Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Bland

Father of John Bland, martyr.

Bland received a letter from his son. 1563, pp. 1218-19, 1570, pp. 1843-44, 1576, pp. 1577-78, 1583, pp. 1665-66.

 
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Edward Isaac

Edwardian JP. Marian religious exile [Garratt]. He was sheriff of Kent in 1568 - 1569.

Bland went to see Master Isaac about John Austen's behaviour in the parish church at Adisham. Isaac later directed a warrant to the constable. 1563, p. 1218, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1665.

Isaac fled Kent for fear of persecution during Mary's reign. 1563, p. 1679.

During his escape, Edwin Sandys met with Master Isaac of Kent, who sent his eldest son with Sandys. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys remained in Strasbourg, sustained by Master Isaac, who gave him many gifts and 100 marks, which Sandys was later able to return to him.

 
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Edwin Sandys

(1519? - 1588)

Bishop of Worcester (1559 - 1570); London. Elizabethan archbishop of York (DNB)

Supporter of Northumberland and Lady Jane Grey. Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge rather than Chancellor as Foxe has him.

Edwin Sandys was put in the Tower with Northumberland 25 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Bland was schoolmaster to Sandys, bishop of Worcester. 1563, p. 1218, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1577, 1583, p. 1665.

A letter from Ridley and his fellow prisoners to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench in 1554 stated that Ridley longed to hear of Father Crome, Doctor Sandys, Masters Saunders, Veron, Beacon and Rogers. 1563, p. 1294, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1724.

Northumberland sent for Sandys, Parker, Bill and Leaver to have supper with him. 1583, p. 2086.

Parker and Sandys were made bishops. 1583, p. 2086.

John Gates was made a deacon. Sandys was expected to preach. Foxe records Sandys' actions the night before he preached. 1583, p. 2086.

During Sandys' sermon, he was handed a mass book and grail, which Sir George Haward had taken in Master Hurlestone's house, where Lady Grey had previously attended mass. 1583, p. 2086.

As Sandys was delivering his sermon, Adams, one of the beadles, came weeping to Leaver to tell him that Mary had been proclaimed queen and the duke's plans thwarted. 1583, p. 2086.

Northumberland and others requested Sandys to put his sermon in writing and appointed Leaver to take it to London to have it printed. 1583, p. 2086.

Sandys required a day and a half to write out his sermon. 1583, p. 2086.

Sandys gave the written copy of his sermon to Layfield. 1583, p. 2087.

Leaver went to dinner at the house of More (a beadle and a great friend of his). 1583, p. 2087.

Mistress More toasted Sandys at dinner, saying that it was the last time she would see him. She died before Sandys returned from Germany. 1583, p. 2087.

Northumberland retired to Cambridge and asked Sandys to go to the market place with him to proclaim Mary. 1583, p. 2087.

Northumberland wept at the proclamation. 1583, p. 2087.

Northumberland was arrested. 1583, p. 2087.

John Gates sharply rebuked the guards who looked to take Sandys. 1583, p. 2087.

Gates advised Sandys to walk in the fields. 1583, p. 2087.

University officials organised the taking of the statute book, keys and various things from Sandys' lodgings by Mouse and Hatcher. 1583, p. 2087.

As Sandys took his seat in the university, Mitch conspired to have him seized from his chair but Sandys began his oration to justify his sermon. 1583, p. 2087.

Mitch and twenty followers came to drag Sandys from his seat. 1583, p. 2087.

Dr Bill and Dr Blith persuaded Sandys not to use his dagger against his attackers. 1583, p. 2087.

Sandys was able to finish his oration. 1583, p. 2087.

Master Jerningham and Thomas Mildmay took Sandys to prison. 1583, p. 2087.

Mildmay said that he marvelled at what Sandys had said the day before his arrest. 1583, p. 2087.

Huddlestone took one of Sandys' geldings. 1583, p. 2087.

Sandys was taken in procession to the Tower. 1583, p. 2087.

Sandys, having spent three weeks in a bad prison, was imprisoned in the nun's bower with John Bradford. 1583, p. 2087.

Mitchell spoke with Sandys in prison. 1583, p. 2087.

John Bowler was keeper to Sandys, Bradford and Saunders. 1583, p. 2087.

Bowler was kind to Sandys and received the sacrament from him with Bradford. 1583, p. 2087.

Norfolk sent arms against Wyatt. 1583, p. 2087.

Bradford was imprisoned with Cranmer and Ridley, while Sandys and others were removed to the Marshalsea. 1583, p. 2087.

Thomas Way, the keeper of the Marshalsea, appointed a man to every prisoner he moved. He conversed with Sandys as he was being transferred. 1583, p. 2088.

Way trusted Sandys to meet with Bradford in the fields and later return to prison. 1583, p. 2088.

Thomas Way would not let Sir Thomas Holcroft's servant put fetters on Sandys. 1583, p. 2088.

Way allowed Saunder in to see Sandys, and Sandys' daughter also. 1583, p. 2088.

When Wyatt came to Southwark he sent two men to speak with Sandys in the Marshalsea, and they offered to open the gates of the prison for him. Sandys said he would not be assisted unless it was God's will. 1583, p. 2088.

After nine weeks' imprisonment in the Marshalsea, Holcroft allowed Sandys to be set free. 1583, p. 2088.

Holcroft petitioned Gardiner for Sandys' release. 1583, p. 2088.

Holcroft attended the queen with Sandys' remission. 1583, p. 2088.

Mary, Winchester and Holcroft signed Sandys' release papers. 1583, p. 2088.

Holcroft met with two gentleman friends of Sandys and offered to be bound in surety for him. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys said that he wished to go abroad, which did not please Holcroft. 1583, p. 2088.

Holcroft told Sandys that his cousin, Sir Edward Bray, would receive him and his wife and that he must be patient. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys bade farewell to Saunders and his other fellow prisoners, and later talked with Bradford and Ferrar. 1583, p. 2088.

Watson and Christopherson told Winchester that he had set a heretic free. Winchester then sent men to apprehend Sandys. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys went to the house of Master Bartley (a stranger who had been imprisoned with Sandys for some time). 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys went to the home of Hurlestone (a skinner) in Cornhill. Hurlestone had his man Quinting provide two geldings for Sandys to ride to his father-in-law's house in Essex, where his wife was. 1583, p. 2088.

Benjamin (a tailor and constable of the town) and Mrs. Hurlstone told Sandys not to be afraid of those who were looking for him. 1583, p. 2088.

Benjamin told Sandys that the constable who arrested Sandys would receive £5. 1583, p. 2088.

