Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCommentary on the GlossesCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the Text
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1622 [1598]

Queene Mary. The booke of our Ladies Psalter full of Popish blasphemy.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. Iune.not at this time to inferre: neither doeth my laisure serue now to wryte Apologies in defence of these Authors here condemned. Onely so much leaue it may please the reader to graūt me to set before him here a pair of balance, where in to waigh the bookes on the one side condemned, wyth þe bookes on the other side allowed, to the end that we waying the one with the other, may discern the better betwene them, which part wayeth best with Gods holy trueth and true catholicke church against manifest idolatrie and palpable abomination.  

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Our Lady's Psalter

This section may be compared with the reproduction of the 'Rubric of the Mass' in Book X: as on the earlier occasion, the glosses constitute a running attack based on interlinked themes against the content of catholic devotion. In contrast to the glosses next to the rubric of the mass, the tone here is less varied: there is nothing like the mocking of the arbitrariness of the mass found in book X. The reason for this difference is that the subject is not so much a pointless if insulting ritual, but the place of Mary in the Christian scheme, and so the glosses seek, firmly but without mockery, to put her in a more modest position than that accorded to her by the catholic texts criticised. The organising principle of the critique is the divine hierarchy, and many of the glosses point out that the primer and psalter contain ideas which displace God and (especially) Christ from their places in that hierarchy ('One mediatour betwene God and men, the man Iesus Christ'; 'Wrong mediation'; 'The office of Christ geuen to our Lady'; 'If Maryes merites might helpe vs, then Christ dyed in vayne'; 'Treason agaynst Christes person and dignitye'; 'All iudgement is geuē to Christ alone, and before him the virgin also her self shalbe iudged'; 'If our Lady be all in all then God belyke sitteth idle in heauen';' O impious blasphemye'; 'If Mary forgeue sinnes, then is our fayth in Christ in vayne'; 'The Deuill and the Pope sayth so and not God'; 'Mary made a commaunder of Christ'; 'Christ made a captiue and a prisoner in the Popes Church'; 'Our Lady made equall with God in the Church Rome'). One consequence of the misdirection of devotion is that it does the misdirector no spiritual good, and various glosses point out the vain or false nature of the devotional formulations they lie next to ('False merite'; 'Vayne trust'; 'Wrong inuocation'; 'False trust'). As with the critique of the mass in Book X, such a misdirection of effort is not merely useless, it is also dangerous because it constitutes an insult to God, or blasphemy ('Horrible blasphemye and derogation to Christes bloud'; 'Derogation of the Crosse of Christ'; 'Derogation of Christes passion'; 'Horrible blasphemy agaynst the Lord'), and furthermore it invests objects and subjects with a spiritual significance they do not deserve, which is idolatry ('Idolatrye to the material Crosse'; 'Blasphemous Idolatrye'; 'Manifest Idolatrye'; 'Idolatrye of the cloysterers'; 'These wordes stincke of blasphemous Idolatrye'; 'The Church of Rome conuict of manifest idolatry'). Thus, Foxe's critique works through a few intertwined points which he makes again and again.

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MarginaliaThe bookes of the Protestantes to be weyed with the bookes of the Papists.And nowe therefore, as they haue in this present proclamation geuen their condemnation vpon those bookes aboue recited, so I desire thee to geue thy censure vpon their bookes by them allowed, and vpon the matter in them contained, and marke wel what good stuff it is.

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MarginaliaThe Primer set forth in Q. Maryes tyme, printed by Iohn Wayland. 

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Foxe is quoting from one of the primer (book for the instruction of children) printed by John Wayland. These works were sponsored by Mary's government (see Duffy, pp. 526-27 and 538-39). It should be cautioned that Foxe's quotations from the primer are not always accurate (for details see Freeman [2004]).

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And first to begin with the Primer in English for children after the vse of Salisburye, Imprinted wyth Priueledge according vnto the Kinge and Queenes Maiesties letters patentes in the raigne of Queene Mary. Lette vs repeate and suruey some part of the said Primer (for to expresse all it were too long) beginning wyth the firste lesson of our Ladye, in these wordes:

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Holye Marye: mother most pure of virgines all: mother and daughter of the king celestiall: So comfort vs in our desolation: That by thy prayer and special meditation, we enioy the reward of the heauenly raigne. &c.

