Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the TextCommentary on the Woodcuts
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Francis Englefield

(1521/22 - 1596)

Catholic exile. High sheriff of Berkshire and Oxfordshire at the death of Henry VIII. Privy councillor, Master of the Rolls and Master of the Court of Wards and Liveries under Mary [DNB; Bindoff, Commons]

Englefield was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Sir Francis Englefield was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

Learning of the madness of John Bolton, Sir Francis ordered him released from Reading goal (1563, pp. 1017-18). [NB: Englefield was also the keeper of Reading goal; see Bindoff, Commons.]

On 28 March 1555, Mary announced to Englefield and three other privy councillors that she was restoring the monastic lands in the crown's possession to the church. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1467; 1583, p. 1559.

On 29 May 1555, the privy council ordered that Englefield apprehend John Dee and that he search the papers of Dee and Thomas Benger. 1583, pp. 1577-78.

On 5 June 1555, the privy council ordered Englefield to examine Cary, Dee, John Field and Sir Thomas Benger about their having practiced conjuring and witchcraft. 1583, p. 1581.

[Went into exile under Elizabeth and retired to Valladolid. (DNB)]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Bernard

On 3 May 1555 the privy council ordered that Bernard and John Walsh be apprehended for carrying the bones of the martyr William Pygot around Suffolk and displaying them. 1583, p. 1577.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Hopton

(d. 1558)

Bishop of Norwich (1554 - 1558) [DNB]

John Hopton was created bishop of Norwich (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

On 12 May 1555 the privy council ordered that Thomas Ross be delivered to Hopton to be made to recant or to be tried for heresy (1583, p. 1577).

Hopton was one of the commissioners who condemned John Bradford, Laurence Saunders and Rowland Taylor to death. 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24.

On 12 May 1555 the privy council ordered that Thomas Ross be delivered to Hopton, either to be forced to recant, or to be tried for heresy. 1583, p. 1577.

James Abbes was caught and appeared before Dr Hopton. He recanted but when the bishop gave him 40 or 20 pence [Foxe is not sure] he recanted. He was burned in Bury on 2 August 1555. 1563, p. 1244, 1570, pp. 1864-65, 1576, p. 1594, 1583, p. 1683.

Robert Samuel was cruelly treated by Dr Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and/or Dr Dunnings, the chancellor [Foxe is not sure]. 1563, p. 1270, 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1609, 1583, p. 1703.

William Allen was examined and condemned by the bishop of Norwich. 1570, p. 1883, 1576, p. 1613, 1583, p. 1707.

Roger Coo was examined by the bishop of Norwich, 12 August, 1555. 1563, pp. 1272-73, 1570, pp. 1883-84, 1576, p. 1613, 1583, p. 1707.

Thomas Cobbe was examined by Dunning but condemned by the bishop of Norwich with Roger Coo, William Allen, James Abbes, and Robert Samuel. He was burned at Thetford in September 1556. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1884, 1576, pp. 1613-14 , 1583, p. 1708.

Thomas Spicer, John Denny and Edmund Poole were condemned by John Hopton and Dunning and handed over to Sir John Silliard, high sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk. 1570, p. 2093, 1576, p. 1793, 1583, p. 1912.

Roger Bernard was examined and condemned by Hopton. Adam Foster was sent to the Eye prison and then to Norwich to be examined and then condemned by Hopton. 1563, pp. 1527-28, 1570, pp. 2098-99, 1576, pp. 1810-11, 1583, p. 1917.

The second, third and fourth examinations of John Fortune were conducted by Hopton. 1570, pp. 2100-01, 1576, p. 1812, 1583, pp. 1918-19.

Peter and Anne Moone were presented before Hopton (bishop of Norwich) and Dunning (chancellor) during their visitation of Ipswich in 1556. Three articles were presented against Peter Moone and his answers given. 1570, p. 2126, 1576, p. 1847, 1583, p. 1942.

