Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the TextCommentary on the Woodcuts
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Edmond Tyrrel

(1513 - 1576) [SP11/5, no. 6]; Bindoff, Commons]

Justice of the Peace, Essex (1554 - 1558/59). Bailiff, St Osyth, Essex (1553), MP Maldon (1554, 1558). (Bindoff)

Edmond Tyrrel was one of the commissioners who examined Thomas Wattes on 26 April 1555. These commissioners sent Wattes to Bishop Bonner on 27 April to be tried for heresy. 1563, pp. 1162-63 and 1165-66; 1570, pp. 1769-70; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, pp. 1594-95

Edward Tyrrel met with John Denley and John Newman prior to their deaths. 1563, p. 1244, 1570, p. 1864, 1576, p. 1596, 1583, p. 1683.

Edmond Tyrrel wrote to one of the queen's commissioners stating that he had received a letter from that [unnamed] commissioner and Sir Nicholas Hare via John Failes on 12 June 1555. 1563, p. 1245, 1570, p. 1864, 1576, p. 1596, 1583, p. 1683.

He found articles of religion on Denley, Newman and Pattingham. 1563, p. 1244, 1570, p. 1864, 1576, p. 1596, 1583, p. 1683.

Two sermons were preached in Plumborough and Beaches Woods in Essex, to the great annoyance of Edmund Tyrrel. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Tyrrel went to Hockley in Essex to see who was at the preaching in the woods. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He tried unsucessfully to force John Gye to seek out Tyms, whom Tyrrel believed to be behind the sermons against him. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

When Tyms was brought before Tyrrel, he spoke to him for over three hours without witness, although his words were overheard and so reported to Foxe. 1570, p. 2075, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1896.

Sir John Mordant wrote a letter to Bonner with Edward Tyrrel about women prisoners in the county of Essex. 1563, p. 1518, 1570, p. 2091, 1576, p. 1804, 1583, p. 1910.

Margaret Ellis was delivered up for examination by Sir John Mordant and Edmund Tyrrel, by means of a letter written to Bonner. 1563, p. 1518, 1570, p. 2091, 1576, p. 1804, 1583, p. 1910.

Joan Potter was delivered to Bonner by Mordant and Tyrrel for examination. She was named in a letter by the two justices written to Bonner. 1563, p. 1518, 1570, p. 2091, 1576, p. 1804, 1583, p. 1910.

Elizabeth Thackvel was delivered up for examination by Sir John Mordant and Edmund Tyrrel, by means of letter written to Bonner. 1570, p. 2091, 1576, p. 1804, 1583, p. 1910.

James Harris was delivered by Mordant and Tyrrel to Bonner for examination, as evidenced by a letter to Bonner written by the two justices. 1563, p. 1518, 1570, p. 2091, 1576, p. 1804, 1583, p. 1910.

Joan Horns was delivered up for examination by Sir John Mordant and Edmund Tyrrel. 1563, p. 1539, 1570, p. 2090, 1576, p. 1803, 1583, p. 1910.

Katherine Hut was delivered up for examination by Sir John Mordant and Edmund Tyrrel, through a letter written to Bonner. 1563, p. 1519, 1570, p. 2091, 1576, p. 1804, 1583, p. 1910.

On 29 August 1557 an indenture was made between several lords and justices and John Kingston concerning the delivery of 22 prisoners from Colchester. Tyrrel was one of the persecutors named in the indenture. 1563, p. 1565, 1570, p. 2157, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly marked as 1971]

On 7 March 1557 at two o'clock in the morning, Edmund Tyrrel took William Simuel, the bailiff of Colchester, and two constables of Great Bentley, John Baker and William Harris, to the house of William Mount and his family in order to arrest them. 1570, p. 2199, 1576, p. 1897, 1583, p. 2006.