Conferre this with the Scriptures,  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, 129, fn 2

"The Scriptures;" "There is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus." 1 Tim. ii. 5. - ED.

good reader, and iudge vprightly whether this doctrine be tollerable in the Church or not.

It followeth more in the second Lesson.

Holy Mary of all godly the godliest,
Pray for vs of all holy the holiest.
That he our praiers accept may in good wise.
which of thee was borne and raigneth aboue the skies. &c.

In the third lesson.

Thy sonne beseeche with humble intercession,
To purge vs cleane of our transgression,
That so being redeemed we may the place ascende,
Where thou dwellest with him world without ende.

The Versicle.

MarginaliaOne mediatour betwene God and men, the man Iesus Christ.Pray for the people, entreat for the Clergie, make entercession for the deuout womankinde, let al feele thy helpe that worthely solemnise thy memoriall. &c.

An other Versicle.

MarginaliaFalse merite.Holy Mother of God make thy petition, that wee maye deserue Christes promission. &c.

And in the Antheme after Benedictus, thus it followeth.

We beseech thee of thy pitie to haue vs in remembraunce, & to make meanes for vs vnto Christ, that we being supported by thy helpe, may deserue to attaine the kingdome of heauen.

Furthermore in the Collect after it followeth.

MarginaliaWrong mediation.And graunte that through the gracious intercession of the virgine thy mother, wee may be deliuered from this present heauinesse, and haue the fruition of eternall gladnesse.

It followeth moreouer in the sayde Primer thus, concerning the materiall Crosse.

MarginaliaIdolatrye to the material Crosse.O God which haste ascended thy most holy Crosse, and hast geuen light to the darkenesse of the world, vouchsafe by the vertue of thy Crosse to illumine, visite, and comfort both our hearts and bodies. &c.

Moreouer, in the name of S. Iohn Baptiste thus it prayeth.

MarginaliaLet no man glory in any man, for all thinges are yours. &c. 1. Cor. 3.O Lord defend vs alway through the continuall succours of S. Iohn Baptist For the more fraile we be, the more nede we haue to be relieued with necessary prayers. &c.

In which wordes note (good reader) not only the absurditie of doctrine, but also the stolidity of the reason. For where their doctrine pretendeth that Iohn Baptiste should pray for vs, here we pray to God for s. Iohn Baptist, that he wil heare his praier praying for vs. It followeth furthermore in the name of Peter and Paul. MarginaliaWhat is Paule, What is Apollo, but the seruants of him on whom you beleeue? 1. Cor. 3.

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Heare vs mercifully, and graunt that through the merites of them both, we may obtaine the glory euerlasting. &c.

And of S. Andrew.

So lette hym (O Lorde) be a continuall petitioner for vs to thee. &c.

Of S. Laurence thus.

S. Laurence the Deacon did worke a good worke. For by the vertue 

Commentary  *  Close

For a detailed comparison of these passages see Freeman [2004]. But this example is too egregious a misquotation to pass over in silence. The passage reads 'by the signe of the holy Crosse' not 'by the virtue of the holy cross' (cf. The primer in Latin and English (after the use of Sarum)[London, 1555], STC 16064, sig. F1v). In other words, the primer was not mentioning the physical cross at all, rendering Foxe's objection that the True Cross had not been found in St Laurence's time meaningless.

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of the holy crosse he gaue sight to the blinde. &c.

And howe can this be true, when the holy Crosse was not yet found in the time of s. Laurence. For Helen 

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This is St Helena, the mother of Constantine; she was traditionally credited with discovering the True Cross.

whych first found the crosse (as they saye) came after S. Laurence more then 40. yeares.

To Tho. Becket Archbishop of Canterburye.

MarginaliaHorrible blasphemye and derogation to Christes bloud.

By the bloud of Thomas, which he for thee did spende,
Make vs Christ to clime, whether Thomas did ascende. 

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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 130, line 12 from the bottom

In the "Primer off Salysburye use ... newly empryntyd yn Paris wythyn the howse off Thylmā Kerver, 1533," this versicle is followed by a prayer: "Deus pro cujus ecclesia gloriosus martyr et pontifex Thomas gladiis impiorum occubuit; præsta quæsumus, ut omnes qui ejus implorant auxilium pie petitionis sue salutarem consequantur effectum, per dominum nostrum," &c. fol. lv.