Benjamin told Sandys of his plot to help him escape, as his persecutors knew of his plans. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys removed to the house of a farmer, near the sea, and then on to that of James Mower, a shipbuilder, who lived in Milton Shore. He spent two nights there and gave an exhortation to 40-50 mariners there. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys met with Master Isaac of Kent, who sent his eldest son with Sandys. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys and Coxe made their escape on board Cockrel's ship. 1583, p. 2088.

They arrived in Antwerp and went to dine with Master Locke. 1583, p. 2088.

While Sandys was at dinner, his kinsman George Gilpin, secretary to the English House, came in and warned Sandys that he was under instruction from King Philip to find and seize him. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys and his retinue fled to Ausburg and then on to Strasburg. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys was in Strasbourg for one year before his wife joined him. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys' wife was with him for nine months and then was taken ill and died of a consumption. 1583, p. 2088.

After the death of Sandys' wife, Master Sampson, a man skillful in Hebrew, went to Emanuel College, Cambridge. Grindal went into the country to learn Dutch. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys remained in Strasbourg, sustained by Master Isaac, who gave him many gifts and 100 marks, which Sandys was later able to return to him. 1583, p. 2088.

After the death of his wife, Sandys went to stay with Peter Martyr in Zurich for five weeks. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys was at dinner with Martyr when they learned of the news of Mary's death. 1583, p. 2088.

Martyr and Jarret rejoiced at the news of Mary's death. 1583, p. 2088.

Sandys ate with Bullinger and others before returning to Strasburg. 1583, p. 2088.

Grindal and Sandys arrived in London on the day of Elizabeth's coronation. 1583, p. 2088.

Foxe refers to his installation as bishop of Worcester after Elizabeth's accession. 1583, p. 2128.

[He is also referred to by Foxe as 'Sanders' and 'D. Sandes'.]

 
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Humphrey Middleton

(d. 1555)

Martyr. Of Ashford, Kent.

Bland was imprisoned with Nicholas Sheterden and Humphrey Middleton. 1570, p. 1850, 1576, p. 1584, 1583, p. 1671.

Examination and condemnation. 1570, p. 1856, 1576, p. 1588, 1583, pp. 1675-76.

Humphrey Middleton was condemned by Richard Thornden on 25 June 1555. 1570, p. 1856, 1576, p. 1588, 1583, pp. 1675-76.

On 12 July 1555 Middleton was burned with John Frankesh, Nicholas Sheterden and John Bland at Canterbury. 1563, p. 1217, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1577, 1583, p. 1665.

 
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James Trevisam

Of St Margaret Lothbury, London.

Thomas Beard, an informer, discovered Trevisam's servant John Small reading an English Bible to Trevisam, his wife, and others in Trevisam's house. Small and the others were arrested and only his grave illness kept Trevisam from being carted off to prison as well. He died while the case against him was in progress. On his deathbed he refused to conform to the orthodox views on the sacrament of the altar presented to him by John Farthing, rector of St Margaret Lothbury. When Farthing reported this to Bishop Bonner of London, Bonner ordered that Trevisam be denied Christian burial. 1570, p. 1843; 1576, p. 1577; 1583, p. 1665.

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John Austen

Churchwarden of Adisham. [Duffy, Stripping of the Altars, pp. 528, 161]

Austen treated John Bland badly on Sunday 3 September 1555 (he held him in the vestry during the mass). 1563, pp. 1218-19, 1570, pp. 1843-44, 1576, pp. 1577-78, 1583, pp. 1665-66.

Bland went to see Master Isaac, the justice, about Austen's behaviour, and Isaac directed a warrant to the constable. 1563, p. 1218, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1665.

John (and his brother Thomas) Austen accused Bland before Nicholas Heath. 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1668.

 
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John Bland

(d. 1555)

Born in Sedbergh, Yorkshire. Preacher and martyr of Adisham in Kent. [ODNB]

Foxe gives an account of Bland's character and early life as schoolmaster. 1563, p. 1218, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1577, 1583, p. 1665.

Bland was schoolmaster to Edwin Sandys, bishop of Worcester. 1563, p. 1218, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1577, 1583, p. 1665.

Bland sent a letter to his father. 1563, pp. 1218-19, 1570, pp. 1843-44, 1576, pp. 1577-78, 1583, pp. 1665-66.

He had a confrontation with John Austen on Sunday 3 September (1555) and conversations were held between Bland, Austen and Bland's unnamed clerk.1563, pp. 1218-19, 1570, pp. 1843-44, 1576, pp. 1577-78, 1583, pp. 1665-66.

Bland went to see Master Isaac, the justice, about John Austen's behaviour, who then directed a warrant to the constable. 1563, p. 1218, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1665.

On Sunday 26 November 1555 Richard Austen accused Bland of being against the queen's proceedings; Thomas called Bland a heretic. 1563, p. 1218,1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1665.

Bland's clerk did not ring the bell for a Sunday service because Master Mylles' servant had informed him that his master had letters from Gardiner that he must go to London. Bland preached in Mylles' place. 1563, p. 1219, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1666.

Richard Austen claimed to have been involved in rumours about Bland. 1563, p. 1219, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1666.

Two bills of complaint were made against Bland. Bland sent his testimony to the council via Master Wiseman. 1563, p. 1219, 1570, p. 1844, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1666.

Bland had an altercation with John Austen on Sunday 3 December [1555] when Thomas Austen accused him of heresy. 1563, p. 1219, 1570, p. 1844, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1666.

On 28 December a preacher from Stodmarsh came to Adisham [Bland's parish] to say mass.1563, p. 1219, 1570, p. 1844, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1666.

Bland spoke against the mass and was attacked by the church warden and the warden's son-in-law. Richard Austen had them put Bland in a side chapel until the mass was over. 1563, p. 1220, 1570, p. 1845, 1576, p. 1579, 1583, p. 1666.

Ramsy and Bland were transported to Canterbury to speak with Masters Hardes, Drenden, Spilman, and Tutsam. 1563, p. 1220, 1570, p. 1845, 1576, p. 1579, 1583, p. 1666.

Bland was bound over for the sum of £20 by James Chapman and Bartholomew Joyes to appear at the next general sessions. 1563, p. 1220, 1570, p. 1845, 1576, p. 1579, 1583, p. 1666.

On 23-24 February Sir Thomas Finch, knight, and Justice Hardes sent for Bland and his sureties to Finch's place. Bland was then transferred to the castle of Canterbury at the commandment of Thomas Moyles, where he was imprisoned for ten weeks. He was then bailed to appear at the next Canterbury sessions (but the session was subsequently changed to Ashford) on Thursday 19 May. In the meantime the case was discussed in the consistory court. 1563, p. 1220, 1570, p. 1845, 1576, p. 1579, 1583, p. 1667.

