Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
John de Vere

(d. 1562)

16th earl of Oxford. (DNB)

John de Vere accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

John Hamond, Simon Hamond, Christopher Lyster, John Mace, John Spencer and Richard Nicholas were delivered to John Kingstone, bachelor of civil law, and then commissory to Gardiner, by the earl of Oxford on 28 March 1556. 1563, p. 1517, 1570, p. 2089, 1576, p. 1803, 1583, p. 1909.

John Routh was convented before the earl of Oxford. He was sent to Colchester castle by Lord Rich and then on to Bonner. 1563, p. 1526, 1570, p. 2096., 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

Thomas Hawkes was a member of his household. The earl reported to Bishop Bonner that Hawkes refused to have his son baptized in a catholic service and delivered Hawkes to Bonner�s custody (1563, pp. 1161-62; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1550 [recte 1502]; 1583, p. 1585).

He denounced six residents of Coggeshall, Essex (William Bamford, Nicholas Chamberlain, Thomas Brodehill, Thomas Osborne and Richard Webbe) to Bishop Bonner on 1 May 1555 (1563, p. 1166;1570, p. 1777; 1576, p. 1518; 1583, pp. 1601-02).

In a letter to Bishop Bonner, John Kingston said that the 'lord of Oxford' was one of the commissioners who confiscated the lands and goods of 22 accused heretics. 1563, p. 1564 [recte 1576].

On 29 August 1557 an indenture was made between several lords and justices and John Kingston concerning the delivery of 22 prisoners from Colchester. De Vere was one of the persecutors named in the indenture. 1563, p. 1565, 1570, p. 2157, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly marked as 1971]

John Cornet was sent before the earl of Oxford, who ordered that he be held in chains and finger irons that made the tips of his fingers burst. 1570, p. 2287, 1576, p.1974 [incorrectly numbered as 1938], 1583, p. 2081.

Cornet was sent to Bonner but later ordered by the earl of Oxford to return to Rough-hedge to be whipped and then banished from the town forever. 1570, p. 2287, 1576, p.1974 [incorrectly numbered as 1938], 1583, p. 2081.

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Nicholas Chamberlain

(d. 1555)

Weaver and martyr.

Nicholas Chamberlain was denounced to Bishop Bonner by the earl of Oxford and Sir Philip Paris on 1 May 1555. 1563, p. 1166; 1570, p. 1777; 1576, p. 1518; 1583, pp. 1601-02

He was examined by Bonner on 17 May 1555 and articles were presented to him. He answered the articles, denying that the church of Rome was part of the catholic church, denying transubstantiation and denying auricular confession. 1563, pp. 1167-68; 1570, pp. 1778-79; 1576, pp. 1518-19; 1583, pp. 1502-03

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Bonner urged him to recant; he refused. Chamberlain was condemned on 18 May 1555 and executed at Colchester on 14 June. 1563, p. 1168; 1570, p. 1779; 1576, p. 1520; 1583, p. 1603

Robert Smith told his wife in a letter that Chamberlain was dead. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

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Richard Webbe


Richard Webbe was denounced to Bishop Bonner by the earl of Oxford and Sir Philip Paris on 1 May 1555. Webbe recanted on 17 May 1555. 1563, p. 1166; 1570, p. 1777; 1576, p. 1518; 1583, p. 1601

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Sir Philip Paris

Paris was listed in the Commission of the Peace for Essex in May 1555, but his name was deleted. [PRO, SP11/5, no. 6].

Sir Philip Paris denounced six residents of Coggeshall, Essex: William Bamford, Nicholas Chamberlain, Thomas Osmund, Thomas Brodehill, Thomas Osburne and Richard Webbe, to Bishop Bonner on 1 May 1555. 1563, p. 1166; 1570, p. 1777; 1576, p. 1518; 1583, pp. 1601-02

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Thomas Brodehill


Thomas Brodehill was denounced to Bishop Bonner by the earl of Oxford and Sir Philip Paris on 1 May 1555. He recanted on 17 May 1555. 1563, p. 1166; 1570, p. 1777; 1576, p. 1518; 1583, p. 1601

[Foxe calls Brodehill ?Brody? in the 1563 edition.]

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Thomas Hawkes

(d. 1555)

Gentleman and martyr. Fellow prisoner of Robert Smith.

Thomas Hawkes was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555; he was condemned by Bonner on 8 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

Hawkes sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Foxe describes Hawkes' life and character; Hawkes served in the household of the earl of Oxford (1563, p. 1161; 1570, p. 1758; 1576,pp. 1501-1550 [recte 1502]; 1583, p. 1585).

