Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Names and Places on this Page
John TooleyRochford
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Tooley

(d. 1555)

Poulterer and posthumous martyr

John Tooley robbed a Spaniard, was caught and sentenced to hang. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, p. 1756; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, p. 1583.

At the gallows, Tooley prayed that the Lord deliver them from the tyranny of the bishop of Rome. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, p. 1756; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, pp. 1583-84.

The privy council ordered that Tooley be posthumously punished by ecclesiastical law for his prayer. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, pp. 1756-57; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, p. 1584.

Depositions of witnesses to Tooley's heretical prayer: 1563, pp. 1144-46.

Bishop Bonner published a writ excommunicating Tooley. 1563, pp. 1142-44; 1570, p. 1757; 1576, pp. 1500-1; 1583, pp. 1584-85.

Tooley was posthumously tried and his remains exhumed and burned. 1563, p. 1144; 1570, pp. 1757-58; 1576, p. 1501; 1583, p. 1585.

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NGR: TQ 875 904

A parish in the hundred of Rochford, county of Essex. 19.25 miles south-east from Chelmsford. 40 miles east by north from London. The living is a rectory in the Archdeaconry of Essex and Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1607 [1583]

Queene Mary. The appearaunce of Symson and Ardeley before Boner. Iohn Tooly.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. Iune.the body and bloud of Christ, but not the very natural body and bloud of Christ in substaunce, vnder the formes of bread and wine.

To the fift they say, they haue aunswered aunswering to the sayde fourth article, and yet neuerthelesse they saye, that they haue beleued, and doe beleue, that in the sacramēt of the Aultar there is not the verye substaunce of Christes body and bloud, but onely the substaunce of naturall bread and wine.

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MarginaliaThe Masse detested.To the sixt they say, that they beleue, that the Masse is of the Pope, and not of Christ, and therefore it is not good, nor hauing in it any goodnes, sauing the Gloria in excelsis, the Epistle and Gospell, the Creed, and the Pater noster: & for this cause they say, they haue not, nor will not come and heare Masse.

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To the seuenth, Iohn Ardeley aunswereth, and sayth, that he beleueth the contentes of the same to bee true: but Iohn Symson doth answere, that he is not as yet fully resolued with himselfe, what auuswere to make therunto, & further sayth, that as touching the common and dayly seruice sayd & vsed in the church, he sayth, that he neuer sayd, that seruice in the Churche ought to be sayd but in the Englishe tongue, nor yet he neuer sayd, that if it be otherwise sayd and vsed then in English, it is vnlawful and nought.

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Iohn Ardeley, and Iohn Symson.

MarginaliaAn other appearance of Simson and Iohn Ardeley before the Byshop.Thus these articles being to them obiected, and theyr aunsweres made vnto the same, as before, the Bishop according to the old trade of his Consistorie Court, respited them to the after noone, biddyng them to make their appearaunce the sayd day and place, betweene the houres of two and three. At what tyme the sayd Bishop repeatyng agayne the sayd articles vnto them, and beginnyng with Iohn Ardeley did urge and solicitate, according to his maner of wordes, to recant.  

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The account of the condemnation of Ardley and Simpson appears to be taken from a now lost official record, probably a court book.

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To whom Iohn Ardely againe constantly standyng to his professed Religion, gaue answere in wordes, as foloweth: MarginaliaThe wordes of Iohn Ardeley to Boner.My Lord (quoth he) neyther you, nor any other of your Religion, is of the Catholique Church, for you be of a false fayth: and I doubt not but you shall be deceyued at length, beare as good a face as ye can. You will shedde the innocent bloud, and you haue killed many, and yet goe abot to kyll more. &c.

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And added further, saying: If euery heare of my head were a man, I would suffer death in the opinion and fayth that I am now in. These with many other woordes he spake. Then the Byshop yet demaunding if he woulde relinquish his erroneous opinions (as he called them) and he reduced againe to the vnitie of þe Church, he answeared, as foloweth: No, God foreshield that I should so do: for then I should loose my soule.