Simon Miller was imprisoned in the bishop's house. He was condemned by Hopton and his chancellor, Michael Dunning. 1563, pp. 1602-03, 1570, p. 2197, 1576, p. 1896, 1583, p. 2005.

The second examination of Thomas Spurdance was by Hopton. 1570, pp. 2221-22, 1576, pp. 1917-18, 1583, pp. 2024-25.

John Fortune's second and third examinations were conducted by the bishop of Norwich, who condemned him. 1563, pp. 1636-38.

James Ashley was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Thomas Carman was examined and condemned by Hopton.1563, p. 1657, 1570, p. 2233, 1576, p. 1928, 1583, p. 2036.

John Cooke was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Berry sent Thomas Hudson before Hopton. 1563, p. 1657, 1570, p. 2233, 1576, p. 1928, 1583, p. 2036.

Alexander Lane was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Robert Miles was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Thomas Rose's second examination was before Hopton, W. Woodhouse, Dr Barret and others1570, p. 1978, 1576, pp. 1978-79, 1583, p. 2084.

Thomas Rose's last appearance was before Woodhouse and Hopton. 1570, p. 1979, 1576, pp. 1980-81, 1583, pp. 2085-86.

After being questioned by Sir John Tyrrel, William Seaman was sent before Bishop Hopton who then condemned him. 1563, p. 1655, 1570, p. 2232, 1576, p. 1927, 1583, p. 2035.

John Noyes was condemned by the bishop of Norwich before Dunning, Sir W. Woodhouse, Sir Thomas Woodhouse, George Heyden, Master Spense, W. Farrar (alderman), Master Thurston, Winesden and others. 1570, p. 2217, 1576, p. 1913, 1583, p. 2021.

John Hopton died after Queen Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2102.

[1563, p. 1707, correctly states that Hopton died before Queen Mary. He died in August 1558.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Walsh

On 3 May 1555 the privy council ordered that Walsh and John Bernard be apprehended for carrying the bones of the martyr William Pygot around Suffolk and displaying them. 1583, p. 1577.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Lord William Howard [or Haward]

(1510? - 1573)

First Baron Howard of Effingham. (DNB)

William Howard accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

He was sent to bring Princess Elizabeth to London on 11 February 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1466).

Howard was kind and gentle to princess Elizabeth when he met with her at Hampton Court the day before Stephen Gardiner requested her to submit to Mary's authority. His kindness gave her much comfort. 1563, p. 1715, 1570, p. 2294, 1576, p. 1986, 1583, p. 2292.

William Howard was one of the examiners of John Rogers on 22 January 1555. 1563, pp. 1023-26; 1570, pp. 1657-59; 1576, pp. 1414-15; 1583, pp. 1484-86.

He was appointed to carry news of Mary's (anticipated) safe delivery of a child to Charles V. 1583, p. 1577.

A letter regarding Green's treason was sent to Bonner by the privy council on 11 November 1555 but not delivered until 17 November. It was signed by Winchester, Penbroke, Thomas Ely, William Haward, John Bourne, Thomas Wharton. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

[Foxe calls him Lord 'Haward'.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Henry Bedingfield [or Benifield]

(1511 - 1583)

Of Oxborough, Norfolk. JP Norfolk (1538 - 1554). Lieutenant of the Tower (October 1555 - c. September 1556). Vice-chamberlain of Household and Captain of the Guard (Dec 1557- November 1558). Privy councillor. (DNB; Bindoff)

When the constable of the Tower was dismissed, he was replaced by Bedingfield in order to watch over Elizabeth who was then prisoner in the Tower. 1563, p. 1713, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

Bedingfield was involved in Elizabeth's removal from the Tower to Richmond. 1563, p. 1713, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

Bedingfield was not happy at the treatment Elizabeth received when she was at the house of Lord Williams of Thame. 1563, p. 1713, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