Rose Allin challenged Edmund Tyrrel over his accusations of heresy, for which he took her candle from her and burned the back of her hand until the sinews cracked. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

Edmund Tyrrel called Rose Allin a whore on several occasions while he burned her hand and became frustrated when she would not cry. 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

Rose Allin told Edmund Tyrrel that the Lord might give him repentance, if it were his will. 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

Edmund Tyrrel found John Thurston and Margaret, his wife, at William Mount's house and so sent them to prison at Colchester castle, along with the Mounts and their daughter. 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

In prison, Rose Allin told a friend that she could have smashed Edmund Tyrrel in the face with a pot she held in her free hand whilst he was burning her other hand, but she was glad she had not. 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

After a list of clerics who died around the time of Mary's death, Foxe refers to Tyrrel's survival. 1563, p. 1706, 1570, p. 2298, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2101.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
James Abbes

(d. 1555)

Of Stoke Nayland, Suffolk. Martyr.

James Abbes was itinerant because of his religious beliefs. He was caught and appeared before Dr Hopton. He recanted but when the bishop gave him 40 or 20 pence [Foxe is not sure] he withdrew his recantation. He was burned in Bury on 2 August 1555. 1563, p. 1244, 1570, pp. 1864-65, 1576, p. 1594, 1583, p. 1683.

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Abbes took off his shirt to give as alms on his way to the stake. 1563, p. 1705, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1990. 1583, p. 2101.

The sheriff railed against him but then said that Abbes was in fact saved but that he himself was damned. He went about the streets of Bury St Edmunds declaring this to be the case. 1563, p. 1705, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1990. 1583, p. 2101.

Abbes was put in a dark house and then tied to a cart to be returned to his master. A priest came to him with a crucifix and troubled him further. He was burned a short time afterwards. 1563, p. 1705, 1570, p. 2300, 1576, p. 1990. 1583, p. 2101.

 
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John Aleworth

(d.1555)

Protestant.

Died in prison in Reading, at the end of July 1555. 1563, p. 1244, 1570, pp. 1863-64, 1576, p. 1595, 1583, p. 1683.

 
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John Denley

(d. 1555)

Gentleman from Maidstone in Kent. Martyr.

John Denley was apprehended. 1563, pp. 1244-45, 1570, p. 1864 , 1576, p. 1596, 1583, p. 1683.

Denley sent a letter to John Symson, Ardeley and others in prison. 1563, p. 1246, 1570, p. 1865, 1576, p. 1597, 1583, p. 1684.

Articles were presented against him which he answered. 1563, pp. 1246-47, 1570, pp. 186566 , 1576, pp. 1597-98, 1583, p. 1684-85.

On 1 July 1555 he appeared at the consistory court of St Paul's and was condemned on 5 July. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1597-8, 1583, p. 1685.

Robert Smith was held in a chamber at Bonner's house while Bonner went to condemn John Denley and John Newman. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

Denley sang a psalm at his burning, for which Story rebuked him. He was burned at Uxbridge about 28 July 1555. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1686.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Failes

John Failes delivered a letter by Sir Nicholas Hare to Edmond Tyrrell. 1563, p. 1245, 1570, p. 1864, 1576, p. 1596, 1583, p. 1683.

 
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John Hopton

(d. 1558)

Bishop of Norwich (1554 - 1558) [DNB]

John Hopton was created bishop of Norwich (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

On 12 May 1555 the privy council ordered that Thomas Ross be delivered to Hopton to be made to recant or to be tried for heresy (1583, p. 1577).

Hopton was one of the commissioners who condemned John Bradford, Laurence Saunders and Rowland Taylor to death. 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24.

On 12 May 1555 the privy council ordered that Thomas Ross be delivered to Hopton, either to be forced to recant, or to be tried for heresy. 1583, p. 1577.

James Abbes was caught and appeared before Dr Hopton. He recanted but when the bishop gave him 40 or 20 pence [Foxe is not sure] he recanted. He was burned in Bury on 2 August 1555. 1563, p. 1244, 1570, pp. 1864-65, 1576, p. 1594, 1583, p. 1683.

Robert Samuel was cruelly treated by Dr Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and/or Dr Dunnings, the chancellor [Foxe is not sure]. 1563, p. 1270, 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1609, 1583, p. 1703.

William Allen was examined and condemned by the bishop of Norwich. 1570, p. 1883, 1576, p. 1613, 1583, p. 1707.

Roger Coo was examined by the bishop of Norwich, 12 August, 1555. 1563, pp. 1272-73, 1570, pp. 1883-84, 1576, p. 1613, 1583, p. 1707.