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MarginaliaIohn Ardeley & Iohn Simson condemned.After this, the sayd Byshop asking Iohn Ardeley (after his formall manner) if he knewe any cause why hee shoulde not haue sentence condemnatorie agaynst hym, so read the condemnation, as he also did against Iohn Simson, standyng lykewyse in the same cause and constancie with Iohn Ardeley: which was done the xxv. day of May, and so were they both committed to the secular power, that is, to the handes of the Sheriffes,  

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The authority to determine heresy rested with the bishops but they did not have the authority to inflict the death penalty. The condemned heretic had to be surrendered to the sheriffs who would execute the sentence.

to be conueyed to the place where they should be executed. But before I come to their execution, here is not to be passed a thing not vnworthy the looking vpon, which happened in the closing vp of the examination of these two innocent martyrs of God, which is this.

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A Note.

MarginaliaA note of the sodaine feare of Boner.At the tyme of the examination of this Symson and Iohn Ardeley aforesaid, there was assembled such a great multitude of people, that because the Consistorie was not able to hold them, they were fayne to stand in the Church, neare about the sayd Consistorie, wayting to see the prisoners, when they should depart. It happened in the meane time that the Bishop being set in heate with the stoute and bolde aunsweares of the sayd two prisoners (especially of Iohn Symson) burst out in his loud and angry voice, and sayd: Haue him away, haue him away.

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Now the people in the Church hearing these wordes, and thinking (because they daye was farre spent) that the prisoners had their iudgement, they beyng desirous to see the prisoners had to Newgate, seuered them selues, one runnyng one way, an other an other way, whiche caused such a noyse in the Church, that they in þe Consistorie were all amased, and marueiled what it should meane: MarginaliaThe ridiculous feare of Boner and his Doctours.wherfore the Byshop also being somewhat afrayde of this sodayne styrre, asked what there was to do. The standers by answeryng, sayd, that there was like to be some tumult, for they were together by the eares.

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When the Bishop heard this, by & by his hart was in

his heeles, & leauing his seat, he with the rest of that court betooke them to theyr legges, hastening with all speed possible to recouer the doore that went into the bishops house: but the rest being somewhat lighter of foot then my Lorde, did sooner recouer the dore, and thronging hastily to gette in kept the bishop still out, and cryed: Saue my Lord, saue my Lord, but meaning yet first to saue themselues, if any daunger should come, whereby they gaue the standers by good matter to laugh at: resēbling in some part a spectacle not much vnlike to the old stagers at Oxford, worse feared then hurt, when as the Church there was noysed to be on fire, wherof ye may read before. pag. 1180.

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But of this matter enough.

MarginaliaIohn Simson & Iohn Ardeley sent into Essex to be executed. MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Simson, & Ardeley. Iune. 10.Now Iohn Symson and Iohn Ardeley being deliuered (as is aforesayd) to the Shirrifes, were shortly after sent downe from Londō to Essex, where both they on one day (which was about the 10. daye of Iune)  

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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 90, line 2

The true date of their burning seems to have been Tuesday, June 11th.

were put to death, albeit in seuerall places: for Iohn Sympsō suffered at Rochford, Iohn Ardeley the same day was had to Railey, where he finished his martyrdome most quietly in the quarrell of Christes Gospell.  
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This last clause was added in the 1570 edition; it is quite possible that this reflects Foxe's belief that this is what should have happened, rather than reflecting any new information as to what actually happened.

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A note of Iohn Ardeley.

FOr the better consideration of the rigorous crueltye of these Catholick dayes, this is furthermore not vnworthy of all men to be noted and knowen to all posteritie, concerning the examinations of this Ardeley and his company: how that they being brought before the Commissioners were by them greatly charged of stubbornes and vayne glory. Vnto whom they aunswered in defence of their owne simplicitie, that they were content willingly to yeelde to the Queene all their goodes and landes, so that they might be suffered to liue vnder her, in keepyng their conscience free from all Idolatie and papisticall Religion. Yet this would not be graunted, although they had offered all to their hart bloud: so greedy and so thirsty be tbese persecutors of Christian bloud. The Lord geue them repentaunce if it be his wil, and kepe from them the iust reward of such cruel dealing. Amen.

