducere vxorem, ac cum eadem tanquam cum vxore legitima conuersari. Item sacras religiones ab ecclesia catholica institutas cum scandalo damnasse, & reprobasse. Item, quod in Eucharistia, siue altaris sacramento vna cum corpore & sanguine Christi remanet substantia panis & vini. Item, quod Missa non est sacrificium noui testamēti, propitiatorium pro viuis atque defunctis. Et Sacramentum altaris non esse in altari ministrandum eleuandum, vel aliquo modo adorandum. Item, quod homo sola fide iustificatur. Quos quidem errores, hæreses, & falsas opiniones iure diuino ac Catholicæ vniuersalis & Apostolicæ ecclesiæ determinationi obuiantes, &c.

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¶ Here followeth the copy of his degradation.  
Commentary  *  Close

The accounts of Ferrar's examinations in Carmarthen and the copies of his condemnation and degradation were taken from official records which are now lost. They may well have been sent to Foxe by the person or persons who sent him the records of Ferrar's troubles in Edward VI's reign.

MarginaliaThe sentence of degradation against B. Farrar.IN nomine patris, ✠ & filij, ✠ spiritus sancti, ✠ Amen. Quia nos Henricus permissione diuina Meneuen. episc. per viam inquisitionis in negotio hereticæ prauitatis cognoscentes te Robertum Ferrar clericum propter tuam manifestam contumaciam & obstinatiam per nos nunciatum fuisse & esse in illud detestabile crimen hæresis multipliciter incidisse & commisisse quod cum non solum grande, sed etiam damnabile & damnosum sit, & adeo enorme, quod exinde non tantum diuina maiestas offensa, sed & vniuersa diœcesis Mēeuensis cōmota est, & ab hoc indignus officio sacerdotali & ecclesiastico sis redditus. Idcirco nos autoritate dei patris omnipotentis, & filij, & spirirus sancti, & nostra te ab omni huiusmodi officio sententialiter perpetuo priuamus in hijs scriptis, teque ab illis verbo deponimus realiter, & actualiter secundum traditionem Canonum deponendum, & degradādum, prout in ordinario & pontificali continetur degradamus, prout sequitur. In primus amouemus a te. &c.

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Thus this godly bishop  

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This account of Ferrar's execution, replacing the account in the Rerum and 1563, first appeared in 1570. With its specific details, particularly the mention of Richard Jones, it is undoubtedly from an eyewithess.

being condemned and disgra-

ded, was committed to the secular power: who not long after, MarginaliaB. Farrar brought to the place of execution. was brought to the place of executiō in the towne of Carmarthen, where he in the market place in the South-

¶ The cruell burnyng of Maister Farrar, Martyr. MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of D. Robert Farrar. B. and Martyr, at Carmarthen. Anno 1555. March. 32.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
The woodcut illustrating Bishop Farrar's death was changed in 1570 for a block very different from that used in 1563. This earlier image belonged to the group of burnings with very distinct characteristics (skeletal bodies with flames invading them) whose dimensions were difficult to accommodate on the page. Like others of its kind in the first edition (eg William Sawtry, 1563, p. 142) the cut spread into the gutter and the left column of text. This awkwardness doubtless dictated its replacement. The replacement of 1570 came from Reginaldus Gonsalvius Montanus, De heylighe spaensche inquisitie (John Day, 1569), sig. x7v, and thereafter the block (identifiable from the chip on its top left corner) saw multiple use. In 1570, it was repeated seven times, and in 1583, it stood for eight martyrs besides Farrar, between the years 1436 and 1555 (1583, pp. 668, 701, 815, 998, 1030, 1040, 1275, 1682). Further chips on the lower edge in 1576 and 1583 bear witness to this extensive reuse. This woodcut of a martyr chained in flames is typical of many of the Marian martyrs illustrated in 1570, and thereafter, and this example suggests that difficulties of layout may have prompted Day to start working towards a new series, tailored to the page, not long after the appearance of the first edition. (See 1563, pp. 1548-49 (mispagination - pp. 1548-49). This woodcut (Type 1) with its distinctive flares and ionic scrolls of flames belongs to a recognisable family of these small martyr images, but their designers and cutters have not been identified. It may be noted that the speech scroll in 1563, is in italic, unlike that of the companion block in 1563, p. 1603 (the burning of a Norwich man and woman), which is in roman.

side of the market crosse, the xxx. day of March, beyng Saterday next before Passion sonday, most constantly susteyned the torments and passion of the fire.