Thomas Cobbe was examined by Dunning but condemned by the bishop of Norwich with Roger Coo, William Allen, James Abbes, and Robert Samuel. He was burned at Thetford in September 1556. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1884, 1576, pp. 1613-14 , 1583, p. 1708.

Thomas Spicer, John Denny and Edmund Poole were condemned by John Hopton and Dunning and handed over to Sir John Silliard, high sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk. 1570, p. 2093, 1576, p. 1793, 1583, p. 1912.

Roger Bernard was examined and condemned by Hopton. Adam Foster was sent to the Eye prison and then to Norwich to be examined and then condemned by Hopton. 1563, pp. 1527-28, 1570, pp. 2098-99, 1576, pp. 1810-11, 1583, p. 1917.

The second, third and fourth examinations of John Fortune were conducted by Hopton. 1570, pp. 2100-01, 1576, p. 1812, 1583, pp. 1918-19.

Peter and Anne Moone were presented before Hopton (bishop of Norwich) and Dunning (chancellor) during their visitation of Ipswich in 1556. Three articles were presented against Peter Moone and his answers given. 1570, p. 2126, 1576, p. 1847, 1583, p. 1942.

Simon Miller was imprisoned in the bishop's house. He was condemned by Hopton and his chancellor, Michael Dunning. 1563, pp. 1602-03, 1570, p. 2197, 1576, p. 1896, 1583, p. 2005.

The second examination of Thomas Spurdance was by Hopton. 1570, pp. 2221-22, 1576, pp. 1917-18, 1583, pp. 2024-25.

John Fortune's second and third examinations were conducted by the bishop of Norwich, who condemned him. 1563, pp. 1636-38.

James Ashley was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Thomas Carman was examined and condemned by Hopton.1563, p. 1657, 1570, p. 2233, 1576, p. 1928, 1583, p. 2036.

John Cooke was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Berry sent Thomas Hudson before Hopton. 1563, p. 1657, 1570, p. 2233, 1576, p. 1928, 1583, p. 2036.

Alexander Lane was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Robert Miles was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Thomas Rose's second examination was before Hopton, W. Woodhouse, Dr Barret and others1570, p. 1978, 1576, pp. 1978-79, 1583, p. 2084.

Thomas Rose's last appearance was before Woodhouse and Hopton. 1570, p. 1979, 1576, pp. 1980-81, 1583, pp. 2085-86.

After being questioned by Sir John Tyrrel, William Seaman was sent before Bishop Hopton who then condemned him. 1563, p. 1655, 1570, p. 2232, 1576, p. 1927, 1583, p. 2035.

John Noyes was condemned by the bishop of Norwich before Dunning, Sir W. Woodhouse, Sir Thomas Woodhouse, George Heyden, Master Spense, W. Farrar (alderman), Master Thurston, Winesden and others. 1570, p. 2217, 1576, p. 1913, 1583, p. 2021.

John Hopton died after Queen Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2102.

[1563, p. 1707, correctly states that Hopton died before Queen Mary. He died in August 1558.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Newman

(d. 1555)

Martyr. Pewterer. Of Saffron Walden.

John Newman was apprehended, examined and condemned. 1563, p. 1244-45, 1570, p. 1865, 1576, pp. 1596-97 , 1583, p. 1684.

Articles were brought against him. 1563, pp. 1246-47, 1570, pp. 1865-66, 1576, p. 1597, 1583, p. 1684.

Robert Smith was held in a chamber at Bonner's house while Bonner went to condemn John Denley and John Newman. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

On 1 July 1555 Newman appeared at the consistory court of St Paul's and was condemned 5 July. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1597-8, 1583, p. 1685.

He met with Justice Edmund Tyrrell, shortly before he was burned. 1563, p. 1244, 1570, p. 1864, 1576, p. 1596, 1583, p. 1683.

He was burned at Saffron Walden on 31 August 1555. 1563, p. 1268, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1686

[or]

He was burned at Uxbridge with John Denley and Patrick Packingham around 28 August 1555. 1563, pp. 1267-68.

John Newman was apprehended in Kent and examined there by Thornden and others at Tenterden. 1570, p. 2134, 1576, p. 1856, 1583, pp. 1686-87, p. 1950.

He was brought before Bonner and condemned with Denley and Packingham. 1570, p. 2134, 1576, p. 1856, 1583, p. 1950.

