Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
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David WoodruffWilliam Chester
 
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David Woodruff

Sheriff of London (1554 - 1555) (DNB, sub 'Sir William Chester').

Together with fellow sheriff Sir William Chester, David Woodruff escorted John Rogers and John Hooper to and from various prisons during their trials and condemnations. 1563, pp. 1030 and 1056-57; 1570, pp. 1662 and 1679-80; 1576, pp. 1418 and 1433-34; 1583, pp. 1489 and 1507.

After Rogers and Hooper were degraded, they were delivered to the custody of Chester and Woodruff. 1563, p. 1058; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508.

Chester and Woodruff also conveyed John Rogers to Smithfield. 1563, p. 1076; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, p. 1492.

Woodruff urged John Rogers, at his execution, to recant his 'abhominable doctrine'. 1570, p. 1664; 1576, pp. 1419-20; 1583, p. 1493.

Together with William Chester, he took custody of Stephen Knight, John Laurence and William Pygot and delivered them to Newgate. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London [Chester or Woodruff] and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans were altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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Woodruff taunted Bradford at his burning and ordered Bradford's hands to be tied when he would not cease praying. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, p. 1804 [with cross-ref to p. 1664], 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

He called John Rogers a heretic at his burning and said that he would never pray for him, although Rogers prayed for the sheriff. 1563, p. 1215, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

In 1555 he was sheriff with William Chester. Chester would weep at the death of the martyrs, whereas Woodruff would laugh. Chester was kind, whereas Woodruff would beat the condemned. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

When Woodruff went home after the burning of John Bradford, he became paralysed in his legs and arms. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

Denley, Newman and Packingham were handed over to the sheriffs of London to be kept until commanded by writ to be sent to their places of execution. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1572, 1583, p. 1685.

Along with Bonner, Woodruff cried for Robert Smith to be taken away at his last examination. 1563, p. 1259, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, p. 1605, 1583, p. 1694.

David Woodruff insisted that Carman's head be broken for getting his cart in the way when Woodruff's children were being brought to him. 1563, p. 1704, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

Woodruff was afflicted with a deadening of one side, which stayed with him for seven or eight years until he died. 1563, p. 1704, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

[For further evidence of Woodruff's catholic sympathies, see Brigden, London, p. 554].

[Foxe also refers to him by the variants: 'Woodriff', 'Woodrofe', 'Wodroffe' and 'Wodriffe'.]

 
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William Chester

(1509? - 1595?)

Draper. Lord mayor, alderman and merchant of London. (DNB)

Sheriff with David Woodruff in 1555.

Together with his fellow sheriff David Woodruff, Chester escorted John Rogers and John Hooper to and from various prisons during the process of their trials and condemnations. 1563, pp. 1030 and 1056-57; 1570, pp. 1662 and 1679-80; 1576, p. 1418 and 1433-34; 1583, pp. 1489 and 1507. After Hooper and Rogers were degraded they were delivered to the custody of Chester and Woodruff. 1563, p. 1058; 1570, p.1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508. He and Woodruff also conveyed John Rogers to Smithfield. 1563, p. 1036; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, p. 1492.

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Chester escorted Rowland Taylor out of London on the first leg of Taylor's journey to Hadleigh for execution. Chester gave Taylor permission to speak with his wife and daughters and wept as Taylor said farewell to them. He 'gently' refused to let Taylor's wife speak further with her husband while Taylor was being detained in an inn, awaiting the arrival of the sheriff of Essex. Chester provided Margaret Taylor with an escort to her mother's house. 1563, p. 1076; 1570, p. 1700; 1576, pp. 1451-52; 1583, p. 1525.

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Together with David Woodruff, he took custody of Stephen Knight, John Laurence and William Pygot and delivered them to Newgate. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

On 30 May 1555, John Cardmaker and John Warne were committed to Chester and Woodruff's custody for execution. At the stake, Chester and Woodruff called Cardmaker aside and talked with him secretly for a long time. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, p. 1751; 1576, pp. 1496-97; 1583, p. 1579.