MarginaliaA memorable example of constancie in this blessed B. & Martyr.Touchyng the which constancie of this blessed Martyr,  

Commentary  *  Close

Once again Foxe is anxious to recount the stoicism of a martyr. On the polemical importance of the stoicism of the martyrs see Collinson (1983) and Freeman (1997).

this is moreouer to be added and noted: that one named Richard Iones, a Knights sonne, comming to maister Farrar a little before his death, seemed to lament the paynefulnesse of the death he had to suffer. Vnto whome the Bishop aunswered agayne to this effect, saying: that if he saw hym once to stirre in the paynes of his burnyng, he should then geue no credite to his doctrine. And as hee sayd, so he right well performed the same, for so paciently he stoode, that he neuer mooued, but euen as he stoode holdyng vp his stumpes, so still he continued, till one Rich. Grauell with a staffe dashed hym vppon the head, and so stroke hym downe.

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¶ Letters.

As touching the letters of M. Farrer, we do not finde many that he did write. And peraduēture in Queene Maries tyme his imprisonment was so strait, that at no time it was permitted to hym to write. Albeit in his other troubles in kyng Edwards tyme, certayne letters he wrote to the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer, and to the Erle of Warwike,  

Commentary  *  Close

In 1563, Foxe identified Cranmer and the earl of Warwick (John Dudley, laterduke of Nothumberland) as the recipients of these letters. In 1570, he claimed that Thomas Goodrich, the lord chancellor, was the recipient. In fact, they were probably sent to Cranmer and were certainly not sent to Goodrich (see Brown, p. 166).

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which letters although they might be well referred to the first edition of this story, yet because in the sayd letters is conteyned briefly and in few lynes, the whole discourse of hys vniust vexation at that tyme wrought by his aduersaries, I thought good not to passe them ouer, but to communicate them vnto the Reader, for the better vnderstanding both of the innocencie of þt blessed B. and of the crafty iniquitie of his conspired enemies: as in the sayd letters here folowing to the indifferent reader may easily appeare.

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¶ The copy of a certaine letter of the Bishop of S. Dauids, written belike to the L. Chancellor Doct. Goodrike Bishop of Ely.  
Commentary  *  Close

In 1563, Foxe identified Cranmer and the earl of Warwick (John Dudley, laterduke of Nothumberland) as the recipients of these letters. In 1570, he claimed that Thomas Goodrich, the lord chancellor, was the recipient. In fact, they were probably sent to Cranmer and were certainly not sent to Goodrich (see Brown, p. 166).

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MOst humbly sheweth vnto your honor,  

Commentary  *  Close

In this letter Ferrar was asking for a commission to be established to examine the witnesses his opponents had produced to support their accusations against him. He was also requesting permission to return to his diocese despite the various bonds requiring him to stay in London. (Shrewdly, Ferrar was claiming that it was necessary for him to return to his diocese to collect the clerical taxes owed to the Crown).

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your poore orator Rob. Bish. of S. Dauids, that where as one Tho. Lee (by the procurement of Tho. Yong, Rowland Mericke beyng both Canons of S. Dauids, and George Constantine Register to the sayd bishop) hath exhibited vnto your honor agaynst him certaine articles, in the which are mentioned many triflyng thyngs vnworthy to be declared in your honourable audience, and also theyr pretensed weighty articles, (as they haue alledged there) are vtterly vntrue, for proofe whereof, the sayd Thomas Lee hath had

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