Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Derick Carver

(1515? - 1555)

Brewer. Martyr.

Derick Carver was born in Dilson by Stockhome in the land of Luke. He lived in Brighthampsted, Sussex. 1563, pp. 1239, 1240, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

He was apprehended with John Launder, Thomas Everson (or Iveson - in 1570) and William Veisy at the end of October 1554 by Edward Gage, whilst at prayer in Carver's house. 1563, pp. 1239-40 1570, pp. 1860-61, 1576, pp. 1592-93, 1583, p. 1680.

He was sent to prison after a letter was sent to Bonner from the marquess of Winchester, now Lord Treasurer, on 8 June 1555. 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

He appeared in the consistory court of 10 June 1555. 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

Foxe records the articles against him and his answers. 1563, p. 1240, 1570, pp. 1861-62, 1576, pp. 1593-94, 1583, pp. 1681-82.

William Paulet was ordered by the Privy Council to send a writ for Carver's execution to the sheriff of Sussex on 12 June 1555 1583, p. 1581.

He made a confession before Bonner. 1563, p. 1240, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

Carver was burned with John Launder at Lewes in Sussex on 22 July 1555. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

Robert Smith told his wife in a letter that Carver had sent her money and in another letter that he was condemned. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Bradford

(1510? - 1555)

Protestant divine. Martyr. Of Manchester. [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's birth, early life and education. 1563, p. 1172, 1570, p. 1779, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Martin Bucer exhorted Bradford to preach and join the ministry. 1563, pp. 1172-73, 1570, pp. 1779-80, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Foxe provides an account of Bradford's ordination and early career under Edward. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He was deprived under Mary. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, p. 1604.

On 13 August 1553 Bradford saved Bishop Bourne from a riotous crowd when the bishop preached at Paul's Cross. (1563, pp. 904-5, 1173; 1570, pp. 1570, 1780; 1576, pp. 1339, 1520; and 1583, pp. 1497 (recte 1409), 1604).

One Sunday Bradford preached at the St Mary le Bow Church in Cheapside, reproving people for their 'sedicious misdeamenour'. He was accused of sedition in 1553 and committed to the Tower. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was committed to the Tower by the privy council on 16 August 1553 together with Thomas Becon and 'M. Vernon' [Jean Veron], (1583, p 1497, (recte 1409)). Another mention of Bradford being sent to the Tower, together with Veron and Becon, on 16 August 1553 is in 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1395; 1583, p. 1465.

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He was sent to the King's Bench in Southwark and later to the Counter, Poultry Street, London. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Rowland Taylor was imprisoned with him in the King's Bench. Taylor told his friends that Bradford was an angel of God sent to comfort him (1563, p. 1570; 1570, p. 1696; 1576, p. 1448; 1583, p. 1521).

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Bradford became ill whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

He received the sacrament whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's character and behaviour. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was generous with his money towards fellow prisoners. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe describes the conditions of Bradford's imprisonment. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1394; 1583, p. 1464; not in LM). It was rumored in May 1554 that Bradford, Saunders and John Rogers would be in a disputation to be held at Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p 1399; 1583, p. 1469). Bradford was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

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On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Robert Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to him and his fellow prisoners Robert Ferrar, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor (1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500).

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford's final days and execution are described. 1563, p. 1174-75, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, pp. 1521-22, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was examined after the lord chancellor and his commission had finished their talk with Ferrar. 1563, p. 1185, 1570, p. 1782, 1576, p. 1522, 1583, p. 1605.

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk and communication took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Secretary Bourne declared that Bradford had caused much trouble with letters, as had been reported to him by the earl of Derby. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bourne asked Bradford if the letters were seditious, but Bradford claimed they were not. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The bishop of Worcester was present at this examination. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The under-marshall was called to take watch over Bradford and was told to make sure that Bradford wrote no letters. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bradford was examined on 29 January 1555 before Bonner. 1563, pp. 1185-92, 1570, pp. 1782-87, 1576, pp. 1524-26, 1583, pp. 1607-09.

Thomas Hussey met Bradford and spoke with him after his first examination. He told him that he could organise an escape for him, and that all those who had witnessed the examination could see that they had not reason to hold Bradford, yet Bradford did not want any assistance. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

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During the conversation between Hussey and Bradford, Doctor Seton entered the room, and spoke a 'long sermon of my Lord Canterbury, M. Latimer, and M, Ridley'. He acknowledged that Latimer and Ridley were not able to answer anything at all at their examinations, and that Canterbury desired to confer with Durham and others, saying that Bradford should make a like suit, to which Seton received no agreement from Bradford. Seton berated Bradford for his attitude, and claimed that Bonner could be charitable. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

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Bradford was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Bradford's second examination took place directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1185, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner told Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner spoke on the subject of Bradford's allegedly seditious letters, referring to a report given by the earl of Derby. Bradford claimed that he had been denied paper, pen and ink. 1563, p. 1190, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford was taken to St Mary Overyes church and stayed there until early morning after his second examination. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford's last examination took place directly after the excommunication of Laurence Saunders. 1563, pp. 1192, 1195, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Mr Chamberlaine told Gardiner that Bradford had served Harrington, to which Gardiner answered that Bradford deceived Harrington out of ?7, and claimed that this was why Bradford left his service. Bradford said this was slanderous. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

