Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Christopher Wade

Linen weaver. Of Dartford. Martyr.

Articles were brought against Christopher Wade and he gave answers.1570, p. 1859, 1576, p. 1591, 1583, p. 1678.

He was condemned '26 July' but this is referred to as occuring the day after the condemnation of Bland, Sheterden and Middleton, which was on 25 June. 1570, p. 1859,1576, p. 1591, 1583, p. 1678.

Foxe recounts Wade's martydom. 1576, p. 1600, 1583, pp. 1679-80.

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Joan Beach

(d. 1556)

Widow. Martyr. Of Tunbridge, Kent.

Joan Beach was examined by Maurice Griffith, bishop of Rochester. 1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2086, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 1906.

Articles were raised against her which she answered. 1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2086, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 1906.

She was burned with John Harpole in Rochester around 1 April 1556. 1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2086, 1576, p. 1800, 1583, p. 1906.

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John Harpole

(d. 1556)

Martyr. Of the parish of St Nicholas, Rochester.

John Harpole was examined by Maurice Griffith, bishop of Rochester. 1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2086, 1576, p. 1800, 1583, p. 1906.

Articles were brought against him. 1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2086, 1576, p. 1800, 1583, p. 1906.

He was burned with Joan Beach in Rochester around 1 April 1556. 1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2086, 1576, p. 1800, 1583, p. 1906.

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Margery Polley

(d. 1555) Of Pepeling, Calais. Martyr.

Margaret Polley, wife of Richard Polley, was accused and brought before Maurice Griffith, bishop of Rochester. She was burned at Tunbridge. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, pp. 1859-60, 1576, pp. 1591-92, 1583, p. 1679.

[Referred to in 1563 as 'Joan Polley'. Foxe erred in stating that Polley came from Pepenbury; see PRO C/85/144/33r.]

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Maurice Griffith

(d. 1558)

BD (1532). Bishop of Rochester (1554 - 1558). [DNB]

Maurice Griffith was created bishop of Rochester (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1487).

Bradford, in a letter to John Treves, referred to a contention between the master of Katherines Hall and the bishop of Rochester, who was master of Pembroke Hall, as to which should have Bradford as a fellow. 1583, p. 1664.

Rochester condemned Christopher Wade and Nicholas Halle 31 June 1555, and they were burned in July 1555. 1570, p. 1859, 1576, p. 1591, 1583, p. 1678.

Margaret Polley was accused and brought before Maurice Griffith, bishop of Rochester. 1570, pp. 1859-60, 1576, pp. 1591-92, 1583, p. 1679.

Nicholas Hall was condemned by Maurice Griffith, bishop of Rochester, 31 June 1555, and burned about 19 July 1555. 1570, p. 1859, 1576, p. 1591, 1583, p. 1678.

Philpot's fifth examination was before Bonner, Rochester, Coventry, St Asaph, as well as Story, Curtop, Saverson, Pendleton and others. 1563, pp. 1398-1405, 1570, pp. 1968-72, 1576, pp. 1695-98, 1583, pp. 1803-05.

Philpot stated that Cheyney and Rochester could testify to what he had said under his examination. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

Philpot's seventh examination on 19 November 1555 was before Bonner, Rochester, the chancellor of Lichfield, Chadsey and John Dee. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1702-05, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

Joan Beach and John Harpole were examined by Maurice Griffith, bishop of Rochester. 1570, p. 2086, 1576, p. 1800, 1583, p. 1906.

Stephen Gratwick was condemned by the bishop of Winchester and the bishop of Rochester. 1570, p. 2161, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1976.

Richard Woodman's fourth examination took place before White (Winchester), Griffith (Rochester), a certain doctor and others on 25 May 1557. 1563, pp. 1596-99, 1570, pp. 2188-90, 1576, pp. 1889-90, 1583, pp. 1997-99.

Ralph Allerton was examined on 19 May before the bishop of Rochester, Chichester and others. 1563, p. 1626, 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.

William Wood offered sanctuary in his house to Walter Appleby and his wife, but within a fortnight the bishop of Rochester sent his chief man to bring them to Rochester, where they were imprisoned and later burned. 1583, p. 2145.