Foxe recounts Bedingfield's behaviour towards Elizabeth when she stayed at the house of Lord Williams of Thame. 1563, p. 1713, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

When he had to leave the Tower, Bedingfield left instructions that no one should have access to Elizabeth until his return. 1563, p. 1712v [no page number; following recto is 1713], 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

He was one of Elizabeth's guards during her removal from Woodstock. 1563, p. 1712v [no page number; following recto is 1713], 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

James Basset wanted to meet with Sir Henry Bedingfield. 1563, p. 1712v [no page number; following recto is 1713], 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

Bedingfield guarded Elizabeth on her removal to Rycote, Oxfordshire. 1563, p. 1712v [no page number; following recto is 1713], 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

He brought Elizabeth to see Mary in her bedchamber. 1570, p. 2295, 1576, p. 1987.

Elizabeth was sent to Woodstock and placed in Sir Henry Bedingfield's custody. Foxe criticizes him for his strict and severe custody of her (1563, p. 1004; 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p 1401; 1583, p. 1611). In the 1563 edition, this was followed by passages praising Elizabeth for her mercy in not seeking revenge on Bedingfield (1563, p. 1004); these passages were never reprinted.

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Bedingfield reported to the privy council that Stephen Appes was mad (1583, p. 1577).

Elizabeth was set free by Bedingfield and she forgave him his actions. 1570, p. 2295, 1576, p. 1987.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir John Shelton

(by 1503 - 1558)

MP, JP and sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk (1554 - 1555) [Bindoff, Commons]

Sir John Shelton escorted Rowland Taylor from Chelmsford to Hadleigh, where he was executed. He rebuked a poor man of Hadleigh who called upon God to bless Taylor. 1563, pp. 1077-78; 1570, pp. 1701-2; 1576, pp. 1452-53; 1583, pp. 1525-26.

Shelton denied Rowland Taylor permission to speak to the crowd at his execution. 1563, p. 1079; 1570, p. 1702; 1576, p. 1453; 1583, p. 1526.

He supervised Rowland Taylor's execution. As Taylor was about to be executed, he recited Psalm 51 in English. Shelton struck him on the mouth and ordered him to say it in Latin. 1570, p. 1703; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1527.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Roger Cholmley

(d. 1565)

Lord chief justice of King's and Queen's Bench (1552 - 1553), privy councillor (under Mary) and MP [Bindoff, Commons; Hasler, Commons; DNB]. Judge, lieutenant of the Tower. Son of Sir Richard Cholmley [DNB]

Sir Roger Cholmley persuaded the royal guard to support Northumberland against Mary (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, p. 1407).

He was sent to the Tower, with Sir Edward Montagu, on 27 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was released from the Tower together with Sir Edward Montagu on 7 September 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Sir Roger Cholmley was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Cholmley participated in a debate/dinner conversation between Nicholas Ridley and John Feckenham and Sir John Bourne, on the nature of the eucharist, held while Ridley was a prisoner in the Tower (1563, p. 931; 1570, p. 1591; 1576, pp. 1357-58; and 1583, p. 1428).

Cholmley came to William Flower at the stake and urged Flower, on pain of damnation, to recant his heretical beliefs. 1563, p. 1733; 1570, p. 1749; 1576, p. 1493; 1583, p. 1577.

George Tankerfield was sent into Newgate by Roger Cholmey and Dr Martin. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

Philpot's first examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story, and one of the scribes of the Arches at Newgate Hall, 2 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

Cholmley was one of the commissioners who sent John Went, John Tudson, Thomas Brown and Joan Warren to be examined and imprisoned. 1563, p. 1453, 1570, p. 2016, 1576, p. 1737, 1583, p. 1845.

A complaint about John Tudson was made to Cholmley. 1563, p. 1467, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1749, 1583, p. 1857. [Foxe erroneously calls him 'Sir Richard Cholmley'.]