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The ridiculous handling and proceedyng of Byshop Boner and his mates against Iohn Tooly, first suspected and condemned after his death, and then digged out of his graue, and geuen to the secular power, and so burned for an heretike.  
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John Tooley and Bromley's Examination

A narrative of Tooley's execution for theft, denunciation of the pope, the posthumous excommunication of him and the exhumation of his body were printed in the Rerum (pp. 443-44). This narrative was reprinted in all editions of the Acts and Monuments. In the first edition of the Acts and Monuments, Foxe added the letter sent to Bonner from the privy council, dated 28 April 1555, and Bonner's writ beginning the process of excommunication against Tooley as well as the depositions regarding Tooley's words on the scaffold and the examination of Robert Bromley. All of this material came from official records, now lost. There was probably a separate register kept for this case alone.

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Nothing in this account was altered in subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments


Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
John Tooly

Many of the glosses (apart from the narrative pointers) are adversarial, and seek to show the absurdity of burning Tooly's bones. The use of the term 'Councell' ('A Councell called agaynst Tooly') seems designed to mock the excessive effort given over to the pursuit of Tooly after his death. Pole's name is linked with the practice ('Cardinall Poole a great doer in burning dead mens Bones'; 'M. Bucer Paulus Phagius, Peter Martyrs wyfe. Iohn Tooly, burned for heretickes after their death'). Another gloss investigates Bonner's motives and denies his assertion that he was motivated by conscience; his motivation was rather simply obedience to the Council, an attitude which could be more easily allied to the stereotype of Bonner as passionate and fearful than could the notion of a delicate conscience ('Note how Boner here pretendeth conscience in prosecuting this matter. when onely he was commaunded vnto it by the Counsells letters'). There is also a suggestion that the attack on Tooly's remains was a ploy to reveal sympathisers ('The Bishop layeth his bayte to catch whom he may trouble').

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MarginaliaThe story of Iohn Tooly.ABout the same time of the burning of these two aforesayd, in the beginning of the sayd moneth of Iune, fell out a soleme processe & much ado was made by the Popes spiritualty agaynst Iohn Tooly, in a case of heresy. The story is this. There was about the tyme that the Spaniardes began first to keepe a stur  
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I.e., when the Spaniards first began to be a notable presence in England.

in Englād, one Io. Tooly, a citizen & Pulter in London, who conspired with certain other of his society, to rob a Spaniard at s. Iames: & although the deed wer heinous & wicked of it self, yet was it aggrauated & made greater then it was by other, beyng cōmitted agaynst such a person, & agaynst such a countrey. which both the queene & her whole court did highly fauor.  
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Foxe is intimating that Tooley was treated more harshly than he otherwise would have been because his victim was Spanish.

The robbery being known, & brought into iudgemēt, this Tooly was found guilty, and iudged to be hāged, wheras notwithstanding in this Realme there are many mo theftes committed, then theeues executed.

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MarginaliaIohn Tooly dyed a true Christian man. The Christian confession of Tooly.The foresayd Tooly, being lead to the gallowes,  

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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 90, line 10 from the bottom

The Latin says, "ductusque ad suspendium, qui locus erat juxta foralem Westmonasterii columnam, nostri Crucem Charingi appellant."

(whiche stood fast by Charing Crosse a litle before he dyed, standing vpon the Carte, readde a certayne prayer in a printed booke, and two other prayers written in two seuerall papers, who then hauing the haltar about his necke, desired the people there present to pray for him, and to beare hym witnes that he dyed a true Christian man, and that he trusted to be saued onely by the merites of Christes passion, & shedding of his precious bloud, and not by any masses, or Trentalles,  
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Trentals were a set of 30 requiem masses said on behalf of the dead.

Images, or Saintes, which were (as he said) mere Idolatry and superstition, and deuised by the bishop of Rome: and as he the same Tooly, and two other his fellowes, which were there hanged with him, did steale and robbe for couetousnes, MarginaliaThe couetousnes of the the bishop of Rome did sell hys Masses and Trentalles,  
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Trentals were a set of 30 requiem masses said on behalf of the dead.

with such other peltrye for couetousnes, and there being in a great anger (as appeared) agaynst the bishop of Rome, spake with a loud voyce these wordes following: From the tyranny of the Bishop of Rome, and all his detestable enormities: From false doctrine and heresy, and from the comtempt of the word and commaundement, good Lord deliuer vs.

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MarginaliaEx Registro.And then adding further to the same, he spake vnto the people: All you that be true Christian men, saye with me, Amen. And immediately therupon three hundred persons and more to the iudgement & estimatiō of those that were there present, answered and sayd. Amen, three tymes toge-

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