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On 28 May Nicholas Harpsfield had the mayor's sergeant bring Bland before him and Robert Collins, in Thornden's house. Talk took place between Harspfield, Collins and Bland. 1563, pp. 1220-21, 1570, pp. 1845-46, 1576, pp. 1579-80, 1583, p. 1667.

On 27 May Bland was due to appear before the consistory court, but was not released. He was therefore bound to appear at the Cranbrook sessions on 3 July. 1563, p. 1221, 1570, p. 1846, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1667.

On 21 May Bland appeared in the chapter house before Nicholas Harspfield. 1563, pp. 1221-23, 1570, pp. 1846-47, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1667.

Bland defended himself against accusations of breaking the law by disputing publicly with a minister. 1563, p. 1222, 1570, 1846, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1667.

Bland asked that Richard Thornden, bishop of Dover, and Robert Collins, commissary, be present at the disputation over the sacrament between Nicholas Harspfield and Bland. 1563, p. 1222, 1570, p. 1846, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1668.

Cyriac Pettit was present during the disputation between Bland and Nicholas Harpsfield on 21 May 1555. 1563, p. 1222, 1570, p. 1846, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1668.

John and Thomas Austen accused Bland before Nicholas Heath. 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1668.

Robert Collins demanded Bland return the following day but Bland did not appear due to urgent business. Bland wrote a letter about this. 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1668.

Around 28 June Bland returned to Collins, where he proceded against Bland before Master Cockes of Sturray and Markes the apparitor. 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1668.

Bland next appeared at Cranbrook sessions (3 July). 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1668.

Sir John Baker believed Bland to be Scottish, but Bland told him he was English, from Sedbar and brought up by Dr Lupton, the provost of Eton.1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1668.

Bland remained in the jail at Maidstone for around two weeks and then was moved to Rochester. 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1668.

Master Barron, the clerk at Rochester, said that Bland was an 'excommunicat person'. 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1668.

After Master Roper of Lynsted talked with the judges, it was decided that Bland should be returned to Maidstone until the Grenwich sessions of 18-19 February. 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1668.

Bland was taken before Sir John Baker, Master Petit, Master Webbe, and two others whose identity was unknown to Bland. 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1668.

Sir John Baker and Bland held a conversation about Bland's beliefs 1563, pp. 1223-24, 1570, pp. 1847-48, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, pp. 1668-69.

Master Webbe spoke gently to Bland to urge him to watch what he said. 1563, p. 1224, 1570, p. 1848, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1669.

Bland remained in the castle of Canterbury until 2 March, when he taken to the chapter house of Christ Church (Canterbury), to the suffragen of Canterbury, Master Collins, Master Mylis (Myles) and others, then to Master Oxenden, Master Petit, Master Webbe and Master Hardes (these are all justices). 1563, p. 1224, 1570, p. 1848, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1669.

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Bland and his fellow prisoners were sent to Westgate Prison. 1563, p. 1224, 1570, p. 1848, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1669.

Bland was again questioned on 9 March 1555 in the chapter house at Christ Church (Canterbury), where the mayor was called to be an assistance. 1563, p. 1224, 1570, p. 1848, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1669.

Bland and Collins argued over abiding by the laws of the realm and of the sacrament. 1563, pp. 1224-25, 1570, p. 1849, 1576, pp. 1582-83, 1583, pp. 1669-70.

Bland was once tutor to Dr Faucet. 1563, p. 1227, 1570, p. 1850, 1576, p. 1583, 1583, p. 1670.

Thornden stated that Bland had preached many heresies. Faucet was present during this discussion. 1563, p. 1225, 1570, p. 1849, 1576, p. 1582, 1583, p. 1670.

Master Cockes, a lawyer, was called to make Bland give answer on his beliefs in accordance with the law. 1563, p. 1225, 1570, p. 1849, 1576, p. 1582, 1583, p. 1670.

Bland denied transubstantiation and Master Glasier claimed that Bland held the same opinion as the Capernites. 1563, p. 1225, 1570, p. 1849, 1576, p. 1583, 1583, p. 1670.

Faucet stated that he was brought up in the same house and born in the same parish as Bland, and then warned him not to take a stand against the church. Bland dismissed him. 1563, pp. ,1226-6, 1570, p. 1849, 1576,p. 1583, 1583, p. 1670.

Thornden asked Bland if he knew of Oecolompadius and Zwingli, to which Bland responded that he had seen 'parte of their doinges'. 1563, p. 1226, 1570, p. 1850, 1576, p. 1583, 1583, p. 1671.

Bland was dismissed until 9 o'clock the following Monday but was offered the opportunity to converse with Faucet or Glasier if he so desired. 1563, p. 1226, 1570, p. 1850, 1576, p. 1583, 1583, p. 1671.

Bland was imprisoned with Nicholas Sheterden and Humphrey Middleton. 1570, p. 1850, 1576, p. 1583, 1583, p. 1671.

When Bland claimed that he had been unjustly imprisoned, Oxenden claimed that Bland was put in prison for a seditious sermon and for troubling a priest at mass. 1563, pp. 1226-7, 1570, p. 1850, 1576, p. 1584, 1583, p. 1671.

Bland claimed that after his first ten weeks in prison, he was then unjustly imprisoned under the accusation of disobeying his bishop. 1563, p. 1227, 1570, p. 1850, 1576, p. 1584, 1583, p. 1671.

Bland heard that his fellow prisoner, Miller, a clothier, was excommunicated and then set free. 1563, p. 1227, 1570, p. 1850, 1576, p. 1584, 1583, p. 1671.

Master Mylles, priest of Canterbury, confronted Bland over eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1227-28, 1570, pp. 1850-51, 1576, p. 1585, 1583, pp. 1671-72.

Bland talked with Mylles of Canterbury about transubstatiation. 1570, pp. 1850-51, 1576, pp. 1583-84, 1583, pp. 1671-72.

On 13 June (1555) Bland was brought before Richard Thornden, Robert Collins and Nicholas Harpsfield. 1563, p. 1229, 1570, pp. 1851-52, 1576, pp. 1585-86, 1583, p. 1672.

On 20 June, Bland was reexamined, his articles read by the Richard Thornden. Bland's answers were made and condemnation given. 1563, pp. 1229-30, 1570, p. 1852, 1576, p. 1582, 1583, pp. 1672-73.

Bland was condemned with Sheterden and Middleton on 25 June 1555. 1570, p. 1856, 1576, p. 1588, 1583, pp. 1675-76.

On 12 July 1555 Bland was burned with John Frankesh, Nicholas Sheterden and Humphrey Middleton at Canterbury. 1563, p. 1217, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1577, 1583, p. 1665.