Newman wrote a letter to Thornden about his conduct and doctrine. 1570, p. 2134, 1576, p. 1856, 1583, p. 1950.

He was examined by Thornden and gave answers. 1570, p. 2134-35, 1576, pp. 1856-57, 1583, p. 1950-51.

John Newman proposed arguments on the sacrament. 1570, p. 2135, 1576, pp. 1857-58, 1583, p. 1951.

He was burned at Saffron Walden. 1570, p. 2135, 1576, p. 1856, 1583, p. 1951.

Foxe recounts John Newman's faith and occupation. 1563, pp. 1268-69, 1583, pp. 1687-88. [NB: Foxe calls him Richard in 1563, apparently confusing him with his brother of that name.]

John Newman was examined before Thornden, Collins and others. 1583, pp. 1686-87.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Patrick Packingham

(1534? - 1555)

Martyr.

Patrick Packingham was apprehended, examined and condemned. 1563, p. 1244-45, 1570, p. 1864 , 1576, p. 1596, 1583, p. 1683.

Articles were bruoght against him and he gave answers. 1563, pp. 1246-47, 1570, pp. 1865-66 , 1576, pp. 1597-98, 1583, p. 1684-85.

On 1 July 1555 he appeared at the consistory court of St Paul's and was condemned on 5 July. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1597-8, 1583, p. 1685.

He was burned at Saffron Walden on 31 August 1555 ?. 1563, p. 1268, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1686

[or]

he was burned at Uxbridge with John Denley and John Newman around 28 August 1555. 1563, pp. 1267-68.

[Foxe also refers to him as 'Patrick Pattingham'.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Nicholas Hare

(1495 - 1557)

Judge. Eldest son of John Hare of Homersfield, Suffolk, by Elizabeth Fotescue, his wife. [DNB] Master of the Rolls (1553 - 1557) MP for Downton, Wiltshire (1529), Norfolk (1539 - 1540), Lancaster (1544 - 1545). Speaker of the House (1539 - 1540) (DNB; Bindoff)

Sir Nicholas Hare was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

On 15 April 1555, Hare was ordered by the privy council to interrogate William Flower and also to have Bishop Bonner and the Middlesex JPs initiate proceedings against Flower. 1583, p. 1561.

Sir Nicholas Hare wrote a letter to Edmond Tyrrell in June 1555. 1563, p. 1245, 1570, p. 1864, 1576, p. 1596, 1583, p. 1683.

Edmond Tyrrel wrote to one of the queen's commissioners stating that he had received a letter from that [unnamed] commissioner and Sir Nicholas Hare via John Failes on 12 June 1555. 1563, p. 1245, 1570, p. 1864, 1576, p. 1596, 1583, p. 1683.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries. The letter was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689. [Hare sent ten Newgate prisoners to be examined by Bonner: Elizabeth Warne, George Tankerfield, Robert Smith, Steven Harwood, Thomas Fust, William Haile, George King, John Wade, Joan Lashford.] 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, p. 1702.

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Thomas Leyes was sent to Newgate by Sir Nicholas Hare. 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, p. 1702.

[Hare was not a knight, but both Foxe and the Privy Council Register mistakenly call him 'Sir' (cf. APC V, p. 115). The overseers to Hare's will were the outspoken conservatives Sir Edward Waldegrave and Sir John Baker; his three sons were all Elizabethan recusants (Bindoff, Commons).]

 
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Bury St Edmunds

[St Edmundsbury; Berry; Bery]

West Suffolk

OS grid ref: TL 855 645

Contains a ruined abbey, the shrine of St Edmund

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Raimesdon [Ramesden Park, Ramesden Crays]
NGR: TQ 707 932

A parish in the hundred of Barnstaple, county of Essex. 3 miles east-south-east from Billericay. The living is a rectory in the Archdeaconry of Essex, Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Rochford
NGR: TQ 875 904

A parish in the hundred of Rochford, county of Essex. 19.25 miles south-east from Chelmsford. 40 miles east by north from London. The living is a rectory in the Archdeaconry of Essex and Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1707 [1683]

Queene Mary. The burning of Tho. Iueson. Ioh. Denley. Ioh. Newman, apprehended.
MarginaliaAnno 1555. Iuly.The Martyrdome of Thomas Iueson. MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Thomas Iueson, at Chichester. An. 1555. Iuly.

woodcut [View a larger version]

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The repeating image previously used for Thomas Wattes' burning.

that which I am in now, I would not beleue him. Which aunswere thus made, he was condemned as an hereticke, and wyth the same persons was committed to the secular power, (as they terme it) and at the place aboue mentioned was burned: perseuering stil in his constant faith vnto the ende.