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London [Chester or Woodruff] and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans are altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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Chester would weep at the death of the martyrs, whereas Woodruff would laugh. Chester was kind, whereas Woodruff would beat the condemned. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

In a letter to Augustine Bernher, Bradford asked Bernher to ask Mrs Pierrpoint to ask Sheriff Chester what was planned for him. 1570, p. 1837, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1654.

Denley, Newman and Packingham were handed over to the sheriffs of London to be kept until commanded by writ to be sent to their places of execution. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1572, 1583, p. 1685.

William Chester was persecuted during Mary's reign for his protestant beliefs. 1563, p. 1737.

1603 [1579]

Queene Mary. Articles obiected against Iohn Warne.

MarginaliaAnno. 1555. May. MarginaliaA more full answere to the second part of the eight article.  

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The articles put to Cardmaker, and his answers to them, came from records of Bishop Bonner, probably a separate act book, now lost.

Where in my answer to your articles I deny the presence of Christ in the Sacrament, I meane not his sacramentall presence, for that I confesse, but my deniall is of his carnall presence in the same. But yet further, because this word is oftentymes taken of the holy fathers, not only for the bread and wyne, but also for the whole administration and receiuyng of the same, accordyng to Christes institution: MarginaliaSacramentall presence in the Sacrament. Carnal presence in the Sacramēt denyed.so I say, that Christ is present spiritually too, and in all them which worthily receiueth the Sacrament: so that my deniall is still of the reall, carnall, and corporall presence in the sacrament, and not of the sacramentall nor spirituall presence.

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This haue I thought good to adde to my former aunswer, because no man should misunderstand it.

By me Iohn Cardmaker.

Next to these articles of M. Cardmaker, I thought best to inferre the articles and answers likwise of Iohn Warne his martyr fellow, in maner as followeth.

¶ Articles ministred agaynst Iohn VVarne Vpholster, of the parish of S. Iohn in Walbrooke, with his answers to the same.  
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The articles put to Warne, and his answers to them, come from records of Bishop Bonner, probably a separate act book, now lost.

MarginaliaArticles agaynst Iohn Warne vpholster in Walbroke.FIrst, that thou Iohn Warne, being of the age of xxix. yeres, & of the parish of S. Iohn of Walbrooke in London, hast beleeued, and doest beleeue firmely and stedfastly, that in the Sacrament commonly called the Sacramēt of the aultar, there is not the very true and naturall body of our Sauiour Christ in substaunce, vnder the formes of bread and wyne.

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MarginaliaAgaynst transubstantiation. tem, that thou hast beleued, and doest beleue, that after the words of consecration spoken by the priest, there is not (as the church of England doth beleue and teach) the body of Christ: but that there doth only remayne the substance of material bread, as it is before the consecration, or speaking of the wordes of consecration: and that the sayd bread is in no wyse altered or changed.

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MarginaliaAgaynst the sacrifice of the Masse.Item, that thou hast sayd and doest beleeue, that if the Catholike church do beleue and teach, that there is in the masse (now vsed in England and other places of Christendome) a sacrifice wherein there is a sacrament conteinyng the body and bloud of Christ really and truly: then that beliefe and fayth of the church is naught, and agaynst Gods truth and the scripture.

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MarginaliaHeresye for laughing at a Spaniell shorne on the head.Item, that thou hast said, that where about a twelue moneths agone & more, a great rough water Spaniell of thyne, was shorne in the hed, & had a crowne like a Priest made in the same, thou diddest laugh at it & like it, though thou didst it not thy selfe, nor knowest who did it.

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Item, that thou, neither this Lent last past, nor at any tyme since the Queenes Maiesties raigne, hast come into the church, or heard masse, or bene confessed, or receiued the sacrament of the aultar: and hast said, that thou art not sory that thou hast so done, but thou art glad, because thou hast not therewith defiled thy conscience, which otherwise thou shouldest so haue done.  