The bishop of London referred to Bradford's letter to Mr Pendleton as proof of his heresy. A clerk named Allen then reminded Gardiner of Bradford's letters to Lancashire. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

Bradford and Gardiner debated transubstantiation and Bradford denied Christ's presence in the bread and wine. The bishops and council discussed Luther, Zwingli and Oecolampadius. A bishop asked Bradford if he received Christ's body to which he said that he did not. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

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In his last examination Bradford was also questioned by the bishop of Worcester. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

Gardiner excommunicated Bradford. 1563, p. 1198, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483; also see 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24).

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans were altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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On 4 February 1555, after the condemnation of Bradford, Bonner went to the Counter to degrade Master Taylor but spoke to Bradford first. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

Rowland Taylor told Bradford that he threatened to strike Bishop Bonner as he (Taylor) was being degraded (1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1451; 1583, p. 1524).

On 4 February 1555 Bonner took Harpsfield to speak with John Bradford, who was imprisoned after his excommunication. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

In February 1555 Willerton, a chaplain to Bishop Bonner, went to speak with John Bradford in prison. They discussed the doctors and scripture and agreed that each would write down his own arguments over transubstantiation. Willerton sent his few sparse answers to Bradford the next morning and went to see him in the afternoon. They discussed whether or not the scriptures should be in the vernacular. Bradford gave Willerton his answers on transubstantiation and told Willerton to form his answers as reasons. 1563, pp. 1199-1200. Willerton was with Creswell, Harding, Harpsfield and others. 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 12 February 1555 a servant of the earl of Derby went to see Bradford in prison. He asked Bradford to tender himself, and what his answer would be if Derby petitioned the queen to have Bradford sent overseas. Bradford refused, as he believed he would only end up being burned in Paris or Louvain, instead of in England, which was where he wished to die. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 14 February 1555 Percival Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. Then at 3 o'clock the same day, Dr Harding, the bishop of Lincoln's chaplain, went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoke against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

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On 15 February 1555 Percival Cresswell and another man went to see Bradford once more. Harspfield discussed with Bradford the way to enter the kingdom of heaven and also baptism. 1563, pp. 1200-01. In 1570 the date is given as 25 February. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1791, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1613.

On 16 February 1555 John Harpsfield and two others went to see Bradford in prison, to defend the line of bishops in the catholic church. Bradford refuted the argument. 1563, pp. 1202-03, 1570, pp. 1792-93, 1576, pp. 1530-31, 1583, pp. 1614-15.

On 23 February 1555 the archbishop of York (Nicholas Heath) and the bishop of Chichester (George Day) went to the Counter to speak with Bradford. 1563, pp. 1204-08, 1570, pp. 1794-97, 1576, pp. 1532-34, 1583, pp. 1615-17.

Bradford was asked by Heath and Day to read a book that did Dr Crome good. 1563, p. 1208, 1570, p. 1797, 1576, 1524, 1583, p. 1617.

On 25 February , at about 8am, two Spanish friars visited Bradford in the Counter. One of them was the king's confessor, the other was Alphonsus, who had written against heresies. Their conversation was held in Latin. 1563, pp. 1208-11, 1570, pp. 1797-98, 1576, pp. 1534-36, 1583, pp. 1617-19.

On 25 February, at about 5pm, Master Weston visited Bradford and asked to speak with him in private. When the two men were alone, Weston thanked Bradford for his writings to him and then produced the work that Bradford had sent him. It was entitled, 'Certayne reasons againste Transubstantiation gathered by John Bradforde, and geuen to Doctour weston and others'. 1563, p. 1212. They discussed transubstantiation. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1801-02. [Note that in 1570 this meeting is dated as the afternoon of 28 March. 1570, p. 1800.]

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On 21 March 1555 Bradford talked with Dr Weston, after being told of Weston's intention to visit by the earl of Derby's servant (when master Collier, warden of Manchester, had come to dinner at the Counter). 1576, p. 1536. Bradford and Weston spoke to each other in the presence of Master Collier, the earl of Derby's servant, the subdean of Westminster, the keeper (Master Clayden), and others. 1570, pp. 1799-80, 1576, pp. 1536-37, 1583, pp. 1619-20.

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Bradford wrote his religious convictions down for Weston, and on or around 28 March 1555 Dr Pendleton, Master Colier (sometime warden of Manchester) and Stephen Beche visited Bradford in the Counter. 1563, p. 1213, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford questioned Pendleton as to why Pendleton changed his religion. 1563, pp. 1213-14, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Foxe states that he omitted the talk that Bradford and Pendleton had of 'my lord of Canterbury, of Peter Martirs boke, of Pendleto[n']s letter laid to Bradford.' 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford's reasons against transubstantiation were given to Weston and others. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1800-01, 1576, pp. 1537-38, 1583, pp. 1620-21.