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Of S. Nicholas.

O God which hast glorified blessed Nicholas thy holy Bishop

MarginaliaFalse merites.with innumerable myracles graunt we beseeche thee, that by his merites & prayers we may be deliuered from the fire of hell.

Of Mary Magdalen.

Graunt we beseeche thee, through thy mercy, to let her purchase for vs the blisse euerlasting. &c.

An other prayer of our Ladie.

The dolorous compassion of Gods sweete mother,
Bring vs to the blisse of almighty God the father. &c.

An other prayer in the sayd Primer to our Lady.

MarginaliaThe office of Christ geuen to our Lady.Establish vs in peace and tranqullitie,
And chaunge the name of sinfull Eua:
Loose thy prisoners from captiuitie,
Vnto the blinde geue sight againe.
Deliuer vs from malignitie,
To the ende we may some grace attaine.
Shewe they selfe to be a mother:
So that he accept our petition.
Deliuer vs from bondage of sinne. &c.

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Holy mother succour the miserable, comfort the weake spirited, geue courage to the desperate, praye for the people, make intercession for the Cleargy, and be a meane for the deuout womankinde. &c.

Another blasphemous prayer.

MarginaliaBlasphemy.O thou meeke mother haue mercy therefore,
On wretches, for whome thou haddest these paines all,
Seeing thy sonne that vine cluster pressed sore,
And from the pestilence of death eternall,
Keepe vs by voiding the feende infernall,
And ioyne vs with them which rewarded be, 

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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 131, line 21

In the "Prymer off Salysburye use," Paris, 1533, fol. xciii. verso, this line reads: - "And joyne us wyth thym whych burnyshed be."

With eternall life, seeing the Deitie.

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An other blasphemie in the sayde Primer.


Haile Queene mother of mercy, our life, our sweetnes, oure hope. Vnto thee do we crie and sigh, weeping and wailing. Come of therefore our Patronesse, cast vpon vs thy pitiful eyes, and after this oure banishmente, shewe to vs the blessed fruite of thy wombe. O gate of glory be for vs a reconciliation vnto the father and the sonne. From the wretched their faultes expell: wype the spots of sinnes vncleane. &c.

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Item to our Lady.

The fruite of thy wombe euerlasting,
We may behold through thy deseruing &c.


MarginaliaIf Maryes merites might helpe vs, then Christ dyed in vayne.Graunt we beseeche thee, that by her merites and praiers we may attaine to that vnspeakable ioy, wheras she being assumpt, doth now enioy with thee in heauen for euer.

And thus much hitherto of this catholike Primer, called our Ladies mattens. Wherunto if it were not tedious for the Reader, we would also adioyne our Ladies MarginaliaLike Primer like Psalter.Psalter to the intent that all indifferent Readers, as they haue seene what bookes these Catholike fathers haue condemned and do cōdemne for hereticall: 

Commentary  *  Close

Actually there is no logical reason why Foxe should be associating the contents of the Wayland primer with the Psalter of Our Lady. Foxe is doing so because he wants to discredit the relatively Christocentric Wayland primers by association with a work written centuries earlier.

so the same may also see & iudge what bokes on þe other side they approue as lawfull and Catholike. And for as muche as it is not knowen peraduenture to all men, what our Ladies Psalter is, or what it meaneth: yea, and some peraduenture will denie any such booke of our ladies psalter to be writtē or approued,  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, 131, fn 2

It takes its place in the later editions of Bonaventure's works, and is recognised by Wadding in his "Scriptores ordinis Minorum;" Romæ, 1650. - ED.

here therfore we wil first produce the name of the author, who was MarginaliaBonauenture compiler of our Ladyes Psalter.
This Bonauenture liued. an. 1170. and was Canonised. an. 1482.
Bonauenture a Seraphical doctor, bishop also & Cardinall,. canonised moreouer by Pope Sixtus 4. an. 1482. for a saint in the Calēdar, 
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Foxe is trying to deflect the objection that this work did not represent the catholic church's official teaching on the Virgin Mary by arguing (incorrectly as it turns out) that it was written by Bonaventure and that, since Bonaventure was canonized by the catholic church, therefore his work represented the catholic church.