Iohn Aleworth. 
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Death of John Aleworth

There is a note in the Rerum that William Aylward died in prison in Reading on 1 August 1555 (p. 510). In the 1563 edition, Foxe corrected his name to John Aleworth but removed the specific date of his death. In the 1570 edition, Foxe added a defensive comment insisting that Aleworth should be considered a martyr even though he died of natural causes. This was a response to Nicholas Harpsfield's criticism of Foxe, in 1566, for praising as martyrs those who were not killed.

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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Addenda: ref page 328

James Abbes's martyrdom is briefly recorded by Machyn in his Diary, p. 92.

MarginaliaIohn Aleworth dyed in prison.IN the latter ende of thys moneth of Iulye, Iohn Aleworth dyed in prison, at the Towne of Reading, beyng there in bondes for the cause and testimonie of the truthe of the Lordes Gospel. Whom although the Catholicke Prelates (according to their vsuall solemnitie) did exclude out of their Catholicke buriall, yet we see no cause why to exclude him out of the number of Christes holy martyrs and heires of his holy kingdome.

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Iames Abbes, a Martyr of blessed memorie, suffering for the true cause of Christes Gospel. 
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The Martyrdom of James Abbes

The Rerum contained a note that James Abbes was burned at Bury St Edmunds on 2 August 1555 (p. 510). The entire account of Abbes appeared in the 1563 edition and it was based partly on copies of official documents (which survive) and on personal testimony. There were no changes to this account in the subsequent editions.

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MarginaliaAugust. 2.AMong many that trauailed in these troublesome daies to keepe a good conscience, there was one Iames Abbes a young man, MarginaliaIames Abbes Martyr.whych throughe compulsion of the tyrannie then vsed, was enforced to haue his part wyth hys brethren in wandring and going from place to place, to auoide the pearill of apprehendinge. But when time came that the Lorde had an other woorke to doe for hym, he was caught by the handes of wicked men, and broughte before the B. of Norwiche, D. Hopton. Who examining him of his Religion, and charging him therewyth very sore, both with threates and faire speache, at the laste the sayde poore Iames did yelde, MarginaliaIames Abbes relented.and relented to their naughty perswasions, although hys conscience consented not thereto. 

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A denunciation of Abbes and others for heretical beliefs, copied from Norwich records which are no longer extant, survives among Foxe's papers (BL, Harley 421, fo. 186v). A copy of an interrogation of Abbes on 10 March 1554 is BL, Harley 421, fos. 216v-217r. A copy of a sentence against Abbes is on BL, Harley 421, fos. 199r-200r. Abbes must have abjured after this sentence.

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MarginaliaMoney geuen to Iames Abbes by the Bishop.Nowe when he was dismissed, 

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From here until the end of the account of Abbes, Foxe is relying on personal testimony or testimonies, not official documents.

and shoulde goe from the Bishop, the Bishop calling hym againe, gaue hym a peece of money, either fourty pence or twentie pence, whether I knowe not: which when the sayd Iames had receiued, and was gone from the Bishop, his conscience began to rob, MarginaliaA notable example of sting of conscience.and inwardly to accuse hys facte, howe hee had displeased the Lorde by consenting to their beastly illusions, In which combate wyth himselfe (being pitiously vexed) he went immediately to the Bishop againe, & there threw hym his sayd money which he had receiued at hys hande, MarginaliaIames Abbes throweth to the Bishop his money agayne.and sayd, it repented him that euer he gaue hys consent to their wicked perswasions, and that he gaue his consent in taking of hys money.