Bland said a prayer before his death. 1563, p. 1230, 1570, p. 1852, 1576, p. 1585, 1583, p. 1673.

 
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John Bradford

(1510? - 1555)

Protestant divine. Martyr. Of Manchester. [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's birth, early life and education. 1563, p. 1172, 1570, p. 1779, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Martin Bucer exhorted Bradford to preach and join the ministry. 1563, pp. 1172-73, 1570, pp. 1779-80, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Foxe provides an account of Bradford's ordination and early career under Edward. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He was deprived under Mary. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, p. 1604.

On 13 August 1553 Bradford saved Bishop Bourne from a riotous crowd when the bishop preached at Paul's Cross. (1563, pp. 904-5, 1173; 1570, pp. 1570, 1780; 1576, pp. 1339, 1520; and 1583, pp. 1497 (recte 1409), 1604).

One Sunday Bradford preached at the St Mary le Bow Church in Cheapside, reproving people for their 'sedicious misdeamenour'. He was accused of sedition in 1553 and committed to the Tower. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was committed to the Tower by the privy council on 16 August 1553 together with Thomas Becon and 'M. Vernon' [Jean Veron], (1583, p 1497, (recte 1409)). Another mention of Bradford being sent to the Tower, together with Veron and Becon, on 16 August 1553 is in 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1395; 1583, p. 1465.

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He was sent to the King's Bench in Southwark and later to the Counter, Poultry Street, London. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Rowland Taylor was imprisoned with him in the King's Bench. Taylor told his friends that Bradford was an angel of God sent to comfort him (1563, p. 1570; 1570, p. 1696; 1576, p. 1448; 1583, p. 1521).

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Bradford became ill whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

He received the sacrament whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's character and behaviour. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was generous with his money towards fellow prisoners. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe describes the conditions of Bradford's imprisonment. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1394; 1583, p. 1464; not in LM). It was rumored in May 1554 that Bradford, Saunders and John Rogers would be in a disputation to be held at Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p 1399; 1583, p. 1469). Bradford was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

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On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Robert Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to him and his fellow prisoners Robert Ferrar, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor (1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500).

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford's final days and execution are described. 1563, p. 1174-75, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, pp. 1521-22, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was examined after the lord chancellor and his commission had finished their talk with Ferrar. 1563, p. 1185, 1570, p. 1782, 1576, p. 1522, 1583, p. 1605.

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk and communication took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Secretary Bourne declared that Bradford had caused much trouble with letters, as had been reported to him by the earl of Derby. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bourne asked Bradford if the letters were seditious, but Bradford claimed they were not. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The bishop of Worcester was present at this examination. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The under-marshall was called to take watch over Bradford and was told to make sure that Bradford wrote no letters. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bradford was examined on 29 January 1555 before Bonner. 1563, pp. 1185-92, 1570, pp. 1782-87, 1576, pp. 1524-26, 1583, pp. 1607-09.

Thomas Hussey met Bradford and spoke with him after his first examination. He told him that he could organise an escape for him, and that all those who had witnessed the examination could see that they had not reason to hold Bradford, yet Bradford did not want any assistance. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

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During the conversation between Hussey and Bradford, Doctor Seton entered the room, and spoke a 'long sermon of my Lord Canterbury, M. Latimer, and M, Ridley'. He acknowledged that Latimer and Ridley were not able to answer anything at all at their examinations, and that Canterbury desired to confer with Durham and others, saying that Bradford should make a like suit, to which Seton received no agreement from Bradford. Seton berated Bradford for his attitude, and claimed that Bonner could be charitable. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

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Bradford was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Bradford's second examination took place directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1185, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner told Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner spoke on the subject of Bradford's allegedly seditious letters, referring to a report given by the earl of Derby. Bradford claimed that he had been denied paper, pen and ink. 1563, p. 1190, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford was taken to St Mary Overyes church and stayed there until early morning after his second examination. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford's last examination took place directly after the excommunication of Laurence Saunders. 1563, pp. 1192, 1195, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Mr Chamberlaine told Gardiner that Bradford had served Harrington, to which Gardiner answered that Bradford deceived Harrington out of ?7, and claimed that this was why Bradford left his service. Bradford said this was slanderous. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

The bishop of London referred to Bradford's letter to Mr Pendleton as proof of his heresy. A clerk named Allen then reminded Gardiner of Bradford's letters to Lancashire. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

Bradford and Gardiner debated transubstantiation and Bradford denied Christ's presence in the bread and wine. The bishops and council discussed Luther, Zwingli and Oecolampadius. A bishop asked Bradford if he received Christ's body to which he said that he did not. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

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In his last examination Bradford was also questioned by the bishop of Worcester. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

Gardiner excommunicated Bradford. 1563, p. 1198, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483; also see 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24).

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans were altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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On 4 February 1555, after the condemnation of Bradford, Bonner went to the Counter to degrade Master Taylor but spoke to Bradford first. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

Rowland Taylor told Bradford that he threatened to strike Bishop Bonner as he (Taylor) was being degraded (1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1451; 1583, p. 1524).

On 4 February 1555 Bonner took Harpsfield to speak with John Bradford, who was imprisoned after his excommunication. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

In February 1555 Willerton, a chaplain to Bishop Bonner, went to speak with John Bradford in prison. They discussed the doctors and scripture and agreed that each would write down his own arguments over transubstantiation. Willerton sent his few sparse answers to Bradford the next morning and went to see him in the afternoon. They discussed whether or not the scriptures should be in the vernacular. Bradford gave Willerton his answers on transubstantiation and told Willerton to form his answers as reasons. 1563, pp. 1199-1200. Willerton was with Creswell, Harding, Harpsfield and others. 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 12 February 1555 a servant of the earl of Derby went to see Bradford in prison. He asked Bradford to tender himself, and what his answer would be if Derby petitioned the queen to have Bradford sent overseas. Bradford refused, as he believed he would only end up being burned in Paris or Louvain, instead of in England, which was where he wished to die. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 14 February 1555 Percival Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. Then at 3 o'clock the same day, Dr Harding, the bishop of Lincoln's chaplain, went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoke against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

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On 15 February 1555 Percival Cresswell and another man went to see Bradford once more. Harspfield discussed with Bradford the way to enter the kingdom of heaven and also baptism. 1563, pp. 1200-01. In 1570 the date is given as 25 February. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1791, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1613.

On 16 February 1555 John Harpsfield and two others went to see Bradford in prison, to defend the line of bishops in the catholic church. Bradford refuted the argument. 1563, pp. 1202-03, 1570, pp. 1792-93, 1576, pp. 1530-31, 1583, pp. 1614-15.