Weston told Bradford of what he had done for Grimald, who had subscribed. 1563, p. 1212, 1570, p. 1801, 1576, p. 1538, 1583, p. 1621.

On 5 April, at 2pm, Weston went to visit Bradford in the Counter. Weston had not visited him earlier due to ill health and also because he had been busy withstanding monks from entering Westminster. He also thought that Pendleton would be coming to see him. Weston told Bradford that the pope was dead and that Weston had petitioned the queen and so thought that death would not come to Bradford soon. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

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As Weston left Bradford on 5 April, he sent for Master Weale. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

After Weston left Bradford on 5 April, the keeper, Master Claydon, and Steven Bech came to Bradford and spoke unkindly to him even though they had hitherto appeared to be friendly to him. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

Bradford spoke to the servant of an unnamed gentlewoman, misused by her family for not going mass, who visited Bradford while he was in prison. [Note that Foxe says that the gentlewoman is still alive and so does not give her name, but simply records the conversation between the servant and Bradford.] 1570, pp. 1802-03, 1576, pp. 1539-40, 1583, pp. 1622-23.

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Bradford told the servant of the unnamed gentlewoman that he had read the work of Friar Fonse. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman gave Bradford greetings from Cardmaker. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman told Bradford that she saw a priest come to him in the morning and Bradford told her that he had brought a letter from a friar, to which he was replying. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

Rowland Tayor joked to Bradford as he was about to be led away to execution (1563, p. 1080; 1570, p. 1703; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1527).

Foxe describes Bradford's behaviour at his burning at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Sheriff Woodruff chided Bradford at his burning. When Woodruff went home after the burning of John Bradford, he became paralysed in his legs and arms. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

Bradford sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-7, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

He was described as a faithful witness of Christ by Robert Glover in a letter to his wife.1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, p. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Bradford was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to debate the rectitude of the Edwardian religious reforms. The petition is printed in 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated February 1548. [BL Harley 416, fos.33r-34r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated Christmas 1549. [BL, Harley 416, fo.37v. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to an unnamed gentleman or noble, written during Lent 1549. [BL Harley 416, fo.37r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letters of Bradford: 1563, pp. 1176-85, 1570, pp. 1805-40, 1576, pp. 1541-75, 1583, pp. 1624-64.

Ridley and his fellow prisoners sent a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1295, 1570, p. 1897, 1576, pp. 1624-25, 1583, p. 1725.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley spoke of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, pp. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

Another letter was written by Ridley to Bradford. 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1626, 1583, p. 1726.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe includes Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-1784.

Bradford received a letter from John Careless. 1570, pp. 2104-05, 1576, pp. 1815-16, 1583, p. 1922-23.

Bradford wrote a letter to Careless. 1570, p. 2105, 1576, p. 1816, 1583, p. 1923.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Cardmaker

(d. 1555)

Franciscan friar. Vicar of St Bride's, London. Chancellor of Wells. Martyr. [DNB]

In 1554 Cardmaker attempted to flee England with his bishop, William Barlow, but both were arrested and imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, p. 1141; 1570, p. 1749; 1576, p. 1494; 1583, p. 1578.

On 9 November 1554 he was brought before the Star Chamber and then put in the Fleet (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

He was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Ovary's on 28 January 1555. Cardmaker submitted to Gardiner (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Barlow and Cardmaker appeared to be ready to recant. Cardmaker was imprisoned in the Counter in Bread Street where he had a 'Christian and comfortable conference' with Laurence Saunders who had been sent there after being condemned by Gardiner; Saunders persuaded Cardmaker not to recant. Thomas Martin and other catholics urged Cardmaker to recant. 1570, p. 1047; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500; also see 1563, pp. 1141-42; 1570, p. 1750; 1576, pp. 1494-95; 1583, p. 1578.

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Articles presented to Cardmaker by Bishop Bonner on 24 May 1555 and Cardmaker's answers are recorded. 1563, pp. 1142-43; 1570, pp. 1750-51; 1576, p. 1495; 1583, pp. 1578-79.

Foxe records Cardmaker's confession of faith 1563, pp. 1143-1135 [recte 1145].

Beard visited Cardmaker in Newgate a few days before Cardmaker's execution and tried to persuade him to recant; Cardmaker refused. 1570, p. 1754; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1581.

Cardmaker wrote a letter to a friend, denying that he had recanted. 1570, pp. 1753-54; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1581.

Cardmaker was executed on 30 May 1555. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, pp. 1751-52; 1576, pp. 1496-97; 1583, pp. 1579-80.

Stephen Gardiner told John Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Cardmaker sent greetings to John Bradford via the servant of an unnamed gentlewoman. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

When examined by Bonner, John Leafe (who was burned with John Bradford) denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a 'scholer' of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Copy of his submission. [BL Harley 421, fo.39v. Not printed in AM or LM. Gingerly described in 1563, p. 1141 et seq.]

