Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Father More

Of Norwich.

Father More was put in the stocks in 1554. 1563, pp. 1681-82.

[Foxe is probably referring to William Mason, who, on 26 May 1554, was placed in the pillory with a paper on his head for writing ballads that were critical of the mass and catholicism. Foxe possibly confused him with Rowland Moore, who had to do penance standing with a paper on his head for eating sausages on a Friday. (Muriel McClendon, The Quiet Reformation (Stamford, California, 1999), pp. 164-66.]

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Harry Widdowes

Before surrendering himself, George Marsh visited Harry Widdowes. He asked Widdowes to pray for him and to take care of his family. 1570, p. 1732; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

 
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John Sherburne

(fl. 1554 - 1572)

Chaplain to the 3rd earl of Derby, rector of Grappenhall and holder of numerous other Lancashire livings

John Sherburne interrogated George Marsh at Lathom House; during the interrogation Sherburne denounced the Edwardian communion as devilish. 1570, p. 1732; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

He examined Marsh again, more informally, with Robert Brassey, the vicar of Prescot. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1480; 1583, p. 1563.

Together with Robert Brassey, Sherburne presented Marsh with four articles to subscribe to and exhorted him to recant. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1480; 1583, p. 1563.

Together with More, he examined George Marsh around Easter 1554 and tried to persuade him to recant. 1570, pp. 1733-34; 1576, p. 1480; 1583, p. 1563.

[NB: In 1572, Sherburne would be accused of associating with recusants, denouncing the Church of England and teaching salvation by good works; see Christopher Haigh, Reform and Resistance in Tudor Lancashire (Cambridge, 1975), p. 217].

 
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Mrs. Thomas Richardson

Before surrendering himself, George Marsh visited Mrs Richardson, asking her to pray for him and take care of his family. 1570, p. 1732; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

 
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Rafe Yeton

Before surrendering himself, George Marsh visited Rafe Yeton. He asked him to pray for him and to look after his family. 1570, p. 1732; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

[NB: This could be a misprint; possibly the name is really Rafe Heton. The Hetons were a veryimportant protestant family in the Bolton area].

 
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Robert Brassey [or Brassie]

(1509? - 1558)

DD (1557), Provost of King's College, Cambridge (1556 - 1558). Vice-chancellor of university (1557 - 1558). V icar of Preston, Lancs. (1541 - 1558)(Venn)

Brassey interrogated George Marsh at Lathom House. The earl of Derby was confident that Brassey would convert Marsh. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

He examined Marsh again, more informally, with John Sherburne. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1480; 1583, p. 1563.

Together with Sherburne, he presented Marsh with four articles to subscribe to and exhorted him to recant. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1480; 1583, p. 1563.

Brassey objected to interference in King's College affairs from Cardinal Pole's commissioners. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

Brassey exempted himself from being deemed present when the commissioners were sent on a visitation to Cambridge in 1557. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

Cuthbert Scott had an altercation with Brassey on 11 January 1557. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

Brassey again excused himself at St Mary's church on 12 January 1557. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

He was called before Ormaneto, who told him he was wicked and in danger of excommunication. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

The provost of King's College made a protestation to the queen's commissioners on 14 January 1557, to which Scot declared that he knew not why he was making his protestation. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

Brassey's examination took place before Scot, Watson and Christopherson on 14 January 1557. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

[Foxe calls him Master of King's. This is a mistake, as the head of the college was the provost.]

[Christopher Haigh has described Brassey as 'a gentle Catholic of the old school' in Reformation and Resistance in Tudor Lancashire (Cambridge, 1975) p. 184.]

 
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Robert Mekynson

Robert Mekynson escorted George Marsh into the presence of the earl of Derby at Lathom House. 1570, p. 1732; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

 
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Sir John Byron

(1487/88 - 1567)

MP (1529), Sheriff of Notts and Derbys (1523 - 1524, 1527 - 1528, 1542 - 1543, 1551 - 1552) [Bindoff, Commons].