On 23 February 1555 the archbishop of York (Nicholas Heath) and the bishop of Chichester (George Day) went to the Counter to speak with Bradford. 1563, pp. 1204-08, 1570, pp. 1794-97, 1576, pp. 1532-34, 1583, pp. 1615-17.

Bradford was asked by Heath and Day to read a book that did Dr Crome good. 1563, p. 1208, 1570, p. 1797, 1576, 1524, 1583, p. 1617.

On 25 February , at about 8am, two Spanish friars visited Bradford in the Counter. One of them was the king's confessor, the other was Alphonsus, who had written against heresies. Their conversation was held in Latin. 1563, pp. 1208-11, 1570, pp. 1797-98, 1576, pp. 1534-36, 1583, pp. 1617-19.

On 25 February, at about 5pm, Master Weston visited Bradford and asked to speak with him in private. When the two men were alone, Weston thanked Bradford for his writings to him and then produced the work that Bradford had sent him. It was entitled, 'Certayne reasons againste Transubstantiation gathered by John Bradforde, and geuen to Doctour weston and others'. 1563, p. 1212. They discussed transubstantiation. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1801-02. [Note that in 1570 this meeting is dated as the afternoon of 28 March. 1570, p. 1800.]

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On 21 March 1555 Bradford talked with Dr Weston, after being told of Weston's intention to visit by the earl of Derby's servant (when master Collier, warden of Manchester, had come to dinner at the Counter). 1576, p. 1536. Bradford and Weston spoke to each other in the presence of Master Collier, the earl of Derby's servant, the subdean of Westminster, the keeper (Master Clayden), and others. 1570, pp. 1799-80, 1576, pp. 1536-37, 1583, pp. 1619-20.

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Bradford wrote his religious convictions down for Weston, and on or around 28 March 1555 Dr Pendleton, Master Colier (sometime warden of Manchester) and Stephen Beche visited Bradford in the Counter. 1563, p. 1213, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford questioned Pendleton as to why Pendleton changed his religion. 1563, pp. 1213-14, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Foxe states that he omitted the talk that Bradford and Pendleton had of 'my lord of Canterbury, of Peter Martirs boke, of Pendleto[n']s letter laid to Bradford.' 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford's reasons against transubstantiation were given to Weston and others. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1800-01, 1576, pp. 1537-38, 1583, pp. 1620-21.

Weston told Bradford of what he had done for Grimald, who had subscribed. 1563, p. 1212, 1570, p. 1801, 1576, p. 1538, 1583, p. 1621.

On 5 April, at 2pm, Weston went to visit Bradford in the Counter. Weston had not visited him earlier due to ill health and also because he had been busy withstanding monks from entering Westminster. He also thought that Pendleton would be coming to see him. Weston told Bradford that the pope was dead and that Weston had petitioned the queen and so thought that death would not come to Bradford soon. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

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As Weston left Bradford on 5 April, he sent for Master Weale. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

After Weston left Bradford on 5 April, the keeper, Master Claydon, and Steven Bech came to Bradford and spoke unkindly to him even though they had hitherto appeared to be friendly to him. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

Bradford spoke to the servant of an unnamed gentlewoman, misused by her family for not going mass, who visited Bradford while he was in prison. [Note that Foxe says that the gentlewoman is still alive and so does not give her name, but simply records the conversation between the servant and Bradford.] 1570, pp. 1802-03, 1576, pp. 1539-40, 1583, pp. 1622-23.

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Bradford told the servant of the unnamed gentlewoman that he had read the work of Friar Fonse. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman gave Bradford greetings from Cardmaker. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman told Bradford that she saw a priest come to him in the morning and Bradford told her that he had brought a letter from a friar, to which he was replying. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

Rowland Tayor joked to Bradford as he was about to be led away to execution (1563, p. 1080; 1570, p. 1703; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1527).

Foxe describes Bradford's behaviour at his burning at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Sheriff Woodruff chided Bradford at his burning. When Woodruff went home after the burning of John Bradford, he became paralysed in his legs and arms. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

Bradford sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-7, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

He was described as a faithful witness of Christ by Robert Glover in a letter to his wife.1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, p. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Bradford was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to debate the rectitude of the Edwardian religious reforms. The petition is printed in 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated February 1548. [BL Harley 416, fos.33r-34r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated Christmas 1549. [BL, Harley 416, fo.37v. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to an unnamed gentleman or noble, written during Lent 1549. [BL Harley 416, fo.37r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letters of Bradford: 1563, pp. 1176-85, 1570, pp. 1805-40, 1576, pp. 1541-75, 1583, pp. 1624-64.

Ridley and his fellow prisoners sent a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1295, 1570, p. 1897, 1576, pp. 1624-25, 1583, p. 1725.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley spoke of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, pp. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

Another letter was written by Ridley to Bradford. 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1626, 1583, p. 1726.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe includes Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-1784.

Bradford received a letter from John Careless. 1570, pp. 2104-05, 1576, pp. 1815-16, 1583, p. 1922-23.

Bradford wrote a letter to Careless. 1570, p. 2105, 1576, p. 1816, 1583, p. 1923.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Farthing

(d. 1560)

Rector of St Margaret Lothbury, London (1554 - 1560) [Newcourt I, p. 401].

Farthing visited James Trevisam on his deathbed in July 1555. Initially all went well, but afterwards a person named Toller informed Farthing that Trevisam's beliefs about the sacrament of the altar were unorthodox. Farthing re-visited Trevisam and examined him about this. Trevisam refused to conform to Farthing's views. Trevisam reported this to Bishop Bonner of London who ordered that Trevisam not receive Christian burial. 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1577, 1583, p. 1665.

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John Frankesh

(d. 1555)

Vicar of Rolvenden and martyr.

Foxe records Frankesh's last examination and condemnation. 1570, p. 1856, 1576, p. 1588, 1583, pp. 1675-76.

Frankesh was condemned by Richard Thornden on 25 June 1555. 1570, p. 1856, 1576, p. 1588, 1583, pp. 1675-76.

On 12 July 1555 he was burned with John Bland, Nicholas Sheterden and Humphrey Middleton at Canterbury. 1563, p. 1217, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1577, 1583, p. 1665.

[Also referrred to by Foxe as Frank.]

 
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John Leaf

(1535? - 1555)

Martyr. Burned with John Bradford.

John Leaf was born in Kirby Moorside ('Kirkeby moresyde') in the county of York. 1563, p. 1214. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

He was apprentice to Humfrey Gawdye, tallow chaundelour, of the parish of Christes Church in London. 1563, p. 1214. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

He was imprisoned in the Counter in Bread Street by the alderman of that area of the city where Leafe lived. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

When examined by Bonner, John Leaf denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a 'scholer' of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, pp. 1803-04, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Foxe gives an account of the behaviour of Leaf at his burning at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Small

Servant to James Trevisam. Of St Margaret Lothbury, London.