[Alias Taylor.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Hooper

(d. 1555)

Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester. Martyr. (DNB)

Foxe recounts Hooper's life and career before becoming a bishop (1563, pp. 1049-50; 1570, pp. 1674-76; 1576, pp. 1429-1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, pp. 1502-3).

Hooper refused to wear vestments at his consecration and was consequently imprisoned. Ultimately he made a qualified submission (1563, pp. 1050-52; 1570, pp. 1676-77; 1576, pp. 1403 [recte 1430]-31; 1583, pp. 1503-5).

Foxe relates his conduct as bishop (1563, pp. 1052-53; 1570, pp. 1677-78; 1576, pp 1431-32; 1583, p. 1505).

Hooper was summoned to London on Mary's accession and imprisoned (1563, pp. 1053-54; 1570, p. 1678; 1576, p. 1432; 1583, p. 1505).

He was ordered to attend the privy council on 22 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 31 August, Hooper appeared before the council and he was committed by them to the Fleet on the next day (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]). (APC IV, p. 337, has Hooper appearing on 1 September and committed to the Fleet the same day).

Foxe gives accounts of Hooper's imprisonment and examinations. 1563, pp. 1055-57; 1570, pp. 1678-80; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, pp. 1506-7.

He was deprived of his bishopric, but he defended the validity of clerical marriage at his deprivation (1563, pp. 1054-55; 1570, pp. 1678-79; 1576, pp. 1432-33; 1583, p. 1403 [recte 1430]).

Hooper was rumored to have recanted after he was condemned; he wrote denying this. 1563, p. 1057; 1570, pp. 1680-81; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, pp. 1507-8.

Foxe records his degradation, journey to Gloucester and execution. 1563, pp. 1057-62 and 1064; 1570, pp. 1681-86; 1576, pp. 1434-39; 1583, pp. 1508-12.

Hooper was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His letters: 1563, pp. 1062-63; 1570, pp. 1686-93; 1576, pp. 1439-45; 1583, pp. 1512-18.

Hooper was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

On 3 January 1555, a letter was sent to Hooper informing him of the arrest of Thomas Rose's congregation at the churchyard of St. Mary-le-Bow on 1 January 1555 (1563, p. 1020).

Hooper wrote an answer to this letter (1563, p. 1020; 1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1482).

Hooper also sent a letter of encouragement to the members of Rose's congregation imprisoned in the Counter in Bread Street (1563, pp. 1021-22; 1570, pp. 1654-55; 1576, pp. 1411-12; 1583, pp. 1482-83).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St. Mary Overy's on 28 January 1554 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley speaks of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, p. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

During his examination, John Hallingdale said that Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley and Hooper were not heretics. 1563, p. 1638, 1570, p. 2222, 1576, p. 1919, 1583, p. 2026.

Hooper's Latin epistle touching matters of religion was sent to Convocation House. 1583, pp. 2135-36.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Launder

(1530? - 1555)

Husbandman and martyr. Born and lived in Godstone, Surrey.

John Launder was apprehended with Derick Carver at the end of October 1554 by Edward Gage, while at prayer in Carver's house. 1563, pp. 1239-40, 1570, pp. 1860-61, 1576, pp. 1592-93, 1583, p. 1680.

He appeared to hold prayer meetings at his own house. 1563, p. 1242, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1593, 1583, p. 1680.

He was sent to Newgate. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1593, 1583, p. 1680.

On 8 June 1555 Launder was sent to prison after a letter was sent to Bonner from the marquess of Winchester, now lord treasurer [?], on 8 June 1555. He appeared in the consistory court of 10 June 1555. 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

He made a confession before Bonner. 1563, p. 1240, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

Robert Smith told his wife in a letter that Launder was condemned. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Launder sent a piece of Spanish money to Anne Smith. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Foxe records the articles against him and answers. 1563, p. 1240, 1570, pp. 1861-62, 1576, pp. 1593-94, 1583, pp. 1681-82.

William Paulet was ordered by the privy council on 12 June 1555 to send a writ for John Launder's execution to the sheriff of Sussex. 1583, p. 1581.

He was burned with Derick Carver at Lewes on 22 July 1555. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Rogers

(1500? - 1555) (DNB)

Martyr.

Foxe describes Rogers' life and career. 1563, pp. 1022-23; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484.

John Rogers preached a sermon at Paul's Cross on 6 August 1553 denouncing 'popery', for which he was placed under arrest. 1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484. [NB: This contradicts the next two entries].

On 13 August 1553 Gilbert Bourne (Marian bishop of Bath and Wells) preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, praising Bonner and criticising Edward VI. This sermon incited a fanatic to throw a dagger at him and enraged the mob. John Rogers and John Bradford escorted Bourne to safety (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]. The story is in Rerum, pp. 464-65, but Rogers is not mentioned in that version).