Hawkes refused to allow his infant son to be baptized in a catholic service. The earl of Oxford reported this to Bishop Bonner (1563, p. 1162; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1550 [recte 1502]; 1583, p. 1585).

Hawkes was examined informally by Bonner (1563, pp. 1148-51; 1570, pp. 1758-60; 1576, pp. 1550 [recte 1502]-1551 [recte 1503]; 1583, pp. 1585-87).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and and John Harpsfield (1563, pp. 1151-52; 1570, pp. 1760-1; 1576, pp. 1551 [recte 1503]-1504; 1583, pp. 1587-88).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and John Bird (1563, pp. 1152-53; 1570, pp. 1761-62; 1576, pp. 1504-05;1583, p. 1588).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Feckenham (1563, pp. 1153-54; 1570, p. 1762; 1576, p. 1505; 1583,pp. 1588-89).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and William Chedsey (1563, pp. 1154-55; 1570, pp. 1763-64; 1576, pp. 1505-06; 1583, pp. 1589-90).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Bonner on 29 June 1554 (1563, pp. 1155-56; 1570, p. 1764; 1576, p. 1506; 1583, p. 1590).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Bonner on 30 June 1554 (1563, p. 1156; 1570, p. 1764; 1576, pp. 1507-08; 1583, p. 1590).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Bonner on 1 July 1554 (1563, pp. 1156-57; 1570, pp. 1764-65; 1583, p. 1590).

A formal examination of Hawkes was held on 3 September 1554 (1563, pp. 1157-58; 1570, pp. 1765-66; 1576, pp. 1507-08; 1583, pp. 1590-91).

Hawkes was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555 and condemned by Bonner on 8 February 1555 (1570, pp. 1705 and 1766; 1576, pp. 1456 and 1508; 1583, pp. 1529 and 1591-92).

Hawkes dined and prayed with Thomas Wattes and other Marian martyrs on the night of 9 June 1555, when they were all detained at an inn at Chelmsford, awaiting execution (1563, p. 1166; 1570, p. 1771; 1576, p.1513; 1583, p. 1596).

Foxe describes the martyrdom of Hawkes (1563, p. 1162; 1570, pp. 1766-67; 1576, pp. 1508-09; 1583, pp. 1592-93).

Hawkes sent a letter to a congregation (1563, pp. 1558-59; 1570, pp. 1767-68; 1576, pp. 1509-10; 1583, p. 1593).

Hawkes sent a Letter to his wife (1563, pp. 1159-60; 1570, pp. 1768-69; 1576, p. 1510; 1583, pp. 1593-94).

Hawkes sent a letter to Clement Throgmorton (1570, p. 1769; 1576, pp. 1510-11; 1583, p. 1594).

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Thomas Wattes

(d. 1555)

Linen draper and martyr.

Thomas Wattes sold his goods and gave the money to his wife and children. He gave his store of cloth. 1563, p. 1166; 1570, p. 1769; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, p. 1594

He was arrested on 26 April 1555 and brought before Lord Rich. He was examined by Rich and other Essex magistrates and sent by them to Bonner on 27 April. 1563, pp. 1162-63; 1570, pp. 1769-70; 1576, pp. 1511-12; 1583, pp. 1594-95

Wattes was examined by Bonner on 2 May 1555, where he declared that the mass was abominable and the pope a tyrant. Wattes refused Bonner?s exhortations to recant. 1563, pp. 1163-65; 1570, pp. 1770-71; 1576, pp. 1511-12;1583, pp. 1595-96

He was examined by Nicholas Harpsfield on 4 May 1555. Harpsfield urged him to recant, but Wattes refused. He was interviewed informally by Bonner on 10 May; Wattes again refused to recant. 1563, p. 1165; 1570, p. 1771; 1576, p. 1512; 1583, p. 1596

He was examined formally by Bonner on 17 May, 1555 and condemned on 18 May. 1563, p. 1165; 1570, p. 1771; 1576, p. 1512; 1583, p. 1596

Wattes was sent to Chelmsford to be executed on 9 June 1555. He was confined in an inn that night with Thomas Hawkes and others. He was burned soon afterwards. 1563, pp. 1165 and 1166; 1570, p. 1771; 1576, p. 1513; 1583, p. 1596

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William Bamford (alias Butler)

(d. 1555)

Weaver and martyr.