Maurice Griffith died after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992.

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William Roper

(1495/96 - 1578)

Of Lynsted. JP, MP (1529, 1545, 1547, 1553, 1554, 1555, 1558). Sheriff of Kent (1554 - 1555). Son-in-law to Sir Thomas More and author of a celebrated biographical sketch of More (DNB; Bindoff).

William Roper was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Roper was originally included in the Commission of the Peace for Middlesex in 1555, but his name was deleted. [SP11/5, no. 6]

On 1 April 1555, the Privy Council ordered Roper to arrest Thomas Woodgate and William Maynarde for clandestine preaching. 1583, p. 1561.

On 7 April Roper was ordered to arrest a man from Harwich, who went about with a boy, preaching from place to place. 1583, p. 1561. [NB: Foxe is mistaken in saying that the order was to arrest one Harwich; see APC V, p. 110].

After Master Roper of Lynsted talked with the judges, it was decided that John Bland should be returned to Maidstone until the Greenwich sessions of 18-19 February. 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1668.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries. It was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

Roper escorted John Wade to his burning in July 1555. 1576, p. 1600, 1583, pp. 1679-80.

Philpot's first examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story, and one of the scribes of the Arches at Newgate Hall, 2 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

Philpot's second examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story and Cook and the scribe on 24 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1390-92, 1570, pp. 1962-64, 1576, pp. 1689-91, 1583, pp. 1797-98.

[In a letter that was never delivered] Green told Philpot of his presentment on 17 November before Bonner and two bishops, Master Dean, Roper, Welch, John Harpsfield, and two or three others. Dr Dale, Master George Mordant and Master Dee [not listed here as Dr] were also there. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

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Roper took part in the examination of several prisoners in Colchester on 19 October 1557. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

The sixth and last examination of Richard Woodman took place before Chichester, William Roper, Nicholas Harpsfield, the fat priest, Winchester and others. 1563, 1599-1601, 1570, p. 2192-94, 1576, p. 1892-93, 1583, pp. 2000-02.

Elizabeth Young's fourth examination was before Bonner, Roger Cholmley, Cooke, Dr Roper of Kent, and Dr Martin. 1570, pp. 2270-71, 1576, pp. 1959-60, 1583, pp. 2066-67.

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Not identified.

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Tunbridge, [Tonbridge]
NGR: TQ 590 465

A parish in the lowey of Tunbridge, lathe of Aylesford, county of Kent. 14 miles west-south-west from Maidstone, 30 miles south-east from London. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Rochester.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1703 [1679]

Queene Mary. The Martyrdome of Margerie Polley, and Christopher Wade, Martyrs.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. Iuly.trine. Firste graunting them selues Christen men, and acknowledging the determinations of the holy Church, that is, of the congregation or bodye of Christe: saue that Halle denyed to call the Catholicke and Apostolicke Churche hys mother, because he founde not this worde (mother) in the Scripture. MarginaliaThis word mother church, is not found in the scripture.

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To the second they graunted. To the thirde Article as touching the very bodye and bloude of Christe to be vnder the formes of bread and wine in substance they woulde not graunt, only affirming þe very body of him to be in heauen & in the sacrament to be a token or remembraunce of Christes death: MarginaliaAunswere of Nicholas Hall.Nicholas Halle adding moreouer, and saying, that wheras before he held the Sacrament to be but only a token or remembraunce of Christes death, now he sayd, that there is neither token nor remmbrance, because it is now misused and cleane tourned from Christes Institution. &c. And cōcerning the masse in the 4. article, to be abhominable, MarginaliaAunswere of Christopher Wayde.Christopher Waid with the other answered, þt as they had confessed before, so would they now not goe from that they had said. To the 5. article, for þe peoples suspition they made no great accompt nor sticking to graunt the same.

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MarginaliaCondemnation of N. Halle and Christopher Wayd, Martyrs.And thus much concerning the articles and answeres of these good men. Which being receiued, immediately sentence of condemnation was pronounced by the said Maurice the B. against them, the copye of which sentence, as it runneth muche what after the common course in condemning all other like seruants of Christ, so the same being examplified before in the story of M. Rogers, pag. 5453. shall not greatly neede heere againe to be repeated, but rather may be referred ouer to the place aboue noted. Nicholas Hall was burned at Rochester about the 19. day of Iuly.

