Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
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Henry Lewis
 
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Henry Lewis

Recorder of Cardiff

Henry Lewis warned the civic authorities of Coventry that they could not burn Rawlins White without having obtained a writ. 1570, p. 1727; 1576, p. 1463 [recte 1475]; 1583, p. 1558.

1582 [1558]

Queene Mary. The Examination and condemnation of Rawlins Martyr.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. Aprill. to your God, and I wil pray to my God, I know that my God will both heare my prayer, and performe my desire.

MarginaliaThe Bishop prayeth to his God, & Rawlins to his.By and by the B. with his company fell to praier. And Rawlins turning himselfe to a pew that stood somewhat neare him, fell downe vpon his knees couering hys face with his handes: and when they had praied a while, the B. with his company arose from prayer. And then also arose Rawlins, and came before the Bishop.

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MarginaliaRawlins confirmed in his doctrine. Popish Bishops pray to a false god & therefore are not heard.Then said the B. Now Rawlins, how is it with thee? wilt thou reuoke they opinions, or no? Surely (said Rawlins) my Lorde, Rawlins you lefte me, and Rawlins you finde me, and by Gods grace Rawlins I will continue. Certainly if your petitions had bene iust and lawefull, God woulde haue hearde them: but you honor a false God and pray not as ye should pray, and therfore hath not God graunted your desire: But I am one poore simple man as you see, and God hath heard my complaint, and I trust he will strengthen me in his owne cause.

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MarginaliaA Masse sayd for conuersion of Rawlins.The Bishop when he perceiued that this hipocrisye of theirs tooke none effect, then with hot wordes he reproued him, and forthwith was ready to read tht sentence. Howbeit vppon some aduise geuen to him by his Chapleynes that were there present, hee thought best firste to haue a masse, thinking that in deed by so doing, some wonderfull worke should be wrought in Rawlins, and thereuppon a priest began Masse.

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In the meane tyme poore Rawlins betooke himselfe to prayer in a secret place therby, vntill such time as the priest came to the Sacring (as they terme it) whiche is a principall poynt of theyr Idolatry. When Rawlins hearde the Sacring bell ring (as the vse was) he rose out of hys place and came to the Quiere doore, and there standing a while, turned himselfe to the people, speaking these wordes: MarginaliaThe wordes of Rawlins to the people at the sacring time.good people, if there by any Brethren amongest you, or at the lest if there be but one Brother amongest you, the same one beare witnesse at the daye of iudgement, that I bowe not to this Idoll, meaning the Host that the Priest held ouer his head.

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MarginaliaRawlins still constāt in the profession of Gods truth. Sentence read agaynst Rawlins. Rawlins sent to prisō to Cardiffe castle.The Masse being ended, Rawlins eftsoones was called for agayne. To whom the Bishop vsed many perswasions: but the blessed man continued stedfast in his former profession, that the Bishops talke was altogether in vayne, and to no purpose. Wherupon the Bishop caused the definitiue sentēce to be read. Which being ended, Rawlins was dismissed, and from thence he was by the bishops commaundement caried agayn to Cardiffe, there to be put into the prison of þe towne, called Cockmarell, a very darck lothsome, and most vile prison.

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Rawlins in the meane while passed away the time in prayer, and chiefly in singing of Psalmes: which kynde of godly exercises he alwayes vsed, both at Cardiffe Castle & in all other places.

MarginaliaThe officers intending to burne Rawlins without a writte.Nowe, after hee hadde thus continued as Prisoner in Cockmarell Prison at Cardiffe (as is aforesayde) a good space, about three weekes before the daye wherein hee suffered, the head Officers of the Towne that had the charge of his execution, were determined to burne hym, because they woulde be sooner ryd of hym: hauing not in deede a writ of executiō awarded, as by the law they should haue.

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Whereuppon one Henrye Lewes the Recorder of the Towne that then was, seeyng that they wente aboute to burne hym without any warrant by writ, came to them, and told them, that if they did burne hym before they had the writte De hæreticis comburendis, the Wyfe of the sayde Rawlins would vpon iust cause by law, call theyr doings into question.  

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De heretico comburendo is actually the name of the act, enacted in 1401,repealed under Edward VI, and re-enacted under Mary, which made heresy a crime punishable by death. But it was true that a writ had to be secured from Chancery for the execution of a heretic.

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MarginaliaThe writte awarded for burning of Rawlins.Immediately vppon this aduertisement, they sent to London for the writ aboue named: vpon the receipt wherof they made some speede to the execution of the sayd Raulins. Nowe when the daye was come, wherein the good father should performe and accomplish the last Act of thys his worthy conflict, he was the night before wylled to prepare himselfe.

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Now, when he perceiued his time no lesse neare then it was reported vnto hym, he sent forthwith to hys Wyfe, and willed her by the messēger that in any wise she should make readye, and send vnto him his MarginaliaRawlins wedding garment. wedding Garment, meaning a Shyrt, whiche afterwarde hee was burned in. Which request or rather commaundement of his, his wife with great sorow and griefe of hart did performe, and early in the morninge did send it him, whiche he receiued moste gladly and ioyfully.

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Nowe whē the houre of his execution was come, this good and constant father Raulins was brought out of prison, hauing on his body the long Shyrt, Whiche (as you heard before) he called his wedding garment, and an olde Russet coate whiche he was wont to weare.  