William Bamford was denounced to Bishop Bonner by the earl of Oxford and Sir Philip Paris on 1 May 1555. 1563, p. 1166;1570, p. 1777; 1576, p. 1518; 1583, pp. 1601-02

He was examined by Bonner on 17 May 1555 and articles were presented to Bamford then. He replied to them, denying that the church of Rome was part of the catholic church, denying transubstantiation and denying the need for auricular confession. 1563, pp. 1167-68; 1570, pp. 1778-79; 1576, pp. 1518-19; 1583, pp. 1602-03

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Bonner urged him to recant; he refused. Bamford was condemned on 18 May 1555 and executed at Harwich on 15 June. 1563, p. 1168; 1570, p. 1779; 1576, p. 1520; 1583, p. 1603

Robert Smith told his wife in a letter that Bamford was dead. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

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Coxehall [Coggeshall]
NGR: TL 855 230

A parish in the Witham district of the hundred of Lexden, county of Essex. 16 miles north-east from Chelmsford. The living is a consolidated vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Colchester and Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1625 [1601]

Queene Mary. The booke of our Ladies Psalter full of Popish blasphemy.

MarginaliaAnno. 1555. generauit te? i. O thou wicked and peeuish generation, knowledge our Lady thy sauiour. Is not she the mother that hath possessed thee, and in fayth hath begotten thee?

MarginaliaCursed blasphemye.O benedicta in manibus tuis reposita est nostra salus. i. O thou blessed, in thy hands is layd vp our saluation, &c.

I nomine tuo omne genu flectatur, cœlestium. &c. In thy name let euery knee bend, in heauen and earth, and in hell.

Quemadmodum infans sine nutrice non potest viuere: ita nec sine Domina nostra posses habere salutem. i. Like as the infant cannot lyue without the nurse, so neither canst thou haue saluation without our Lady.

Quicunque vult saluus esse ante omnia opus est vt teneat de Maria firmam fidem. Quam nisi quisque in integram inuiolatamque seruauerit, absque dubio in æternum peribit. i. Who so will be saued, before all thyngs he must needes hold his beliefe of our Lady, which beliefe, vnles euery one shal hold perfect and sound, shall perish without doubt for euer.

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MarginaliaBlasphemye. The Rosary or Garland of our Lady called Corona beatæ Mariæ.Moreouer, after these so horrible things & vntolerable to be heard, consequently in the next tractation followeth the rosary or garland of our Lady, compiled by the said S. Bonauenture: wherein these words are to be red as followeth: O Mediatrix betweene God and man, the Lorde hath worthily magnified thee, that thou onely shouldst conceyue hys sonne &c. Wherefore O good Mary our mediatrix, mother of Grace, and mother of Mercy. &c. And moreouer within fewe lynes it followeth in these woordes: Therefore O our Empresse and Lady most bountifull, MarginaliaMary made a commaunder of the authoritie of a Mother commaund, commaund (I say) thy welbeloued sonne, that he wil stirre vp our myndes from the loue of worldly thyngs, to heuenly desires &c.

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Item, O the Aduocate of the miserable, the eyes of thy seruants be directed to thee. &c.

To these premisses, I might also adioyne the horrible and most blasphemous wordes of the said Bonauenture in the said booke, Fol. 100. pag. 2. col. 1. which I besech thee to read and note. Quæ maior bonitas quam quod Christus. i. What greater goodnes can be, then that Christ is content to be captiue vpon the aultar.

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Whereupon he speaketh in the person of Ieremy, saying. Behold, I am in your hands, do with me as you see good. &c. Where note (sayth he) that when any Duke or prince is taken prisoner for hys subiectes, he is not let goe, before he paye some great summe of mony for hys ransome. MarginaliaChrist made a captiue and a prisoner in the Popes Church.Euen so neither we ought to let Christ go out of our hands beyng our prisoner and captiue except he graunt vnto vs remission of our sinnes and his heauenly kingdome. The priest therfore lifteth vp the body of Christ vpon the aultar: as though he sayd thus: behold hym whome the whole world is not able to comprehend, he is holden here our captiue, wherfore let vs hold hym fast and not let hym go before we obtayne of hym our requests. &c.