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MarginaliaEx Registro.Furthermore, with the foresayd Hall and Waid, in the same moneth of Iuly: three other moe were condemned by Maurice bishop aforenamed, whose names were Ioane Beach widow, 

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Joan Beach and John Harpool would not be executed until April 1556. The reason for this delay is unclear, but most unusually Joan Beach was condemned twice, once in July 1555 and once in April 1556 (PRO C/85/144 fos. 34r and 35r), suggesting perhaps that her original condemnation was invalid for some unknown reason.

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Ihon Harpoll of Rochester and Margery Polley. Of which Margerie Polley, touching her examination and condemnation here foloweth in storie.

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The condemnation and Martyrdome of Margerie Polley.

MarginaliaEx Registro. Margery Polley Widdow and Martyr.MArgerie Polley widowe, 

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Foxe had endless trouble recording her name accurately. In the Rerum(p. 510) her name is given as John Polley and in 1563, it is given as Joan. (Foxe's early sources may well have confused Margery Polley and Joan Beech). In the 1570 edition, with the official records to guide him, Foxe corrected her name to Margery Polley.

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wife sometime of Richarde Polley of Pepingberie,  
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The writ for Margery Polley's condemnation reveals that she was from Pepeling, a neighbourhood of Calais (PRO C/85/144, fo. 33r).

was accused and brought before the said Maurice Bish. of Rochester, about the beginning of the moneth of Iune. Which Bishop according to the Pontificall solemnitie of that Church, rising vp out of the chaire of his maiestie, in the high swelling stile after his ordinary fashion to dash the seely poore woman, beginneth in these woordes.

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We Maurice by the sufferance of God bishop of Rochester, proceeding of our meere office in a cause of heresie, against thee Margery Polley, of the parish of Pepingbery of our Diocesse and

The Martyrdome of Margery Polley. MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Margery Polley, at Tunbridge. An. 1555. Iuly.

woodcut [View a larger version]

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The small woodcut of Margery Polley (Type 2), placed in the text where Foxe promises a fuller account to come, is the first to show a single women in the flames. It was not reused on two subsequent occasions when such a martyr was illustrated (Cicelie Ormes and the woman of Exeter).

Iurisdiction of Rochester, do lay and obiect against thee all & singular these articles insuing. To the which, and to euery parcell of them, we require of thee a true, full, and plaine aunswere, by vertue of thine othe thereupon to be geuen &c.

MarginaliaThe condemnation of Margery Polley.Thus the oth first being ministred, & the articles commenced against her, whiche Articles were the same ministred to Nicholas Hall and Waid before, she so framed her answeres againe, especially answering to the 3. and 4. Article, that shee neither allowed the deitie of theyr Sacrament, nor the absurdity of their masse. For the which, sentence was read against her about the beginning of Iune, 

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She was condemned on 7 June 1555 (PRO C/85/144, fo. 33r).

and she condemned for the same. But because her death folowed not vpon the same, we wil therfore defer the tractation therof to the due place and time, first setting downe in order of historie, the execution of Christopher Waid aboue mentioned.

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The execution and Martyrdome of Christopher Waide. 
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The Execution of Christopher Wade

This remarkably detailed and graphic description of an execution for heresy first appears in the 1576 edition. It was inserted into the text nine pages after the account of Wade's condemnation. This was undoubtedly due to this narrative being given to Foxe while the 1576 edition was being printed. In the 1576 edition, Foxe also made his usual mistake of confusing John Wade with Christopher Wade. In the 1583 edition, Foxe corrected his error and also moved the account of Wade's execution to follow the condemnation of the other Rochester martyrs.