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who in his boke thus entituled in Latine: Incipit Psalterium beatæ virginis, compilatum per Seraphicum Doctorem Sanctum Bonauenturam Episcopum Albanensem, necnon sanctæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ Præsbyterum Cardinalem, in honorem genetricis. &c. Fol. 84. in the second part of his whole woorkes (which were imprinted at Argentine. An. 1495.) 
Commentary  *  Close

The two volume work Foxe is citing is the Egregium opus ... doctoris seraphici sancti Bonaventure, published (as he notes) in Strausburg in 1495. The Psalter of Our Lady begins on fol. 84r of the second volume of that work. However, while this work was credited to Bonaventure in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, it is now generally believed to have been written by Conrad of Saxony in the thirteenth century.

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to shewe him selfe a deuout seruant to his Ladie, hath taken euery Psalme of Dauids Psalter (which he peculiarly made and referred to almighty God) and hath in diuers of the sayde Psalmes and verses putte out the name of the Lorde, and hath placed in the name of our Ladye. This being done through the whole Psalmes & euery one of them, it is now called our Ladies Psalter, vsed to be song & saide in the praise and seruice of our Lady. A briefe tast wherof for examples sake (for to shewe all it were too long) we thought here to exhibite vnto the reader, in order as foloweth.

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The title in English of this Psalter.
MarginaliaThe title of the booke called our Ladyes Psalter.☞ Here beginneth the Psalter of the blessed Virgine, made by the Seraphicall Doctoure S. Bonauenture, the Bishop of Albane, and Cardinall of the holy Church of Rome. &c. 
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe's quotations from this work are not always accurate. In particular, there are frequent ellisions of material, some of which distort the meaning of the text.

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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 132, line 18

It may be well to show what a large circulation has been allowed to this manual in the regions of Romanism.

"Psalterium B. M. V. a S. Bonaventura editum: Exercitium item quotidianum," &c. 12 mo. Constantiæ, 1611.

"Hoc Psalt. anno 1476 Venetiis est impressum per Jo. de Hallis.

"J'en ai une petite édition entitulée Psalt. B. M. V. a S. Bonaventura editum: edit. ult. 12 mo. Neuhusii, 1709.

"Cette edit. porte sur le dernier feuillet l'approbation qui suit: Hoc Psalterium B. M. V. a sancto Bonaventura compositum, nunc mendis plurimis repurgatum .... et omnibus pie admodum et laudabiliter in privatis precibus ad honorem ejusdem beatiss. Virginis recitabitur. Actum Duaci 4 Juli, 1609.

"Ce Psautier a été traduit en diferentes langues. Mr. Duve en a une edit. Francoise sans Titre, qui doit être de l'an 1672.

"J'en trouve une nouvelle edit. cotée dans la Biblioth select. Jac. Chion Hagæ Com. 1749, p. 161, en cets mots; Le Psautier de la Vierge Marie ou le Paradis des ames Chretiennes contenant le Psautier de Bonaventure, Brux. 1701, item a Liege, 1702, in 8 vo."

Editions of translations into Italian, German, Flemish, are also mentioned by Clement (from whom the preceding is extracted), Biblioth. Curieuse, tom. v. p. 58.

The continuator of Wadding, the annalist of the order to which the saint belonged, confirms the preceding, and adds other translations.

"In Italicum idioma versum a Jo. Bapt. Pinello vulgatum est Genuæ 1616, in 4 to, per Joseph. Pavonem; circa quod tempus et in Germanicum sermonem ab adam Walessero translatum asserit Possevinus in Appar. sac. Append. I., et a Gulielmo Spoelbergo ait Waddingus; germanice prodiit Coloniæ, 1605, in 12 mo. In Sinensium idioma etiam translatum fuit a Emmanuele a S. Jo. evangelista, teste Jo. a S. Anton. tom i. p. 160. Ex eo Breviarium B. V. extraxit Didacus Christiani Min. Observ., ac imprimi curavit Parisiis 1645." (Supplementum et castigatio ad Scriptores Ordd. S. Francisci a Waddingo - opus Jo. H. Sbaraleæ, Romæ, 1806, pp. 159, 160.)

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1 BEatus vir, qui intelligit nomen tuum Maria virgo, gratia tua animam eius confortabit. Tanquam aquarum fontibus

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