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There is a striking similarity between White's costume and what Laurence Saunders and Hugh Latimer wore at their executions. This suggests that these martyrs were trying to outfit themselves in attire which evoked images of Christ's passion.

Besides this, he had vpon his legges an olde payre of leather Buskins

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which he had vsed long afore. MarginaliaRawlins going to the place of execution.And thus being brought out of the prison (as I haue sayd) he was accompanyed or rather garded with a great company of Billes and gleaues: which sight when he behelde: Alas (quoth he) what meaneth all this? All this needed not. By Gods grace I wyll not start away: but I with all my hart & minde geue vnto God most harty thankes that he hath made me worthy to abide all this for his holy names sake.

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So he came to a place in his waye MarginaliaRawlins somewhat moued at the sight of his wyfe and children. where as his poore wife and children stoode weeping and makyng greate lamentation: the suddein sight of whom so pierced his hart, that the very teares trickeled downe his face.  

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Part of the stoicism expected of a martyr was his ability to overcome natural affection and love for his or her family to follow his duty to God, even to the stake. (See Collinson [1983] on this). Foxe makes this point on several occasions, notably in his account of William Hunter and in his story of John Rogers confronting his children.

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But he soone after, as though he had misliked this infirmity of his flesh, began to be as it were altogether angry with himselfe: In so muche that in striking his brest with his hand, he vsed these wordes: MarginaliaRawlins wrastleth agaynst his fleshe.Ah flesh, stayest thou me so? wouldest thou fayne preuayle? Well, I tell thee doe what thou canst, thou shalt not, by Gods grace, haue the victory. By this tyme this poore innocent came to þe very altar of his sacrifice (I meane the place appoynted for his death) and there foūd a stake ready set vp, with some wood toward the making of the fire. Which when he behelde, he sette forward hymselfe very boldly: but in going toward þe stake he fell down vpō his knees and kissed the groū, & in rising agayn, the earth a litle sticking on his nose, he said these words: Earth vnto earth, and dust vnto dust, thou art my mother, and vnto thee I shall returne. Then went he chearfully & very ioyfully, and set his backe close vnto the stake, & when he had stood there a while, he case his eye vpon this Reporter, & called him vnto him, and sayd: MarginaliaThe agony and fight of this Christian warriour.I feele a great fighting betwene the flesh and the spirit, & the flesh would very fayne haue his swinge, and therfore I pray you when you see me any thing tempted, hold your finger vp to me, and I trust I shall remember my selfe.

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As he was thus standing with his back close vnto the stake, a Smith came with a great chayne of yron: whom when he saw, he cast vp his hand with a loude voice, and gaue God great thankes. MarginaliaRawlins fastened to the stake. Then the Smith cast the chayne about him, and as he was making it fast on the other syde, Rawlins sayde vnto him, I pray you good frend knocke in the chayne fast, for it may be that the fleshe would striue mightely: but God of thy great mercy geue me strength & pacience to abide the extremity.

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MarginaliaThe chearfulnes of father Rawlins at his deathNowe when the Smyth had made hym sure to the stake, the officers beganne to lay on more woode, with a litle strawe and Reede: wherein the good old man was no lesse occupied then the best: for as far as he could reach his handes, he would plucke the strawe and Reede, and lay it about hym in places moste conuenient for his speedy dispatche. Which thing he did with suche a chearefull countenance and familiar gesture, that al men there present were in a maner astonyed.

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Thus when all thynges were readye, so that there lacked nothyng but the putting to of the fire, directly ouer against the stake in the face of Rawlins, there was a standing erected, MarginaliaA Popishe sermon preached at Rawlins Martyrdome.whereon stept vp a Priest addressing hym selfe to speake to the people, which were many in number, because it was market day. Whē Rawlins perceiued him, and considered the cause of his comming, he reached a litle straw vnto him, and made two litle stayes, & set them vnder his elbowes. Then went the priest forward in his sermon, wherin he spake of many thinges touching þe authoritie of the church of Rome. In the meane time Rawlins gaue such good eare and intention, that he seemed nothing at all moued or disquieted. At the last the priest came to the sacrament of the altar, and there he began to inuey against Rawlins opinions: in which his inuection he cited the common place of Scripture, and therupon made a Clerklye interpretation.

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Now when Rawlins perceyued that he went aboute not onely to preach and teach the people false doctrine, but also to confirme it by Scripture, he suddenly starte vp, and beckened his hands to the people, saying twise: Come hither good people, & heare not a false prophet preaching: and then sayd vnto the preacher: MarginaliaRawlins words to the false Prophet.Ah thou naughty hypocrite, doest thou presume to proue thy false doctrine by Scripture? Looke in the text what foloweth: dyd not Christ say: Doo this in the remembraunce of me. After which wordes the Priest being rather amazed then interrupted, forthwith held his peace.

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Then some that stood by cryed out, Put fire, set to fire: which being set to, the strawe and Reede by and by caste vp both a great and suddaine flame. In the which flame this good & blessed man bathed his handes so long, vntill such time as the sinewes shronke, and the fatte dropped away, sauing that once he did, as it were, wipe his face with one of them. Al this while, which was somewhat long, he cryed with a loude voyce: O Lorde receiue my soule: O

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