Cuthbert Symson was brought before Cholmley, examined and racked. 1563, p. 1651, 1570, p. 2229, 1576, p. 1924, 1583, p. 2032.

Cholmley sent to Newgate 27 prisoners who were members of an illegal conventicle in Islington. 1563, p. 1659, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2037.

Thomas Hinshaw was taken by the constables of Islington to appear before Master Cholmley, who sent him to Newgate. 1563, p. 1690, 1570, p. 2242, 1576, p. 1937, 1583, p. 2043.

Robert Farrer, haberdasher of London, had two daughters, one of whom was delivered to Sir Roger Cholmley for a sum of money, to be at his commandment, the other sold to Sir William Godolphin, who took her to Boulogne as his lackey, dressed in men's clothing. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2294.

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The lord mayor of London and Chomley examined Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax. 1563, p. 1683, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Elizabeth Young's fourth examination was before Bonner, Roger Cholmley, Cooke, Dr Roper of Kent, and Dr Martin. 1570, pp. 2270-71, 1576, pp. 1959-60, 1583, pp. 2066-67.

Tingle was a prisoner in Newgate. His keeper realised that Edward Benet had a New Testament and sent him to Cholmley, who imprisoned him in the Compter for 25 weeks. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Benet was apprehended again in Islington and sent before Cholmley but was cut off from the rest. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

John Story had accused Angel's wife of murdering a woman and her child who resided with her in her house. He sent her to Newgate. Sir Roger Cholmley dismissed the charges against her. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

[Also referred to as 'Lorde Chiefe Baron' or 'Chomley']

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Stephen Appes

Appes was committed to the Tower on 3 May 1555. The lieutenant of the Tower reported that he was mad and on 16 May 1555, the privy council ordered William Paulet to examine Appes and, if he was mad, to commit him to Bedlam. 1583, p. 1577.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Paulet

(1483? - 1572)

Marquess of Winchester (1551 - 1572) [DNB]

William Paulet signed a royal dispensation of 5 August 1550 which permitted Hooper to be consecrated without having to wear vestments. 1563, p. 1050; 1570, p. 1676; 1576, p. 1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, p. 1504. [Paulet signed as 'W. Wiltshire', being earl of Wiltshire at the time].

He presided over the treason trial and condemnation of Sir Andrew Dudley, Sir John Gates, Sir Henry Gates and Sir Thomas Palmer on 19 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He attended Thomas Watson's Paul's Cross sermon of 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Paulet was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

On 28 March 1555, Mary announced to Paulet and three other privy councillors that she was restoring the monastic lands in the crown's possession to the church. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

On 16 May 1555 the privy council ordered Paulet to send Thomas Ross to John Hopton, and to commit Stephen Appes to Bedlam, if reports of his madness were true. 1583, p. 1577.

On 26 May 1555 the privy council ordered that that Paulet confer with Bishop Bonner and the Middlesex JPs about where convicted heretics were to be executed. 1583, p. 1577.

On 28 May 1555 the Privy Council instructed Paulet to provide money for ambassadors carrying news of the (anticipated) safe delivery of Mary's child to various foreign monarchs. 1583, p. 1577.

On 12 June 1555 the privy council ordered Paulet to send writs for the executions of Derick Carver, Thomas Iveson and John Launder to the sheriff of Sussex. 1583, p. 1581.

Derick Carver was sent to prison after a letter was sent to Bonner from the marquess of Winchester, then lord treasurer, on 8 June 1555. 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

Paulet wrote to Feckenham, the dean of St Paul's. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

[Also referred to as 'Marquis of Winchester' and 'W. Wiltshire']

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sudbury
NGR: TL 871 412

A borough and market town, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Babergh, county of Suffolk. 22 miles west by south from Ipswich, 56 miles north-east by east from London. Sudbury comprises the parishes of All Saints, St Gregory and St Peter, in the Archdeaconry of Sudbury and diocese of Norwich. The living of All Saints is a discharged vicarage. The living of St Gregory is a perpetual curacy with that of St Peter annexed.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1601 [1577]