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Now this being done, the bishop wyth his chaplains did labour afresh to winne him againe: but in vayne, for the sayd Iames Abbes would not yeelde for none of them all, although he had plaid Peter before through infirmitie, MarginaliaIames Abbes made strong by his infirmity.but stoode manfully in hys masters quarel to the ende, and abode the force of the fire, to the consuming of his body into ashes, which tyrannie of burning was done in Berie the 2. day of August. An. 1555.

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A discourse of the apprehension, examination, and condemnation of Iohn Denly Gentleman, Iohn Newman, and Patrike Pachingham, 
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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 328, bottom

Both forms, "Pathingham" and "Pachingham," are used in the course of eight pages for the same individual. "Patingham" is used {earlier}. The variation might arise from the ambiguity between th and ch in old manuscript.

Martyred for the testimonie of Christes Gospell. 
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The Martyrdoms of Denley, Newman and Patingham

The Rerum has a note that Denley, exaggeratedly described as being of noble family ('genere nobilis'), was burned at Uxbridge on 2 August 1555 (p. 510). There is also a version of the articles objected against Denley and Newman together with their answers (pp. 510-13). This is followed by a reiterated mention of Denley's death at Uxbridge and a statement that Newman was burned in September (actually it was 31 August 1555) in Saffron Walden (p. 513). Finally, Foxe stated that he would later print Newman's confession of faith (p. 513). He would print this confession offaith in the 1563 edition but not in the Rerum.

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In the 1563 edition, all of the material Foxe would ever have on Denley and Patingham was present, badly arranged. Tyrrell's letter, Newman's confession of faith and a letter from Denley to Simpson and Ardley were now printed, along with a somewhat different, and more complete, version of the articles and answers of Denley and Newman (these last almost certainly taken from official records). The desciption of the final examination of the three martyrs, first printed in this edition, may have come from either official records or personal testimony, but the account of Denley's execution was certainly based on personal testimony.

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In the 1570 edition all these materials were re-arranged, but Newman's confession of faith and Denley's letter to Simpson and Ardley were dropped. On the other hand, Newman's account of his examinations in Canterbury was added to this edition, together with Foxe's 'notes' breaking Newman's arguments into syllogisms. Foxe must have received this material while the 1570 edition was being printed, as he inserted it in the text over four hundred pages after the account of Newman's martyrdom (1570, pp. 2135-37). No changes were made to this material in the 1576 edition, and Newman's Canterbury examinations were still printed hundreds of pages out of chronological order (1576, pp. 1856-58). In the 1583 edition, Newman's confession of faith was restored. His Canterbury examinations were integrated with the account of his martyrdom. But, through an oversight, these examinations were also reprinted in their old location hundreds of pages later (1583, pp. 1950-51); consequently these examinations were printed twice in the 1583 edition.

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MarginaliaIohn Denly gentleman Iohn Newman, Patricke Pachingham, Martyrs. MarginaliaEdmund Tyrrel Esquire, promotor.IN the middest of this tempestuous rage of malignaunt aduersaries, 

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Notice how this passage was toned down in the 1570 edition; this is another example of Foxe moderating his language in the second edition.

persecuting and destroying the poore flocke of Christe, many there were, which thoughe they were no spirituall mē,  
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I.e., clerics.

yet thought to help forward, for their parts, & as one would say, to heape vp mo coales to this furious flame of persecution, whether of a blind zeale, or of a parasiticall  
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This was was 'pharasitical' in the 1563 and 1570 editions. It was changed to 'parasitical' in the 1576 edition, undoubtedly as a printer's error. This mistake was reprinted in the 1583 edition.

flattery I knowe not. Amongest whiche, one was Edmonde Tyrell Esquier, and at that time a Iustice of peace wythin the Countie of Essex, and assister (as it seemeth) to the cruell murtherers of Gods Saintes. Who as he came from the burning & death of certaine godly Martyrs,  
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Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 329, line 6

The martyrs here alluded to were John Simson and John Ardeley. June 12th, 1555 (the date given of this letter), was a Wednesday; and Foxe {earlier} says, "they were burnt about June 10th, which was Monday;" it seems, however, from the letter ensuing, that Tuesday, June 11th, was the real day.

met with M. Iohn Denly gentleman, and one Iohn Newman (both of Maidstone in Kent) trauailing vppon the way, and goyng to visite suche their godly frendes, as then they had in the sayde Countie of Essex. 
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Denley and Newman were taking a letter to John Simpson and John Ardley (1563, p. 1246). Simpson had been one of the leaders of the Bocking conventicle, a gathering of protestants from Kent and Essex, in 1550. Simpson also wrote a letter to a congregation in Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex and Kent. (See Freeman [2002], p. 130 n.5). Denley and Newman were probably part of Simpson's network of Kentish contacts.