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On 16 August 1553, Rogers was placed under house arrest by the privy council (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

He was committed to Newgate on 26 January 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

It was rumoured in May 1554 that Rogers, together with Bradford and Saunders, would take part in a disputation to be held in Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Rogers was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overies on 28 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Rogers' examination took place on 29 January 1555. [BL Harley 421, fos.40r-41r. Not printed in Acts and Monuments or Letters of the Martyrs but mentioned in 1563, p. 1029 et seq.]

Bradford's second examination took place on 29 January 1555, directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1188-92, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

He was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His examination and condemnation: 1563, pp. 1026-31; 1570, pp. 1656-62; 1576, pp. 1414-19; 1583, pp. 1484-89. He was examined and condemned with John Hooper on. 1563, p. 1056; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, p. 1507.

Rogers was degraded, with John Hooper, on 4 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1057-58; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, pp. 1434-35; 1583, p. 1508.

Rogers' martyrdom is described. 1563, pp. 1036-37; 1570, pp. 1663-64; 1576, pp. 1419-20; 1583, pp. 1492-93.

When examined by Bonner, John Leafe (who was burned with John Bradford) denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a scholar of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

In a letter to his mother and others, John Bradford asked that Rogers be remembered. 1570, pp. 1805-06,1576, pp. 1541-42, 1583, p. 1624.

John Rogers' martyrdom was referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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His other writings: (1563, pp. 1031-36; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, pp. 1489-92).

Rogers was involved in the debate over the clerical wearing of caps. 1563, p. 1732.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Edward Gage

Sheriff of Sussex and Surrey (1556 -1557). Brother of James Gage.

Edward Gage apprehended Derick Carver, Thomas Iveson, William Veisy, and John Launder at prayer in Carver's house during late October 1554. 1563, p. 1239. 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

Sir Edward Gage sent his men to arrest Richard Woodman in Warbleton, Sussex. 1570, pp. 2171, 2188, 1576, pp. 1875, 1889, 1583, pp. 1983-84, 1997.

John Trew was persecuted by Sir Edward Gage and imprisoned, pilloried and had his ears cut off. 1563, p. 1681.

[Son of John Gage.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Iveson

(d. 1555)

Born in Chichester. Carpenter. Of Godstone, Surrey. Martyr.

William Paulet was ordered by the Privy Council to send a writ for Thomas Iveson's execution to the sheriff of Sussex on 12 June 1555. 1583, p. 1581.

Thomas Iveson was apprehended with Derick Carver at the end of October 1554 by Edward Gage, while at prayer in Carver's house. 1563, pp. 1239-40 1570, pp. 1860-61, 1576, pp. 1592-93, 1583, p. 1680.

Iveson was burned in the same month as Carver and Launder. 1563, p. 1243, 1570, p. 1863, 1576, p. 1594, 1583, p. 1682.

He gave answers to Bonner in July 1555. 1563, pp. 1243-44, 1570, p. 1863, 1576, pp. 1594-95, 1583, pp. 1682-83.

Robert Smith told his wife in a letter that Iveson had sent her money and in another letter that Iveson was condemned. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Iveson sent money to Anne, Katherine Smith and Anne's mother. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

[Foxe also refers to him as Thomas 'Everson' and 'Juison'.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Paulet

(1483? - 1572)

Marquess of Winchester (1551 - 1572) [DNB]

William Paulet signed a royal dispensation of 5 August 1550 which permitted Hooper to be consecrated without having to wear vestments. 1563, p. 1050; 1570, p. 1676; 1576, p. 1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, p. 1504. [Paulet signed as 'W. Wiltshire', being earl of Wiltshire at the time].

He presided over the treason trial and condemnation of Sir Andrew Dudley, Sir John Gates, Sir Henry Gates and Sir Thomas Palmer on 19 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He attended Thomas Watson's Paul's Cross sermon of 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Paulet was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

On 28 March 1555, Mary announced to Paulet and three other privy councillors that she was restoring the monastic lands in the crown's possession to the church. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

On 16 May 1555 the privy council ordered Paulet to send Thomas Ross to John Hopton, and to commit Stephen Appes to Bedlam, if reports of his madness were true. 1583, p. 1577.

On 26 May 1555 the privy council ordered that that Paulet confer with Bishop Bonner and the Middlesex JPs about where convicted heretics were to be executed. 1583, p. 1577.

On 28 May 1555 the Privy Council instructed Paulet to provide money for ambassadors carrying news of the (anticipated) safe delivery of Mary's child to various foreign monarchs. 1583, p. 1577.

On 12 June 1555 the privy council ordered Paulet to send writs for the executions of Derick Carver, Thomas Iveson and John Launder to the sheriff of Sussex. 1583, p. 1581.

Derick Carver was sent to prison after a letter was sent to Bonner from the marquess of Winchester, then lord treasurer, on 8 June 1555. 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

Paulet wrote to Feckenham, the dean of St Paul's. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

[Also referred to as 'Marquis of Winchester' and 'W. Wiltshire']

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Veisy

William Veisy was apprehended with John Launder, Thomas Everson and Derick Carver in late October 1554 by Edward Gage whilst at a prayer meeting at Carver's house. 1563, pp. 1239-40 1570, pp. 1860-61, 1576, pp. 1592-93, 1583, p. 1680.