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This account was given to Foxe by Richard Fletcher, the vicar of Cranbrook, and his son, also named Richard and a future bishop of London. (The younger Richard Fletcher would have been around nine years old when he witnessed Wade's execution). The elder Fletcher gave Foxe this eyewitness account as a means of bolstering his status among the godly in the face of a challenge to his authority by a local puritan preacher. (See Patrick Collinson, 'Cranbrook and the Fletchers: Popular and Unpopular Religion in the Kentish Weald' in Godly People: Essays on English Protestantism and Puritanism [London, 1983], pp. 404-05 and 414-23 for an analysis of the motives of the Fletchers in supplying Foxe with this account. Further background on the Fletchers as sources for Foxe is given in Freeman [1984]. It should be noted, however, that both Collinson and Freeman err in thinking that the account of Wade's execution first appeared in the 1583 edition).

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CHristopher Waide of Darford, in the Countie of Kent, Linnen weauer, was condemned by Maurice byshop of Rochester, and appoynted to be burned at Darforde aforesayde. At the day appoynted for his execution, which was in the moneth of Iuly, there was betimes in the morning carryed oute of the Towne in a Carte, a Stake, and therewith many bundles of Reedes, to a place a quarter of a mile out of the Towne, called the Brymthe, into a Grauell pitte thereby, the common place of the execution of felons. Thither also was brought a loade of Broome fagot, 

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Bundles of brambles or gorze tied together; they were placed in the fire to help the wood ignite more quickly.

with other fagots and talwood. Vnto which place resorted the people of the Countrey in great number, and there taried his comming. In so muche that thither came dyuers Fruiterers wyth horse loades of Cherries, and sold them. About x. of the clocke commeth riding the Sheriffe, wyth a greate manye of other Gentlemen and their retinue, appoynted to assist him therein, and with them Waide riding pinioned, and by him one Margerie Polly of Tunbridge, both singing of a Psalme: whyche Margerie, as soone as she espied a farre off the multitude gathered aboute þe place where she shoulde suffer, waiting his comming, she sayde vnto hym very loude and chearefully: You maye reioyce Waide, to see suche a companie gathered to celebrate youre marriage this day.

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And so passing by the place, whych ioyned harde to the hye way, they were caried streighte downe to the Towne, where shee was kepte vntill the Sheriffe returned from Waids execution. And Waid being made ready, and stripped out of his clothes in an Inne, had broughte vnto hym a faire long white Shirte from hys wife, which being put on, and hee pinioned, was led vppe on foote againe to the foresayde place. And comming straite to the stake, tooke it in hys armes, embracing it, and kissed it, setting hys backe vnto it, and standing in a pitche Barrell, which was taken from the Beacon, being hard by: then a Smith brought a hoope of yron, and wyth two staples made him fast to the stake vnder hys armes.

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As soone as hee was thus setteled, hee spake wyth hys handes and eyes lifted vp to heauen, wyth a chearefull and loude voyce, the laste verse of the lxxxvi. Psalme: Shewe some good token vppon me, O Lord, that they which hate me, may see it, and be ashamed, because thou Lord hast helped me, and comforted me. Neare vnto the stake was a litle hill, vpon the top wherof were pitched vp foure staues quadrangle wise, with a couering round about like a pulpt, into the which place, as Wade was thus praying at þe stake, entred a Frier wyth a booke in his hand, whō when Wade espied, he cried earnestly vnto þe people, to take hede of the doctrine of the whore of Babilon, exhorting them to imbrace the doctrine of the gospel preached in K. Edward his daies. Whom the sheriffe, thus speaking to the people, often interrupted, saying, be quiet Wade, and die paciētly, I am (sayde hee) I thanke God, quiet, Maister Sheriffe, and so trust to die. All this while the Frier stoode still looking ouer the couerlet, as though he woulde haue vttered somewhat: but Wade very mightily admonished þe people to beware of that doctrine: whiche when the Frier perceiued, whether he were amased, or coulde haue no audience of the people, withdrewe himselfe oute of the place immediately wythoute speaking anye woorde, and went awaye downe to the Towne. Then the Reedes being sette about hym, he pulled them and imbraced them in his armes, alwayes with his handes (making a hole against his face, that his voyce might be heard, 

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I.e., Wade cupped his hands around his mouth so that his voice would carry.

which they perceiuing that were hys tormentours, alwaye caste fagottes at the same hole, whych notwythstanding he still as he coulde put off,

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