In 155, Small was discovered reading from an English Bible to his master and others in James Trevisam's house. He and the others, apart from the gravely ill Trevisam, were arrested and sent to Newgate. 1570, p. 1813, 1576, p. 1576, 1583, p. 1665.

 
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Mrs Trevisam

Wife of James Trevisam. Of St Margaret Lothbury, London.

John Small, Mrs Trevisam's servant, was discovered reading from an English Bible to her, her husband and a small group of other people in her house. She and all the others, except for her gravely ill husband, were arrested and imprisoned in Newgate. 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1577, 1583, p. 1665.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Nicholas Sheterden

(d. 1555)

Martyr. Of unkown occupation and origin.

Nicholas Sheterden discussed eucharistic doctrine with the archdeacon Nicholas Harpsfield and Robert Collins. 1563, pp. 1231-32, 1570, p. 1853, 1576, pp. 1585-86, 1583, pp. 1673-74.

Sheterden's answered to the charges against him, to which Mylles and Thornden responded. 1563, pp. 1232-33, 1570, pp. 1853-54, 1576, pp. 1586-87, 1583, p. 1674.

Sheterden was said by Master Milles to have written a letter to his mother asking her to reform. 1563, p. 1232, 1570, p. 1854, 1576, p. 1586, 1583, p. 1674.

Loveles, a lawyer, claimed that Sheterden was unjustly imprisoned. 1563, p. 1233, 1570, p. 1854, 1576, p. 1587, 1583, p. 1674.

Sheterden was examined before the bishop of Winchester. 1563, pp. 1233-34, 1570, pp. 1855-56, 1576, pp. 1587-88 , 1583, p. 1675.

The last examination and condemnation of Nicholas Sheterden (with John Bland and Humphrey Middleton) was held on 25 June 1555. Condemnation was given by Richard Thornden. 1570, p. 1856, 1576, p. 1588, 1583, pp. 1675-76.

Sheterden's letters: 1563, pp. 1235-38, 1570, pp. 1856-59, 1576, pp. 1589-91, 1583, pp. 1676-78.

John Bland was imprisoned with Nicholas Sheterden and Humphrey Middleton. 1570, p. 1850, 1576, p. 1583, 1583, p. 1671.

Sheterden's prayer before his death. 1563, p. 1237, 1570, p. 1856, 1576, pp. 1588-89, 1583, p. 1676.

On 12 July 1555 Sheterden was burned with John Frankesh, John Bland and Humphrey Middleton at Canterbury. 1563, p. 1217, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1577, 1583, p. 1665.

Bradford wrote a letter to his friends N. S. and R. C. 1570, p. 1840, 1576, p. 1575, 1583, p. 1657.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Richard Austen

Brother of John and Thomas Austen.

Richard Austen accused John Bland of being against the queen's proceedings. 1563, p. 1218,1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1665.

Richard Austen claimed to have been involved in rumours about Bland. 1563, p. 1219, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1666.

Richard Austen got the warden [John Austen?] and the warden's son-in-law to put Bland in a side chapel until the mass was over on 3 September 1555. 1563, p. 1220, 1570, p. 1845, 1576, p. 1579, 1583, p. 1666.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Austen

Brother of Richard and John Austen.

On Sunday 26 November (1555) Thomas Austen called Bland a heretic. 1563, p. 1218,1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1665.

Bland's altercation with John Austen on Sunday 3 December (1555) was the reason Thomas Austen accused him of heresy. [The witnesses to Bland's altercation with John Austen that day include: Edmond Mores, Richard Randall, John Hils, William Forstall, and Thomas Gooding.] 1563, p. 1219, 1570, p. 1844, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1666.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Beard

A tailor in Fleet Street, London. Marian informer against protestants. [Bridgen, London and the Reformation, pp. 454, 569, 626.]

Beard visited John Cardmaker in Newgate prison a few days before Cardmaker's execution and tried to persuade him to recant; Cardmaker refused. 1570, p. 1754; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1581.

Beard discovered John Small reading from an English Bible to a small group in the house of James Trevisam. He denounced the group to the authorities and had them arrest. 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1577, 1583, p. 1665.

George Tankerfield's wife was tricked by Beard. She later attacked him. George Tankerfield was then taken to Newgate by Beard and Simon Ponder. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

Thomas Beard died wretchedly. 1563, p. 1705, 1570, p. 2300, 1576, p. 1990. 1583, p. 2101.

[NB: Beard tried to obtain banned catholic books during Edward VI's reign; see Brigden, London, p. 454].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Toller

Founder. Of London.

Toller informed John Farthing, the rector of St Margaret Lothbury, in 1555 that James Trevisam held unorthodox views about the sacrament of the altar. 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1577, 1583, p. 1665.

 
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William Mynge

(d. 1555)

A protestant minister.

The day after Bradford and Leaf were martyred, William Mynge, a priest, lay in Maidstone prison. 1563, p. 1217, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1577, 1583, p. 1665.

 
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Adesham
NGR: TR 225 53

Adisham. Parish in the hundred of Downhamford, lathe of St Augustine, county of Kent. 2.75 miles south-west by south from Wingham. The living is a rectory, with the perpetual curacy of Staple annexed, in the peculiar jurisdiction and patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Lothbury [Lathbury]
NGR: SP 873 451

A parish in the hundred of Newport, county of Buckingham. 0.75 miles north of Newport Pagnell. The living is a perpetual curacy in the Archdeaconry of Buckingham, diocese of Lincoln.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Rolyngdon, Roluindon [Rolvenden]
NGR: TQ 845 315

A parish in the hundred of Rolvenden, lathe of Scray, county of Kent. 2.5 miles south-west by west from Tenterden. The living is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Canterbury.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1689 [1665]

Queene Mary. Will. Minge, Ioh. Bland, Treuesham, Martyrs.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. Iuly.against me, that his desire is to haue me come & dwel with him when so euer I will, and welcome. This doe I write yet ones more to occasion you to be thankfull for mee to þe Lord, which by all meanes sheweth nothyng but most high loue to me. And I againe a very obstinate rebellion. Pray therfore for me in hast.

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The sinnefull. I. Bradford.

¶ William Minge. 
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There is a brief statement in the Rerum (p. 503) that William Minge diedin prison in Maidstone. This was essentially all the information which Foxe ever obtained on Minge.