Byron interrogated George Marsh at Lathom House. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

[NB: Byron left a markedly catholic will. He was described by Archbishop Thomas Young in 1564 as 'no favourer of religion' (Bindoff, Commons)].

[Also referred to as 'John Beram']

 
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Sir Pierce Alee

A member of the council of Edward Stanley, the 3rd earl of Derby

Sir Pierce Alee interrogated George Marsh at Lathom House. 1570, p. 1732; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

[Probably Sir Peter Lee, JP for Cheshire in 1555 (PRO, SP11/5, no. 6)]

 
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Sir William Norris

(1501 - 1568)

JP, MP (1554), Sheriff of Lancs., (1554 - 1555) [Bindoff, Commons] JP Cheshire (1555) [SP11/5, no. 6]

Sir William Norris interrogated George Marsh at Lathom House. 1570, p. 1732; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

[NB: Norris was a committed catholic recusant in Elizabeth's reign; see Christopher Haigh, Reformation and Resistance in Tudor Lancashire (Cambridge, 1975), pp. 250-51].

 
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Adderton, Chaterton [Chadderton, Lancs]
NGR: SD 905 057

Unidentified as Adderton, Chaterton.

Probably Chadderton, Lancs.

 
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Grapenhall
NGR: SJ 640 860

A parish in the hundred of Backlow, county Palatine of Chester, 2.75 miles south-east from Warrington. The living is a rectory in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Chester.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Latham, Lathum [Lathom]
NGR: SD 460 100

A township in the parish of Ormskirk, hundred of West Derby, county palatine of Lancaster. 3.75 miles north-east by east from Ormskirk. The living (of Ormskirk) is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Chester.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Prescot
NGR: SJ 465 925

A parish in the hundred of West Derby, county Palatine of Lancaster, comprising the market town of Prescott, 2 chapelries and 13 townships. 51 miles south of Lancaster. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Chester.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1586 [1562]

Queene Mary. The examination and trouble of George Marsh Martyr.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. Aprill.so charged were gone to seeke me in Adderton, or elswhere I know not. MarginaliaMarshes brethren charged to seeke him.Thus intending afore to haue bene all night with my mother, but thē cōsidering that my tarying there would disquiet her with her householde, I departed from thence, and went beyond Deane Church, and there taried all night with an old frend of mine, taking ill rest, and consulting much with my selfe of my trouble.

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So at my first awaking, one came to me from a faythfull frend of mine with letters, which I neuer read, nor yet looked on, who sayd this: My frendes aduise was that I should in no wise flie, but abide & boldy confesse the fayth of Iesus Christ. MarginaliaThe maruelous prouidence of God in resoluing G. Marsh not to flye, but to tarry.At whose wordes I was so confirmed & established in my conscience, that from thenceforth I consulted no more, whether was better to flie or to tarye, but was at a poynt with my selfe, that I woulde not flye, but go to maister Barton, who did seeke for me, and there present my selfe, and paciently beare suche crosse, as it shoulde please God to lay vpon my shoulders. Wherupō my mind and conscience afore being much vnquieted and troubled, was now mery and in quiet estate.

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So betimes in the morning I arose, and after I had sayd the English Letany (as my custome was) with other prayers kneeling on my knees by my frendes beddeside, I prepared my selfe to goe towarde Smethehilles: and as I was going thitherward, MarginaliaG. Marsh tooke his leaue of his frendes.I went into the houses of Harry Widdowes, of my mother in law, of Rafe Yeton, and of the wife of Thomas Richardsonne, desiring them to pray for me, and haue me commended to all my frendes, and to comfort my mother, and be good to my litle children, for (as I supposed) they should not see my face any more, before þe last day: & so tooke my leaue of thē not without teares shed on both parties, and came to Smethehilles about 9. of the clocke, & MarginaliaG. Marsh of his owne voluntary minde offereth himself to his enemies.presented my selfe afore M. Barton: who shewed me a letter from the Earle of Darby, wherin he was commaunded to send me with others to Lathum.