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MarginaliaThe Church of Rome examinedIs not here good Catholike stuffe (christen Readers) trow you? Conferre I beseech you this doctrine wyth the doctrine of the Apostles, which teach vs that we are fullye complet in Christ, and I wil referre me to no better iudge then to your own conscience. MarginaliaThe Church of Rome conuict of manifest idolatry.And now therfore, if any mā haue bene in doubt in tymes past of the doctrine and proceedings of the church of Rome, whether it be rightly charged with blynd errors, with blasphemy intollerable, & Idolatry abominable or not, here now may he be fully certified & resolued. For where was euer idolatry or blasphemy to be found, if it be not here in this Mattins & Psalter of our Lady? MarginaliaOur Lady made equall with God in the Church Rome.If Idolatry be to make an idoll to bee worshipped as God, which is no God, what doe we here but make an idoll of our Lady (as we call her) to be worshipped with no less dignity, glory, authority, reuerence, and seruice, then is the Lord God himselfe. As he is called our Lord, so she is called our lady. And if he be kyng, yet she is the queene of heauē. MarginaliaThe doctrine of the Romish Church directly against the first commaundemēt of God.And though he haue the name of god yet she bereth so the title of the mother of God, that as mothers haue authority ouer their children, so she is willed to shew her selfe to be his mother, to cause him to grāt our petitions. Finally, if he be our patron, yet is she our patronesse. The commandement saith: Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and hym only shalt thou serue. And what worship or seruice can we geue to God, more then we doe ascribe vnto her? Or what benefit is to be asked at þe hands of Christ our Sauiour, which is not equally asked of her? MarginaliaTo trust and beleeue in our Lady.To saue our soules, to geue vs peace, to graunt grace, to comfort the desperate, to loose our captiuity, to release our sinnes, to deliuer from the fiend, to bryng to heauen. &c. to her we pray, we cry, we creepe, we sigh, we grone, wee knock and kneele, to her we trust, and if we beleue not also in our Lady, we be heretikes ipso facto.

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MarginaliaOur Lady hath her Church as well as Christ.Furthermore, as Christ our onely Lord and Sauiour hath his Church and Congregation which professeth hys

name, of whom we are called Christians: so neither is she likewise without her chapels, her cloisters, her Chapters, fraternities and brotherhoods, which professing her name in like sort, are called our Ladies brethren, or white friers, besides an innumerable sort of other patrons of churches, of whom euery one hath his peculiar church and religion by himselfe, yet all these together be included vnder the generall deuotion of our Lady their supreme patronesse and gouernesse.

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Now to proceed further to the other prrt of the commaundement, which sayeth: Him onely shalt thou serue: What seruice hath the Lord in all the church, but our Lady also iointly with him hath the lyke? Her Masse, her Mattins, her Euensong, her Houres and Complin, her Rosaries, her Anthems, her Collects, her Primer, her Psalter, her holydaies likewyse, yea fiue to one. Finally, as þe Lord hath his his prayer called the Lordes prayer, so hath shee her Aue Maries, 

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I.e., Hail Marys.

Marginalia10. Auyes to one Pater noster.yea x. Aues to one Pater noster: 
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I.e., the Lord's Prayer.

yea, & read further in the said Bonauenture, and ye shal see her also to haue her Te Deum, her Benedictus, her Magnificat, and also her Quincunque vult. 
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Hymns in honour of the Virgin Mary.

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If the Lorde our God had not expressed vnto vs hys own will by playne worde, limiting vnto vs by expresse iniunction, what to beleue, what to folow, & how to worship and serue him, & how to receiue from him our saluation, but had left vs to the imagination of our owne inuētions, euery man to shift for himself after his own pollicy, then peraduenture this way taken by the Popes Church, to make frends & mediators betwene God and vs for reconciliation, remission & saluation, might haue some ryme or reason: but now gods word doth bynde vs, doth prescribe and limite vs precisely in euery point touching saluation, what to beleue, & what to do, shewing vs plainly, that we cannot be saued, but by the bloud of hys sonne only, neither cā be iustified but by faith only in þe same Christ his sonne. MarginaliaInfidelitye. Idolatrye.Wherfore not to beleue that which he hath promised is infidelitie, and to follow any other beliefe then he hath set for vs, is plaine idolatry. MarginaliaThe church of Rome charged with Infidelitye and Idolatrye.The which ij. special errors most commonly doe followe the doctrine of the Romish church, as not only in this primer and psalter of our Lady aforesaid, but also in all their proceedings, teachings, and preachings besides, may well appeare. MarginaliaThe church of Rome neyther taketh that which God doth geue, neyther doth seeke for that which they would haue, by lawfull meanes.For where the scripture perfectly doth promise and pronounce vs to bee iustified through our fayth in Christ, & willeth vs to seeke our saluation no where els, but onely in the merits of Iesus: the institution of the church of Rome neyther wyll receiue that God hath freely geuen (wherein standeth infidelity) neither yet will seek the same there where as they should, but in the merites and prayers of our Lady, of S. Iohn Baptist, s. Peter and Paule, s. Andrew, s. Nicholas, s. Thomas of Canterbury, & by the worthines of the materiall crosse, and such other vnlawfull meanes, wherein standeth plaine idolatry. And yet such bookes as these can be suffered among the Catholikes to be currant, as good, wholesome and lawfull bookes, where as the other which lead vs the true way from infidelitie and blynd idolatry, to true christianitie in no wise can be sufferable. But of this to complaine, it is vaine. Wherfore to passe from this proclamation, let vs proceede (God willing) in the course of our history.