Queene Mary. The Martyrdome of William Flower with other occurrentes.
The burning of William Flower at Westminster, the 24. of Aprill. An. 1555. Marginalia Anno 1555. Aprill.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
The illustration of William Flower, among those that show the moment just before the pyre was lit, portrays the horrific detail of the martyr praying after his right hand, impaled on a pike, was cut off as he stood at the stake. The witnesses present who 'credibly informed' the martyrologist about this are not shown. The circle standing round the stake (with some indication of the density of the urban setting) seems to consist only of ecclesiastical and secular officials - apart from two heads looking out of a window in the distance. The banderole containing Flower's last words retained its framing line intact until 1583, when the text (still in the roman lettering it had in all four editions) was reset.

where he should be burned, first he maketh his prayer to almighty God, with a confession of his Christian fayth, in maner as followeth.

¶ A prayer and confession of W. Flower.

MarginaliaFlowers prayer.OH eternall God, most mighty and mercifull father, who hast sent downe thy sonne vpon the earth, to saue me & all mankynd, who ascended vp into heauen agayne, and left hys bloud here vpon the earth behynd hym, for the redemption of our sins, haue mercy vpon me, haue mercy vppon me, for thy deare sonne our sauiour Iesus Christes sake, in whom I confesse onely to bee all saluation and iustification, and that there is none other mean, nor way, nor holynes, in which, or by which any man can be saued in this world. This is my fayth, which I beseech all men here to beare witnesse of.

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Then he sayd the Lords prayer, and so made an end.

MarginaliaTalke betweene W. Flower and M. Cholmely.Then M. Cholmley came to him, willyng hym to recant his heresie, whereby he might do good to the people, or els he would be damned.

Flower answered as followeth. Sir, I beseech you for Gods sake be contended: for that I haue sayd, I haue said, and I haue bene of this fayth from the beginnyng: and I trust to the liuyng God hee will geue me his holy spirite to continue to the ende. Then he desired all the world to forgeue hym whome he had offended, as he forgaue all the world.

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This done, first his hand beyng held vp agaynst the stake, was stroken of his left hand beyng stayed behynde hym. At the which striking of his hand, certaine that were present beholders of the matter, and purposely obseruyng the same, credibly enformed vs, that he in no part of hys body did once shrinke at the strikyng therof, but once a little he stirred his shoulders.  

Commentary  *  Close

Once again, Foxe is concerned to emphasize the stoicism of his martyrs, even when they were undergoing excruciating physical pain. This is also the reason for Foxe's detailed, graphic, even disgusting, account of Flower's death. On the polemical importance of the stoicism of the martyrs see Collinson (1983) and Freeman (1997).

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And thus fire was set vnto hym, who burning therein cried with a loud voyce: Oh the sonne of God haue mercye vpon me, Oh the sonne of God receyue my soule,  

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Curiously Foxe gives a different version of these words in the 1563 edition than he does in later editions. Presumably he altered these words but why he did so remains unclear.

three tymes, and so his spech beyng taken from hym, he spake no more, liftyng up notwithstandyng his stumpe with hys other arme, as long as he could.

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And thus endured this constant witnes and faythfull seruaunt of God, the extremitie of the fire, beyng therein cruelly handled, by reason that to his burning little wood was brought, so that for lacke of fagots there not sufficient to burne hym, they were fayne to strike hym downe into the fire. Where he lying along (which was dolefull

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to behold) vpon the ground, hys nether part was consumed in the fire, whilest hys vpper part was cleane without the fire, hys tongue in all mens sight still moouyng in hys mouth.  

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Once again, Foxe is concerned to emphasize the stoicism of his martyrs, even when they were undergoing excruciating physical pain. This is also the reason for Foxe's detailed, graphic, even disgusting, account of Flower's death. On the polemical importance of the stoicism of the martyrs see Collinson (1983) and Freeman (1997).