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Warne had already been cited before Nicholas Harpsfield, the vicar-general of the London diocese, in the spring of 1554, for refusing to attend his parish church until the services were conducted in English (Letters of the MartyrsA, DL/C/614, fol. 48v).

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Vpon all which articles Iohn Warne being examined by the said Boner, in presence of diuers witnesses, the 23. of May, ann. 1555. did confesse and beleue the same, & subscribe hereunto his name with his owne hand.

By me Iohn Warne.

Also it was obiected against the said Iohn Warne, by the B. aforesayd, as followeth.  

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The articles put to Warne, and his answers to them, come from records of Bishop Bonner, probably a separate act book, now lost.

MarginaliaA nother addition of Articles.Item,  

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The information contained in this addition is correct: Warne had been arrested as a 'rank sacramentary' in 1546 and was pardoned on 19 December of that year. (See CLRO, Repertory 11, fol. 300r; APC I, pp. 494-95 and L & P xxi (ii), p. 648, no.40). Bonner had been bishop that year, and clearly remembered Warne.

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that thou Iohn Warne wast in tyme past here in the City of London, conuented in the Guildhal for heresie against the sacrament of the aultar, according to the order of the lawes of this Realme of England in the time of king Henry the 8. and when Alderman Barnes was shirife, & the Thursday after that Anne Askew was burnt in Smithfield, MarginaliaIohn Warne about the tyme of Anne Askew was condemned to be burned, and had his pardon.and therupon thou wast sent as a prisoner to Newgate, to whom Edmond B. of London did repayre with his chaplens, to instruct thee in þe true faith of Christ, touchyng the said Sacrament of the aultar, & to bring thee from thy error, which was, that in the Sacrament of the altar there is not the body of Christ, nor any corporal presence of Christes body & bloud, vnder the formes of bread & wyne: but that in the sayd sacrament there is onely materiall bread & wyne, without any substance of Christes body and bloud at all, & because thou wouldst not leaue & for sake thy sayd heresie therin, but persist & abide obstinately and wilfully therein, thou wert according to þe said lawes condemned to death, & to be burnt: and thereupon labour beyng made for thee to the king and other in the Courte, MarginaliaIohn Warne pardoned by K. Henry. 8.thou hadst a pardon of king Henry the 8. and so thereby

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didst saue thy lyfe. Neuerthelesse, in thy heart, conscience, and mynd, thou didst both then and also afore, beleeue no otherwyse then at this present thou doest beleeue: that is to say, MarginaliaIohn Warne denyeth transubstantiation.that in the Sacrament of the aultar there is neyther the very true body or bloud of Christ, nor no other substāce but the substaunce of materiall bread and wyne, and to receiue the sayd materiall bread and wyne, and to breake it, and to distribute it among the people, onely is the true receiuyng of Christes body, and no otherwise: so that thy fayth and beliefe is, that in the sayd sacrament there is no substance of Christes material body and bloud: but all the thyng that is there, is materiall bread, and the receiuyng thereof as afore: and that the substance of the natural and true body of Christ borne of the Virgine Mary, is only in heauen, and not in the sacrament of the aultare. In which thine opinion, thou hast euer hitherto since continued, and so doest continue at this present, thou confessing all this to be true, and in witnes therof, subscribing thy name thereunto as followeth.

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By me Iohn Warne.  

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Foxe is clearly following an official record of these examinations which has now been lost. It was probably kept with the articles and answers of Cardmaker and Warne.

MarginaliaThe playne aunswere of Iohn Warne to the articles.Iohn Warne beyng examined vpon these foresaid articles by the Bish. before certaine witnesses,  

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Foxe is clearly following an official record of these examinations which has now been lost. It was probably kept with the articles and answers of Cardmaker and Warne.

whose names were Iohn Boswel, Iohn Heywood, Robert Rauens, the xxiij. of May, did aunswere to the same, confessing and graunting the articles and the contentes thereof to bee true, accordyng as they were obiected in euery part, subscribing also the same with hys hand. Such strength and fortitude gods holy spirit wrought in hym, to stand stoutly and confidently to the defence of the sincere doctrine of hys sonne.