MarginaliaWilliam Minge dyed in prison.THe next day after M. Bradford & I. Leafe did suffer in Smithfield, Wil. Minge priest died in prison, at Maidstone, being there in bonds for religion, & like to haue suffered also, if he had continued the fury of his aduersaries, whose nature was to spare & fauor none that fauored christes pure gospel: which W. Minge with as great constācy & boldnes, yelded vp his life in prison, as if it had pleased God to haue called him to suffer by the fire, as the other good and godly men had done at the stake, and as hee himselfe was ready also so to doe, if it had pleased God to haue called him thereunto. 

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Note how the ending of this section was changed in the 1570 edition to emphasize Minge's readiness to die a martyr's death. This was a response to the attacks of Nicholas Harpsfield, Foxe's most important contemporary critic, on Foxe for listing people who were not truly martyrs in the Acts and Monuments.

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¶ Iames Treuisam buried in the fields. 
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James Trevisam

This narrative, which first appeared in the 1570 edition, was obviously derived from personal informants, probably friends or family of Trevisam.

MarginaliaThe story of Iames Treuisam, buryed in the fieldes, and summoned after his death.VPon the 3. of Iuly, 1555. died one Iames Treuisam in the parish of s. Margaret in Lothbury, vpon a sonday, who being impotent 

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Weak, infirm.

& lame, kept his bed, for he could not rise out of it a long time. This Treuisam had a seruāt one I. Smal, which red on the Bible, & as he was in reading, Berd the Promooter  
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Informant.

came to the house, & would needs go vp the staires, where he found 4., persons besides him and his wife: to wit, the yong mā that red, & two men & a woman. All which folkes, the said Berd the Promooter there being, apprehended, & caried to the Counter, where they remained about a fortnight, for all the frends they coulde make. Moreouer, the said Berd would haue had also Ia. the lame man himself to Newgate in a cart (& brought the cart to the dore) but for neighbors. Neuertheles the poore man was faine to put in two sureties for his forth cōming for he could not go out of his bed, being not only impotēt, but also very sick the same time. So within a few dais, the said Iames lying in extremes, the person of the church named MarginaliaM. Farthing person of Saint Margarets in Lothbery, accuser of Iames.M. Farthing, came to him & had communicatiō with him, & agreed wel, & so departed. It hapned after þe priest was come down into the street, there met him one Toller a Founder. Yea saith he, be ye agreed? I wil accuse you, for he denieth the sacrament of the altar. Vpon that the person went to him againe, & then the priest & he could not agree. And so the parson went to the B. of London & tolde hym. The B. answered, that he should be burnt, and if he were dead, he should be buried in a ditch. And so when he dyed, the parson was against his wife as much as he could, neither would let her haue the coffine to put him in, nor any thing els, but was faine to beare him vpō a table to More field, & there was he buried. The same night the body was cast vp aboue the ground, & his sheet taken from hym, and he left naked. After this the owner of the field seyng hym, buried him agayne, & a fortnight after, the Sumner came to his graue, and summoned hym to appeare at Paules, before his Ordinary, to answer to such things as shold be layd against hym. But what more befel vpon him, I haue not certainly to say.

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The History of M. Iohn Bland, Preacher, and Martyr, constantly suffering for the Gospell of Iesus Christ. 
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The Martyrdom of John Bland

The martyrdom of John Bland is particularly interesting because it is so rooted in the history of the reformation in Kent. Bland was a Cambridge graduate who was a protégé of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer and of Cranmer's commissary, Christopher Nevinson. (Bland's living of Adisham, which he had held from 1541, was in the gift of the archbishop of Canterbury). He was one of the most outspoken evangelists in Kent during the reign of Henry VIII, stripping the churches where he was pastor of images and furnishings as early as 1542, and preaching throughout eastern Kent, denouncing images, fast days, prayer to saints and other 'superstitious' practices. He also had associations with even more radical protestants in Kent; some of them rallied behind him in Mary's reign. His links to Cranmer, and his zealous evangelism made Bland a natural target for religious conservatives in Kent, and in the spring of 1543 his heresies were denounced to the king as part of the conspiracy against Cranmer which became known as the Prebendaries' Plot. Bland was indicted for heresy in September 1543, but the case against him collapsed when it became clear that Cranmer retained Henry VIII's support. Nevertheless, his Henrician adversaries would resurface in Mary's reign and play a key role in persecuting him.

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Bland's narrative of his persecution - the core of Foxe's narrative of his martyrdom - is a bewildering account of his being shifted from one form of custody to another, and more importantly, from clerical to secular jurisdiction and back again. The key problem for his enemies was that his arrest in December of 1553 came too soon. They were determined to try Bland for heresy, but the statute against heresy had been repealed under Edward VI and would not be revived until January 1555. So an elaboate game of cat and mouse followed, with Bland being arraigned in one jurisdiction, released on bond, then re-arraigned in another, all to keep Bland in some form of custody until the re-enactment of the heresy statute. In February 1555, with the statute now in force, Bland was transferred to spiritual jurisdiction for the final time and he was prosecuted for heresy.

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In the Rerum, Foxe only had a brief account of Bland's background, whichmay well have come from the protestant exile Edwin Sandys, who is rather prominently mentioned in it (Rerum, p. 503). This was reprinted in the 1563 edition, where it introduced a long letter by Bland to his father, relating the circumstances of his arrest, examinations, imprisonment down to the end of March 1555. Foxe also, in his first edition, added an account of Bland's examinations in June 1555 and his condemnation, all taken from a now lost Canterbury diocesan court book, as well as the prayer Bland was supposed to have given at his death. In the 1570 edition Foxe added a letter from Thomas Goldwell to Richard Thornden. There were no changes to this material in the 1576 or 1583 editions.

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MarginaliaIuly. 12. MarginaliaIohn Bland, Iohn Frankesh, Martyrs.THe 12. of Iuly, I. Bland, I. Frankesh, Nich. Sheterden, & Humfry Middleton, were al 4. burned at Cant. together, for one cause, of the which number, Frankesh & Bland, were ministers, & preachers of the word of God. The one beyng parson of Adesham, the other the vicar of Roluindon. This M. Bland was a man so little borne for his owne commoditie, 

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Advantage, profit.

that no part of his life was separated from the common & publike vtilitie of all mē. For his first doyngs were there imployed to the bringing vp of childrē in learnyng and vertue. Vnder whom were trayned diuers towardly yong men, which euen at this present do handsomly florish. In the number of whō is MarginaliaM. Bland scholemaster to D. Sandes somtymes B. of Worceter, now Archb. of Yorke.D. Sands 
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Bland either taught Sandys at Furness Abbey in Yorkshire or, more likely, at St John's, Cambridge, where they were contemporaries.

, a man of singuler learning & worthines, as may well beseeme a scholer meet for such a scholemaister, whom I here gladly name, for his singuler gifts of vertue and erudition.