He appeared to hold prayer meetings at his own house. 1563, p. 1242, 1570, p. 1860-61, 1576, p. 1592-93, 1583, p. 1680.

This may be the William Vassy referred to as reprieved by Robert Smith's wife, Anne. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Godstone
NGR: TQ 354 515

A parish in the first division of the hundred of Tandridge, county of Surrey. 19 miles south by east from London. The living is a rectory, with the vicarage of Walkemstead annexed, in the Archdeaconry of Surrey and Diocese of Winchester.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Stainings [Steyning]
NGR: TQ 185 106

A borough market town and parish in the hundred of Steyning, rape of Bramber, county of Sussex. 24 miles east by north from Chichester. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Chichester.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1704 [1680]

Queene Mary. Diricke Caruer, Launder, with others Martyrs.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. Iuly.his face, being hurte with the ende of a fagotte cast thereat. 

Commentary  *  Close

I.e., Wade cupped his hands around his mouth so that his voice would carry.

Then fire being putte vnto him, he cried vnto God often, Lord Iesus receiue my soule, wythout any token or signe of impaciencie in the fire, till at lengthe, after the fire was once throughly kindled, he was hearde no man speake, still holding hys handes vp ouer hys head together towardes heauen, euen when he was dead and altogether rosted, as though they had bene stayed vppe wyth a proppe standing vnder them.

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Thys signe did God shewe vppon hym, whereby his very ennemies might perceiue, that God had according to hys prayer, shewed such a token vppon hym, euen to their shame and confusion. And this was the order of this godly Martyrs execution, thys was his ende. Whereby God seemed to confound and strike with the spirit of dumbnes, the Frier that Locuste which was risen vp to haue spoken against hym: and also no lese woonderfully susteined those handes which he lifted vp to him for cōfort in his torment.

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Spectatores presentes Richardus Fletcher pater, nunc Minister Ecclesiæ Crambroke, Richardus Fletcher filius, Minister Ecclesiæ Riensis. 

Commentary  *  Close

'Spectaors present, Richard Fletcher, father, now minister of the church ofCranbrook; Richard Fletcher, son, minister of the church of Rye'.

 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, 321, fn 1

"Riensis," that is, of Rye in Sussex. - ED.

The apprehension, examination, condemnation, and burning of Diricke Caruer, and Iohn Launder, who suffered martyrdome for the testimonie of Christes Gospell. 
Commentary  *  Close
The Martyrdoms of Carver and Launder

The only information on this pair in the Rerum is a note stating that John Launder was burned at Steyning, Sussex, and 'Dirickius Harmonus' was burned at Lewes, both in July 1555 (p. 510). [Foxe's source apparently confused Dirick Carver with Richard Harmon, another Sussex protestant, who was committed to the King's Bench in May 1554; see APC V, p. 128]. In the 1563 edition, Foxe had written his complete account of Carver and Launder. It was largely based on official records of the London diocese, now lost, but also, for its account of the despoiling of Carver's family, his learning to read English and of Carver's execution, on personal testimony or testimonies. The account was unchanged in subsequent editions.

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MarginaliaIuly. 22. & 23. MarginaliaDiricke Caruer, and Iohn Launder, Martirs. Edward Gage gentleman, persecutor.THe 22. day of this moneth of Iuly, was burned at Lewes, within the Countie of Sussex, one Diricke Caruer, late of the parish of Brighthamsted in the same Countie. And the next day (being the 23. day of the same moneth) was also burned at Stening,  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 321, line 19

The order for their burning was applied for June 12th. Staining, near Worthing, is no doubt the place meant by "Stenning."

an other named Ihon Lander, late of Godstone, in the Countie of Surrey. Whych 2. men were (wt others) about the ende of the moneth of October. An. 1554. apprehended by Edwarde Gage Gentleman, as they were at prayer within the dwelling house of the said Diricke: and by him were sent vp vnto the Queenes Counsaile. Who, after examination, sent them as prisoners to Newgate, there to attende the leisure of Boner Bishop of London. 
Commentary  *  Close

Carver and Launder were the first protestants from the diocese of Chichester to be tried for heresy. Technically they should have been tried by the bishop of Chichester, but at that moment the office was vacant. As a substitute, they were sent to Bonner, who really had no jurisdiction in the matter.

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MarginaliaCaruer and Launder appearing before Bishop Boner.From whence (vpon the Bishops receipte of a letter from the Lorde Marques of Winchester now Lord Treasurer) they were brought by the keeper of the prison, the 8. of Iune next after, into the bishops chamber at his house in Lōdon: and there (being examined vpon diuers poynts of religion) they made their seueral confessions, subscribing and signing them with theyr owne hands. Which being read, the Bishop obiected vnto them certaine other Articles, causing them to sweare truely and directly to aunswere thereunto: whiche Articles they confessed to be true, referring them selues chiefly to theyr former confessions.