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Wherupon he charged my brother and William Marsh, to bring and deliuer me the next day, by x. of the clock before the sayd Earle or his Counsell. I made earnest sute with other speciall frendes, which I had there at the same time, to M. Barton, that he woulde take some one of them or them all bound by recognisaunce or otherwise for mine appearing before the sayd Earle or his sayd Counsell, that my brother & William Marsh might be at home, because it was the chiefest time of seding, & their ploughes could not go if they wer not at home: but nothing could be obteined.

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MarginaliaG. Marsh taketh his leaue of his motherSo we went to my mothers, and there I dyned & shifted part of my clothes, and so praying, took my leaue of my mother, the wife of Richard Marsh, and both theyr householdes, they and I both weping, & so departed from them, and went toward Lathum, and were al night a mile and a halfe on this side Lathum. So the next daye whiche was Wednesday, we arose, prayd, & came to Lathum betimes, and taryed there till foure of the clocke at afternoone.

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MarginaliaC. Marsh brought before the Earle of Darby.Thē was I called by Roger Mekinson, to come to my Lord and his counsell, & so I was brought into the chamber of presence, where was present Syr William Nores, Syr Pierce Alee, Mayster Shereburne the Parson of Grapenhall, mayster More, with others. Where when I had taryed a litle while, my Lord turned him toward me, and asked what was my name. I aunswered Marsh.

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Then he asked whether I was one of those that sowed euill seed and dissention amongest the people. Which thing I denied, desiring to know mine accusers, and what could be layd agaynst me: but that I could not know.

MarginaliaG. Marsh examined before the Earle of Darby.Then sayd he, he would with his counsell examine me themselues, & asked me whether I was a priest. I sayd no. Then he asked me, what had bene my liuing? I aunswered, I was a Minister, serued a Cure, and taught a schole. Then sayd my Lord to his Counsell, this is a wonderfull thing. Afore he sayd he was no Priest, and now he confesseth himselfe to be one. I aunswered, by the lawes now vsed in this Realme (as farre as I do know) I am none.

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Then they asked me who gaue me orders, or whether I had taken any at all? I aunswered, I receiued orders of the Bishops of London and Lincolne.

Then sayd they one to an other, those be of these new heretickes, and asked me what acquayntaunce I had with them? I aunswered, I neuer sawe them, but at the tyme when I receiued orders.

They asked me how long I had bene Curate, & whether I had ministred with a good conscience? I aunswered I had bene Curate but one yere, and had ministred with a good conscience, I thanked God, and if the Lawes of the Realme, would haue suffered me, I would haue ministred still: & if the lawes at any time hereafter woulde suffer me to minister after that sort, I would minister agayne.

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Wherat they murmured: and the person of Grapnall sayd: MarginaliaThis blasphemous mouth of the parson of Grapnal. this last Communion was the most deuilishe thing

that euer was deuised. Then they asked me what my beliefe was.

I answered, I beleued in God the Father, the Sonne & the holy Ghost, according as the Scriptures of the olde and new testament do teach and according as the 4. Symboles, or Creedes, that is to wit, the Creed commonly called Apostolorum, the Creede of Nice Councell, of Athanasius and of Austen, and Ambrose do teach.

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And after a few wordes, the parson of Grapnall sayd: but what is thy beliefe in the Sacrament of the aultar?

MarginaliaG. Marshes beliefe in the Sacrament.I aunswered, I beleued that whosoeuer, according to Christes institution, dyd receyue the holye Sacrament of Christes body and bloud, did eate and drinke Christes body and bloud with all the benefites of his death and resurrection to their eternall saluation? for Christ (sayd I) is euer present with his sacrament.