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May. 1555.

 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 76, bottom

The ensuing notices, down to "one Benger" in the next page, are taken, correctly for substance though not verbatim, from the Minutes of the Council Book, which is preserved at the Privy Council Office, Whitehall.

 
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Events of May 1555

All of the incidents listed as happening in May 1555 first appear in the 1583 edition and they are all copied from the privy council records. Foxe's copy of this material survives and all of the entries for May are on BL, Harley 419, fol. 133r exactly as they appear in the 1583 edition.

The 3. of May  
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See APC V, p. 120.

a letter was sent to George Colte and Thom. Daniell, to make search for, and apprehend Iohn Bernard and Iohn Walshe, who vsed to repaire to Sudbury, and carying about with them the bones of Pigotte that was burned, do shew them to the people, persuading them to be constant in his religion, and vpon examination to commit them to further orderyng accordyng to the lawes.

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This day  

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See APC V, p. 120.

Stephen Appes was committed to the litle ease in the Tower, there to remayne two or three dayes, vntill further examination.

The 12. day  

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See APC V, p. 120. 'Thomas Ross' is Thomas Rose, who had been arrested along with a conventicle, at the church of St Mary-le-Bow on 1 January 1555. His adventures would be recounted later in the Acts and Monuments.

M. Thomas Rosse preacher, was by the counsailes letters deliuered from the Tower to the Shiriffe of Northfolke, to be conueyed and deliuered to the B. of Norwich, and he eyther to reduce hym to recant, or els proceed agaynst hym according to the law.

The 16.  

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See APC V, p.126.

a letter was sent to the L. Treasurer, signifiyng what the L. had done for Rosse,  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 77, line 10

The Council Book says: - "A Lettre to the L. Treasurer signyfieng unto him thordre alredy taken for Rosse; and that ordre shalbe given according to his request, for lettres to the Bishopps. And as for Appes," &c.

and that order should be geuen according to his L. request, for letters to the Bishops, & as Appes (whom the Lieuetenant of the Tower reporteth to be mad) his L. perceiuyng the same to be true should commit hym to Bedlem, there to remayne vntill their further order.

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The 26.  

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See APC V, p. 135.

a letter was sent to the L. Treasurer, to conferre with the B. of London, and the Iustices of Peace of that Countie, wherein they are to be executed, that are alredy condemned for religion, & vpon agrement of places, to geue order for their execution accordingly.

The 28.  

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See APC V, pp. 136-37.

a letter was sent to the L. Treasurer, to cause speedie preparation to be made of such mony as was appoynted for such persons as should cary the ioyful tidings of Queene Maries good deliuery of chyld, to diuers princes: so as they be not compelled to stay  
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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 77, line 23

The Council Book says more distinctly, "be not driven to tarry for the same." The sums had been settled by a Minute of Council May 16th, as follows: "The Lord Admiral and Lord Fitzwaters to have each £4 per diem in prest: Sir Henry Sidney 5 marks per diem in prest: Richard Shelley 4 marks per diem in prest:" the "passport" (Council Book) presently mentioned was for Shelley alone.

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when tyme shall come. The Embassadors were to the Emperour, the L. Admirall, to the French King the L. Fitzwaters, to the kyng of Romains Sir Henry Sidney, to the K. of Portingall, Rich. Shelley, whose free passage through France M. Doctor Wootton was willed to procure by letters the 24. of Iune.

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The 29.  

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See APC V, p. 137. The privy council register refers to one 'John Dye'; this is John Dee, later famous as a mathematician and occult philosopher. Foxe only prints Dee's initial; his reasons for disguising Dee's name are given in Roberts, p. 49.

 
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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 77, line 29

This is an error of Foxe's; for the Council Book distinctly places this matter among the Minutes of the xxviijth.

was a letter directed to Sir Frances Ingle-

field,
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