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This done, after long perswasions and faire exhortations, they were demaunded whether they would stand to their aunsweres. To whom Launder sayde: I will neuer goe from these answeres, so long as I liue. The other also confirmed the same, and therfore they were commanded to appeare againe before the Bishoppe in the Consistorie at Paules, the 10. day of the same moneth nexte followynge. Which articles and confessions, wyth the afore mencioned letter do here ensue.

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A letter sent from the Marques of Winchester, Lord Treasurer, vnto Boner B. of London, touching the examination of the said prisoners. 
Commentary  *  Close

This letter must have been copied at Bonner's orders into his diocesan records, probably into a court book which is now lost.

AFter my right harty commendations to your good Lordship, I shall not forget your liuerie of blacke against this time: 

Commentary  *  Close

As Foxe explains in a marginal gloss, the court was wearing black due to the recent death of King Philip's grandmother Juana.

MarginaliaThese funerals were for the kings grandmother the old Queene of Spayne.no more I shall maister Deane, to whom I wrote to make the sermon, who must now assuredly do it: for my L. of Chichester cannot attend it. To whom I haue geuen like knowledge by my letter now sent, and your Lordshippe must commaund the Sextens of youre church to be in readines for ringing in the time of seruice. And if ye be not furnished with blacke apparell for the aultar, and for the Priest, Deacon, and Subdeacon, I must haue knowledge therof, that it be taken of the Queenes stuffe, whereof I pray you let me be aduertised.

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And ye haue sent Bradford to Newgate, as a man determined of heresie before you: but as I perceiue ye haue not sent me a Significauit, 

Commentary  *  Close

I.e., a significavit of excommunication. This was the writ which a bishop was required to send to Chancery, notifying them that an individual had been sentenced to death for heresy and turned over to the secular authorities.

and therfore you must send me one MarginaliaA significauit to be sēt to the Lord treasurer for the burning of Bradford.that I may procede with him, and that shal I do, assone as I am answeared of you.

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There be diuers like prisonners that came from Sussex, that be not yet examined before you, lying nowe in Newgate, whych must be examined by you, since they be come to London, and so I pray you they may be, MarginaliaHe meaneth Diricke Caruer, and Iohn Launder. Lord Treasurer calleth vpon Boner for examination of these 2. persons.and I certified of your proceedings, that I may follow, which I shall doe, thanking your Lordship heartely for my Conies, trusting to recōpence your Lordship again shortly with twise as many. From my house this 7 of Iune. 1555.

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Your louing friend, Winchester. 

Commentary  *  Close

William Paulet, the marquis of Winchester, not Stephen Gardiner, the bishop of Winchester.

The Confession of Diricke Caruer, before Boner Bishop of London. 
Commentary  *  Close

This confession was copied by Foxe from an official record which is now lost. But by a stroke of luck, we know that Foxe did not reprint this document with complete fidelity. The catholic polemicist Miles Hogarde recorded that Carver stated that a person might be a Christian without baptism and that it was only an external sign (Miles Hogarde, The Displaying of the Protestants [London, 1556], STC 13557, fos. 10r-11r). Note that Foxe does not print an article on baptism by Carver or Launder, but he does print one by Thomas Iveson; this is further evidence that Foxe censored Carver's and Lander's radical opinions on baptism.

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MarginaliaDiricke Caruer his confession.DIricke Caruer bearebrewer of Brighthamsted, in the countie of Sussex, where he hathe dwelled by the space of 8. or 9. yeares, borne in the village of Dilson by Stockome in the land of Luke, 

Commentary  *  Close

Dilsom, near Stockem, in the region of Liége, Flanders.

 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, 322, fn 3

"Luke" means Liége. The three places named in this line are all comprehended in the following sentence from Oudiette's 'Dictionaire Géographique et Topographique des treize Départemens,' vol. i. p. 78. "Dilsem, village départ. de la Meuse-Inférieure, arrond. de Ruremond, ci-dev. pays de Liége; Popul. environ 600 habitans, pres de Stockem." Dirick Carver was in short a Dutchman. Addenda:Dr. Maitland, besides the geographical illustration of this passage from Oudiette, also quotes the following extract from Miles Hoggart's work, "The Displaying of the Protestants and sondry their Practises, &c." 16mo. London, 1556, as throwing light on Carver's history: "Also about xii. monethes past, before the Reverende father the bishop of London, there were arrainged in the consistorie of Paules for their opinions against the Sacrament of the Altar, iiii Sussex men, the one of them was a ducheman, and dwelled besides Lewes, who being demaunded among others, what baptism was, the one answered it was a sacrament. Then he was demanded whether a man might be a christian without it, Yea doubtles qd he; for it is but an externe signe and worketh little grace. 'For,' said he, 'like as a man doth wash his hands in a bason of water signifying that the hands are clean ever, so the child is washed at Baptism to accomplish the exterior figure.' Then was objected unto him the saying of Christe, 'Unles a man be borne agayne with water and the holy ghoste he could not be saved.' 'Tushe,' saithe he, 'the water profiteth nothing, it is the Holy Ghost that worketh;' who, with the rest, most worthily were condempned and burned in Sussex." - f. 11. b.