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Then asked they me, whether the bread and wyne, by the vertue of the wordes pronounced of the Priest, were chaungedd into the flesh and bloud of Christ, and that the sacrament, whether it were receiued or reserued, was the very body of Christ?

MarginaliaG. Marsh loth to aunswere to the question of transubstantiation.Wherunto I made aunswere, I knew no further then I had shewed already. For my knowledge is vnperfecte (sayd I) desiring thē not to aske me, such hard & vnprofitable questions, whereby to bring my body into daūger of death, & to sucke my bloud. Whereat they were not a little offended, saying they were no bloudsuccours, and intēded nothing to me but to make me a good Christian man.

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So after many other questions, whiche I auoyded as well as I could, remembring the saying of Paule: Foolishe and vnlearned questions auoide, knowing they do but ingender strife: my Lord commaunded me to come to the boord, and gaue me pen and incke in my hand and MarginaliaG. Marsh commaunded by the Earle of Darby to write his answeres.commaunded me to write mine aunsweres to the questions of the Sacrament aboue named: & I wrote as I had answered before. Wherat being much offended, cōmaunded me to write a more direct answere, saying, I should not chuse but do it.

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Then I tooke the pen and wrote, that further I knew not. Whereat hee being sore greeued, after many threatnings, sayd I should be put to shamefull death like a traitor, with such other like words, and sometimes geuing me fayre wordes, if I would turne and be conformable as other were, how glad he would be.

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MarginaliaThe Earle of Darby cōmaundeth G. Marsh into prison.In conclusion, after much adoe, he commaunded me to Ward in a cold windy stone house, where was little roome where I lay two nightes without any bed, sauing a fewe great canuasse tentclothes, and that done, I had a payre of sheetes, but no wollen clothes, & so cōtinued till Palmsonday, ocupying my selfe aswel as I could in meditatiō, prayer, & study, for no man could be suffered to come to me but my keeper twise a day when he brought me meat and drinke.

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¶ An other examination of G. Marsh before the Earle of Darby.

ON Palme sonday  

Commentary  *  Close

18 March 1554.

at after dinner I was sent for to my Lord and his counsell (sauing Syr William Nores, & Syr Pierce Alee were not then present in place) amongest whō was Syr Iohn Beram, & the Vicar of Prescot. MarginaliaMarsh agayne examined about the Sacrament.So they examined me yet once agayne of the sacramēt. And after I had communed aparte with the Vicare of Prescot a good space cōcerning that matter, he returned to my Lorde and his Counsell with me, saying: MarginaliaMarsh yet keepeth himselfe close in the Sacrament.that aunswere which I had made before, and then did make (as it is aboue writtē) was sufficient for a beginner, and as one which did not professe a perfect knowledge in that matter, vntil such time as I had learned further. Wherewith the Earle was very well pleased, saying hee doubted not, but by the meanes & help of the vicar of Prescot I would be conformable in other thinges. So after many fayre wordes he commaunded I should haue a bed, with fire, and libertye to goe amongest his seruantes, so that I would do no harme with my communication amongest them.  
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Because the earl of Derby believed that Marsh might recant; Marsh was confined in easier conditions.

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And so after much other communication, I departed, MarginaliaMarsh troubled in his consciēce for being no more bolde touching the Sacrament.much more troubled in my spirit then afore, because I had not with more boldnes confessed Christ, but in such sort, as mine aduersaries therby thought they should preuayle agaynst me: wherat I was much greued: For hytherto I went about as much as in me lay, to rid my self out of their handes, if by any meanes, without open denying of Christ and his word that could be done.

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This considered, MarginaliaMarsh prayetheth for more boldenes.I cried more earnestly vnto God by prayer, desiring him to strengthen me with his holy spirit, with boldnes to confesse him: and to deliuer me from their intising words, and that I were not spoyled through their Philosophy & deceitfull vanity after the traditions of men and ordinaunces of the world, and not after Christ.

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And
AAAA.iij.
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