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¶ The story of Thomas Osmond, William Bamford, and Thomas Osborne Martyrs. 
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The Martyrdoms of Osmund, Bamford and Chamberlain

The Rerum merely mentions that Nicholas Chamberlain was burnt at Colchester on 11 June 1555 (he was actually burned on 14 June) and that on 12 June (actually 15 June) William Butler was burned at Harwich and Thomas Osmund at Manningtree, Essex (Rerum, p. 462).

All the factual information Foxe would print on these martyrs appeared in the 1563 edition. Unusually there is no material on these martyrs from their families, friends and sympathisers; all of the factual material on Osmund, Bamford and Chamberlain comes from Bonner's official records, probably a court book which is now lost. Foxe always preferred, whenever possible, to rely on the writings ofprotestants for his accounts of the martyrs and not on official documents. The reason was that official accounts were inevitably hostile to the martyrs. Foxe was acutely aware of this problem and, in the 1570 edition, he added a brief set of notes to the articles presented against Osmund, Bamford and Chamberlain warning readers of the bias in the official documents.

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Osmund, Bamford and Osborne (and Chamberlain)

As is usual, the glosses in this section are mainly narrative pointers and references to articles and answers (with 1563 giving only numbers, while later editions provide fuller references). There is some confusion in this section about the names of the martyrs, and this is reflected in the glosses. There is also a reference back to an earlier mention of the martyrs which is not accurate ('Tho. Osmund, W. Bamford, Tho. Osborne, Martyrs. Read before. Page. 1766' [1570]; 'Thomas Osmund, William Bamford, Thomas Osburne, Martyrs. Read before pag. 1508' [1576; 1583]).

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MarginaliaThomas Osmund, William Bamford, Thomas Osburne, Martyrs. Read before pag. 1508.MEntion was made before in the storye of Thomas Haukes, of sixe prisoners besides, whithe were sente downe with hym to Essex the same tyme as hee wente to execution. Of which sixe prisoners, three were sent to be burned, the other three to recant, and to doe penaunce: of whome it followeth next in story nowe to intreate. The names of which sixe were these, Thomas Osmund, Fuller, William Bamford, alias Butler, Weauer, Thomas Osborne Fuller, Nicholas Chamberlaine Weauer, Thomas Brodehill Weauer, Richard Webbe Weauer: beyng all of the towne of Coxehall. All which sixe Coxehall men nexte after the Examinations of Thomas Haukes and Thomas Wattes, were sent vp to Boner to bee examined by the Earle of Oxford and sir Phillip Paris knight, with a letter with them also sent, the copy whereof here followeth. 
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The fates of these six show the persecution spreading and taking a lethal turn. These figures were not targeted for persecution until they defied the authorities, and the willingness of people to risk their lives in such a defiance must have been a rude shock to the authorities. However, once the six were arrested, they were dealt with with relentless speed; they were arrested on 1 May and three of them were burned six weeks later. Compare this with the six months it took to bring John Bradford to the stake and eleven months it took to do this to John Philpot. Obviously the six were given a chance to recant, since three of them did so, but the elaborate pains taken with more prominent people with influential friends, whose conversion would have been propaganda coups for Mary's regime, were not taken with these obscure figures.

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¶ A letter sent from the Erle of Oxford to Boner B. of London. 
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The letter from Oxford to Bonner, the articles objected against the martyrs and their answers were all taken from Bonner's official records, probably from a court book which is now missing.

MarginaliaA letter from the Earle of Oxford to B. Boner.AFter our harty commendations vnto your good Lordship, this shalbe to aduertise the same þt the Constables of Coxehall within your Dioces, haue brought before vs this day 6. persons dwelling in the town of Coxhal, afore-

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