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After this he comming to the ministery in the church of god, or rather being called thereto, was inflamed wt incredible desire to profit the congregation, which may appere by this: that where as he was cast into Cant. prison for þe

preaching of the gospel, & deliuered once or twise frō thēce at the sute of his frends: yet would he needs preach the gospel againe, as soone as he was deliuered. Whereupon hee being the third time apprehēded, MarginaliaM. Bland offered by his friendes to be deliuered refuseth.when his frends yet once again would haue found the means to haue deliuered him if he would haue promised to abstaine from preachyng: 

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The description of Bland's career is reprinted from the Rerum (p. 503) andreflects what Foxe learned about Bland in exile. It is also somewhat garbled. The mention of Bland's earlier arrest, or arrests, appears to be based on his indictment for heresy in 1543. As far as we know, he was not imprisoned then and there was no second imprisonment. (It is worth noting how Foxe moves from stating that Bland was imprisoned once or twice to affirming that there was a 'third' arrest). After this 'third' arrest (in 1553), Bland was not, by his own account, promised release if he abstained from preaching.

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he stood in it earnestly, that he would admit no such conditiō, notably wel expressing vnto vs the maner & exāple which we read in the apostle Paule: Who shal separate vs from the loue of Christ? tribulatiion, or anguish, or hunger, or nakednes, or daunger, or persecution, or the sword. &c. But to expresse the whole life & doings of this godly Martyr, seeing we haue his own testimony concerning the same: it shal be best to refer the reader to his own report, writing to his father of the whole discourse of his troubles, frō the beginnyng almost to the latter ende, in order & maner as ye shal heare.

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¶ A discourse of the whole processe and doyngs of M. Bland, written and reported by himselfe to his father in his owne letter as followeth. 
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What follows is a very long letter, written by Bland to his father sometime between March 1555 and June 1555, describing his arrest and its causes, and what happened to him after that, down to the beginnings of proceedings against him for heresy in 1555.

DErely beloued father in Christ Iesu, I thank you for your gētle letters. And to satisfy your mynd, as cōcernyng the troubles wherof you haue heard, these shal both declare vnto you all my vexations that haue chaunced me since ye were with me, and also since I receiued your last letters. God keepe you euer.

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Your sonne, Iohn Bland.

MarginaliaDeclaraction of the troubles of M. Bland how and by whō he was apprehended & brought to his condemnation.FIrst, the 3. of Sept,  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, 288, fn 1

A. D. 1553. - ED.

beyng Sonday, after seruice ended, ere I had put of my surplice, MarginaliaIohn Austē persecutor. Iohn Austē offended with the Communion table. Note the vncharitable spirit of this Papist: and so commonly of them all.Iohn Austen came to the table (commonly called the Lords table) 
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I.e., the communion table. Bland had torn down the altar in the church and, in conformity with advanced protestant practice in Edward VI's reign, had erected a communion table in the nave.

& layd both hys hands vpon it, saying: Who set this here againe? Nowe they say they tooke þe table downe the sonday before, which I knew not, neither do I know who set it vp again.  
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In Mary's reign, the table was taken down, but someone apparently re-erected it in the nave. Bland is being blamed for this and is saying that he did not know anything about it.

The Clerke  
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Laurence Ramsey, the parish clerk, was an outspoken protestant and a natural suspect.

answered, that he knew not. Then Austen said, he is a knaue that set it here. I was then goyng downe the church, maruellyng what he ment, and said: Good mā Austen, the Queenes highnes hath set forth a proclamation, that ye may mooue no sedition. And ere I could speake any more, he said, thou art a knaue. And I said, well goodman Austen, that I haue said, I haue said. By gods soule quoth he, thou art a very knaue. Then my clarke spake to hym, but what I am not sure. But he said, ye are both heretike knaues, & haue deceiued vs with this fashion too long, & if he say any seruice here againe, I wil lay the table on hys face: & in that rage he with other tooke vp the table & layd it on a chest in the Chancel, & set the trestles by it.  
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Apparently the table was simply a board set upon a pair of trestles.

Wherefore I rode by & by to MarginaliaM. Isaac a good Iustice.M. Isaac, & shewed him the cause, both how sediciously he had spoken, & performed it with a like deed. M. Isaac directed a warrant to the Constable or Bosholder, 
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A parish officer with functions identical to that of a petty constable [OED].

which was incontinētly serued, so that he was brought before him the same night, & was bound by recognisance, with sureties, to appeare if he were called. But we agreed so well then, that it was neuer called for, MarginaliaThe Communion table set vp agayne.the table was brought downe, and I was permitted, as before. 
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Round one to Bland; with the support of Edward Issacs, a JP and a staunch protestant, he had got a writ that directed that the communion table be restored. At this point, early in Mary's reign with the old Edwardian laws still on the books, the law was still on Bland's side.

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MarginaliaThomas Austen and Richcard Au ē picke matter agaynst M. Bland.The 26. of Nouember being sonday, Rich. Austen and his brother Thomas came to the foresaid Table after the communion was done, & as I was goyng by them, Richard said vnto me, M. parson, we haue to speake to you. And I said, what is your wil? And he said, you know that you tooke downe the tabernacle or seeling wherin the roode did hang, & such other things: we would know what recompence you will make vs. For the Queens procedings are (as you know) that such must vp againe. 

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Bland had destroyed the rood loft in the church at Adisham. Marian legislation had decreed that the roodlofts be restored.

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Quoth I, I know no such proceedinges as yet: & as for all that I did, I did it by commandement.

No, said Tho. Austen, ye wil not know the Queenes proceedings.

Yes, said I, I refuse not to know them. 

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Austen is charging Bland with wilfully defying Mary's orders on the restoration of the roodlofts; Bland is protesting that he is not defying the queen, he is simply unaware of such orders.

MarginaliaM Bland charged for speaking agaynst the Masse.Then said Rich. ye are against the Queenes proceedings: for you say, that there are abominable vses & diuelishnes in the masse.

Goodman Austen said I, if I so said, I wil say it again and God willing, stand to the proofe of it.

Maisters all quoth Rich. Austen, beare record of these words, and went his way.

Quoth Tho. Austen, thou wilt as soone eat this booke as stand to them. No quoth I, not so soone. Tells vs quoth he, what that diuelishnes is, that is in the masse.

I haue often preached it vnto you said I, & ye haue not beleued it, nor borne it away, nor wil now neither, though I should tell you.

Thou quoth he hast told vs alwayes like an heretike, as thou art. Now ye lie goodmā Austen quoth I, by your leaue. Mary quoth he, thou liest. And I sayd, and you lye: for I haue taught you Christ and his truth.

Quoth he, thou art an heretike, and hast taught vs nothing but heresie: for thou canst say nothing that is true.

Yes
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