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40. yeres of age, or thereabout, and nowe prisoner in Newgate, where he hath remained and continued at the Counsailes commaundement, since Alhollowne day last past, being examined concerning hys faith and beliefe in the sacrament of the altar, MarginaliaThe materiall substance of the Sacrament denyed to be the body of Christ really.sayeth that he hath & doth beleue, that the very substance of the body and bloud of Christ is not in the sayd Sacrament, & that there is no other substaunce remaining in the said sacrament after the woordes spoken by the Priest, but onely the substance of bread and wine.

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MarginaliaThe vse and Sacrifice of the Latin Masse denyed.Item, being examined concerning the Masse in Latin now vsed in the church of England, he beleueth that there is no sacrifice in the sayde Masse, and that there is in it no saluation for a christian man, except it should be said in the mother toung, that he might vnderstand it: and cōcerning the ceremonies of the Church, he sayth and beleeueth, that they be not profitable to a Christian man.

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MarginaliaAuricular confession and absolution of the Priest reiected.Item, being examined concerning auriculare confession, he answeareth: that he hath and doth beleeue, that it is necessary to goe to a good Priest for good counsaile, but the absolution of the Priest, laying his hand vppon any mans head as is nowe vsed, is nothing profitable to a Christian mans saluation. And further he sayth, that he hath not ben confessed, nor receiued the sacrament of the aulter, since the coronation of the Queene that now is.

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Item, concerning the faith & religion, now taught, setfoorth & beleeued in the church of England, he answeareth and beleueth, that the faith and doctrine nowe taught, setfoorth, and vsed in the sayd Church of Englande, is not agreable to Gods word. MarginaliaThe fayth of the Church of England in Quene Maryes tyme reproued.And furthermore he sayth, that bishop Hooper, Cardmaker, Rogers, & other of their opinion, which were of late burned, were good christian men, & did preach the true doctrine of Christ, as he beleeueth: and sayth that they did shed theyr bloude in the same doctrine, which was by the power of God, as he sayth & beleeueth.

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And further being examined saith, þt since the Quenes coronation, he hath had the Bible and Psalter in English red in his house at Brighthamsted diuers times, and likewise since hys comming into Newgate, but the Keeper hearing thereof, did take them awaye: and sayeth also that about a tweluemoneth now past, he had the English procession sayd in his house, with other English praiers. MarginaliaIueson, Launder, and Veisie, imprisoned for hearing the Gospell.And further sayeth, that Thomas Iueson, Iohn Launder, and William Veisey, 

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William was reprieved, probably because he recanted (see 1563, p. 1297; 1570, p. 1877; 1576, p. 1607 and 1583, p. 1701).

being prisoners with hym in Newgate, were taken with this examinat in his house at Brighthāsted, as they were hearing of the gospel, then read in English, a litle before Alhollowne day 
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1 November 1554.

last past, and brought to the Court: and being examined thereuppon by the Counsaile, were committed by them to prison in Newgate.

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The confession of Iohn Launder, before Boner bishop of London. 
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Foxe copied this document from an official record which is now lost. Notice, however, that, as with Carver's confession, from which we know that Foxe omitted a statement on baptism, this confession of faith contains no statement on baptism.

MarginaliaIohn Launder his confession.IOhn Launder husbandman, of the Parish of Godstone, in the Countie of Surrey, of the age of xxv. yeres, borne at Godstone aforesayde, being examined, doth confesse and say, that about two dayes next before Allhollontide nowe last past, this Examinate and one Diricke Caruer, Thomas Iueson, William Veisie, with diuers other persons, to the number of twelue, (being all together in their prayers, and saying the seruice in English, set foorth in the time of King Edwarde the sixte, in the house of the sayde Diricke, situate at Brighthamsted in Sussex) were apprehended by one maister Edwarde Gage, and by him sent vppe hether to London, to the Kinge and Queenes Counsaile, and by them (vpon his examination) committed to Newgate, where he with his said other felowes hath euer since remained in prison.

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MarginaliaThe cause of the apprehensiō of Iohn Launder.And further being examined, he doeth confesse and say, that the occasion of his comming to the sayde Brighthamsted, was vpon certaine busines there to be sped for his father: and so being there, and hearing that the saide Diricke was a man that did much fauour the Gospel, this Examinate did resorte to his house and companye, whome before that time hee did neuer see or know and by reason of that hys resorte, hee was apprehended as before: And further doth confesse and beleeue, that there is heere in earth, one whole and vniuersall Catholicke Churche, whereof the members be dispersed through the world, and doth beleue also, that the same Church doeth set foorth and teache onely two Sacraments: MarginaliaTwo Sacramentes onely.videlicet, the Sacrament of Baptisme, and the Sacrament of the Supper of our Lord. And who

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soeuer
LLLL.ij.
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