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Whereupon the B. exhorting him with many wordes to leaue his heresies (as he called them) and to returne to the bosom of his mother the holy church, commanded him to appeare agayne the next day, being the xxiiij. of the same moneth.

MarginaliaThe second session agaynst Iohn Warne.Who so doyng (and aunswering as he did before) was willed to come thither agayne at after noone, & so hee dyd: where and at what tyme he was earnestly exhorted by the sayd Bish. to recant his opinions. To whom he aunswered, that he would not depart from his receyued profession, vnlesse he were therunto throughly perswaded by the holy scriptures.

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MarginaliaThe third Session. May. 25.Vpon which aunswer he was willed to come agayne the next day, beyng the 25. day of the same moneth,  

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Foxe is clearly following an official record of these examinations which has now been lost. It was probably kept with the articles and answers of Cardmaker and Warne.

at one of the clocke in the after noone. At which day and houre, the B. examined him agayne vpon all his former articles before obiected, to the which he most constantly did sticke, with his further aunswer thereunto added: I am persuaded, quoth he, to be in the right opinion, and that I see no cause to repent, for all filthines & Idolatry is in the church of Rome.

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MarginaliaIohn Warne constant agaynst the Bishops persuasions. Sentence geuen agaynst Iohn Warne.The B. then  

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Foxe is clearly following an official record of these examinations which has now been lost. It was probably kept with the articles and answers of Cardmaker and Warne.

seyng that notwithstandyng all his faire promises & terrible threatnyngs (whereof he vsed store) he could not any thing preuaile: finished this examination with the definitiue sentence of condemnation pronounced against the said Iohn Warne, and so charged the Shiriffs of London with him, vnder whose custody he remained in the prison of Newgate, vntill the 30. day of the same month of May.

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MarginaliaMay. 30. Cardmaker and Iohn Warne brought to execution.Vpon the which 30. of May, being the day appoynted for their execution, Iohn Cardmaker with the sayd Iohn Warne, were brought by the shiriffes to the place where they should suffer. Who beyng come to the stake, first the Shiriffes called Cardmaker aside, and talked with hym secretly, so long, that in the meane tyme MarginaliaIohn Warne tyed to the stake.Warne had made hys prayers, was chayned to the stake, and had wood and reede set about hym, so that nothyng wanted, but the firyng: but styll aboade Cardmaker talkyng with the shiriffes.  

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Tantalizingly, a surviving copy of the narrative which was Foxe's source for the execution breaks off here, with three-quarters of the page blank (BL, Harley 425, fol. 68v). But the Rerum account continues down through the crowd crying out in acclamation of Cardmaker (Rerum, p. 443) and the original narrative probably went down to that point also.

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MarginaliaThe people afrayd at Cardmakers recanting.The people whiche before had heard that Cardmaker would recant, and beholding this maner of doing, were in a meruailous dumpe and sadnes, thinkyng in deede that Cardmaker should now recant at the burning of Warne. At length Cardmaker departed from the Shiriffes, and came towards the stake, and (in his garments as he was) kneeled downe & made a long prayer in silence to himself: yet the people cōfirmed themselues in the fantasie of his recanting, seyng him in his garments praying secretly, & no semblance of any burning.

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MarginaliaIohn Cardmaker standeth constantly to the fier. Cardmaker and Warne ioyne hands.His prayers being ended, he rose vp, put of his cloths vnto his shirt, went with bolde courage to the stake, and kissed it sweetly: he toke Warne by the hand, and comforted him heartily, & so gaue himselfe to be also bound to the stake most gladly. The people seyng this so sodenly done, contrary to their feareful expectation, as mē deliuered out of a great doubt, cried out for ioy (with so great a shout as hath not lightly ben heard a greater) saieng: God be prai-

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