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And vpon the sight of them as he yet braggeth, first vppon suspition apprehended, and searched them: and at last, finding the confessions of their faith in wryting about thē, sent thē vp vnto the Queenes Commissioners, directinge also vnto one of the same Commissioners, these hys fauourable Letters in theyr behalfe. The copie whereof heere may appeare as followeth.

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A copie of Edmund Tyrels leter, to one of the Queenes Commissioners. 
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Where Foxe obtained this letter is a little mysterious as it would not have been in an ecclesiastical register. It was probably found in Whitehall and given to Foxe by William Cecil. In 1570, Foxe added a marginal note saying that the recipient was Sir Richard Southwell; Foxe must have learned this from whoever gave him this letter.

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MarginaliaA letter of detection written by M. Edmund Tyrrell to a Commissioner, whom I gesse to be Syr Rich. Southwell.SIr, with moste harty commendations vnto you, these shal be to aduertise you, that I haue receiued a letter from Sir Nicholas Hare and you, and other of the King & Queenes Maiesties commissioners, by a seruaunt of the King and Queenes, called Iohn Failes, for certaine businesse, about S. Osythes, the which I could not immediately goe about, for that I had receiued a letter from the Counsell, to assist the Sheriffe for the execution of the heretickes, the one at Raileigh, 

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I.e., John Ardley.

and the other at Rocheford,  
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I.e., John Simpson.

the which was done vpon Tuesday last.

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MarginaliaM. Denlye and Iohn Newman by the way mette and apprehended by M. Edmund Tyrrell.And as I came homeward, I met wyth two menne: Euen as I sawe them, I suspected them, and then I did examine them, and search them, and I did finde about them certaine letters, whych I haue sent you, and also a certaine wrytinge in paper, what their faith was. And they confessed to mee that they had forsaken and fled out of their country 

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In the sixteenth century, country and county were synonymous; in this case Kent is meant.

for Religions sake: and sithen they haue bene in many countreis, by their confession, whiche I haue sente you: for the which I thoughte it good (for that they came from London, and that there might be more hadde of them, then I yet haue vnderstand) to sende them to you, whereby you and others of the King and Queenes Commissioners there, might trie them, so that their lewdnesse might be throughly knowen: for I thinke these haue caused many to trouble their consciences. So thys hath bene some let to me, wherefore I coulde not go about these matters expressed in your letters: but to morrow noone I entende by Gods grace to accomplish your letters, with as muche diligence as I may. And this the holy Trinitie haue you euer in his keeping, I beseeche you to be so good maister, to discharge these pore men that bring these prisonners vp assone as may be. And thus moste hartly farewel, from Raimesdon parke, the 12. day of Iune. 1555.

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By your assured to commaund,
Edmund Tyrel.

For so much as in this letter mētion is made of a certaine wryting in paper founde about them of their Faith, what this wrytinge was, and what were the contentes of it, the copie thereof heere ensueth.

¶ Certayne notes collected and gathered oute of the Scriptures, by Iohn Denley Gentleman, with a confession of his faith, touching the Sacrament of Christes body & bloud, found about him ready wrytten, at his apprehension.

Christe is in the Sacrament, as hee is where two or three are gathered together in his name.

MarginaliaM. Denleys Notes touching matter of the Sacrament.THe difference of doctrine betweene the Faithfull & the Papistes concerning the Sacramente is: that the Papistes say, that Christ is corporally vnder or in the formes of bread and wine: but the faithfull say, that Christe is not there neither corporally, nor spiritually: but in them that worthely eate and drinke the breade and wine, he is spiritually, but not corporally.

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MarginaliaFiguratiuely, Spiritually, Really.For figuratiuely he is in the breade and wine, and spiritually hee is in them that woorthely eate and drynke the breade and wine: but really, carnally, and corporally he is onely in heauen, from whence hee shall come to iudge the quicke and the dead.

My
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