Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the Text
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Andrew Alexander

Keeper of Newgate Prison under Mary.

Philpot talked with his keeper, Alexander, during which talk Philpot refused to recant. 1563, p. 1446, 1570, pp. 2000-01, 1576, p. 1997, 1583, p. 1829.

Robert Smith sent his wife a purse of money via Alexander, almost certainly the same person as Philpot's keeper. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Alexander spoke cruelly about his prisoners. 1570, p. 2300, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

His body became so swollen and rotten with disease that the stench became intolerable and his body greatly disfigured. He eventually died of his ailment. 1570, p. 2300, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Derick Carver

(1515? - 1555)

Brewer. Martyr.

Derick Carver was born in Dilson by Stockhome in the land of Luke. He lived in Brighthampsted, Sussex. 1563, pp. 1239, 1240, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

He was apprehended with John Launder, Thomas Everson (or Iveson - in 1570) and William Veisy at the end of October 1554 by Edward Gage, whilst at prayer in Carver's house. 1563, pp. 1239-40 1570, pp. 1860-61, 1576, pp. 1592-93, 1583, p. 1680.

He was sent to prison after a letter was sent to Bonner from the marquess of Winchester, now Lord Treasurer, on 8 June 1555. 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

He appeared in the consistory court of 10 June 1555. 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

Foxe records the articles against him and his answers. 1563, p. 1240, 1570, pp. 1861-62, 1576, pp. 1593-94, 1583, pp. 1681-82.

William Paulet was ordered by the Privy Council to send a writ for Carver's execution to the sheriff of Sussex on 12 June 1555 1583, p. 1581.

He made a confession before Bonner. 1563, p. 1240, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

Carver was burned with John Launder at Lewes in Sussex on 22 July 1555. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

Robert Smith told his wife in a letter that Carver had sent her money and in another letter that he was condemned. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
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Father Heralt

Probably imprisoned with Robert Smith.

Father Heralt sent money to Anne Smith. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Ardeley

(1525? - 1555)

Husbandman and martyr. Fellow prisoner of Robert Smith.

Accused of heresy and, together with John Simson, Ardeley was brought to London to be tried by Bishop Bonner. 1563, p. 1169; 1570, p. 1754; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1582.

Articles objected against John Ardeley on 22 May 1555 and his answers to them are recorded. 1563, pp. 1169 and 1170-71; 1570, pp. 1754-55; 1576, pp. 1498-99; 1583, pp. 1582-83.

Ardeley was urged by Bonner to recant, defiantly refused and was condemned on 25 May. 1563, p. 1171; 1570, pp. 1754 and 1755; 1576, p. 1499; 1583, pp. 1582 and 1583.

Ardeley protested that he would give up all that he owned to live in peace under Mary without having to commit idolatry. 1563, p. 1733; 1570, p. 1756; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, p. 1583.

Ardeley was executed in Rayleigh, Essex, around 10 June 1555 (1563, p. 1172; 1570, p. 1756; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, p. 1583).

Ardeley sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Bradford

(1510? - 1555)

Protestant divine. Martyr. Of Manchester. [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's birth, early life and education. 1563, p. 1172, 1570, p. 1779, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Martin Bucer exhorted Bradford to preach and join the ministry. 1563, pp. 1172-73, 1570, pp. 1779-80, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Foxe provides an account of Bradford's ordination and early career under Edward. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He was deprived under Mary. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, p. 1604.

On 13 August 1553 Bradford saved Bishop Bourne from a riotous crowd when the bishop preached at Paul's Cross. (1563, pp. 904-5, 1173; 1570, pp. 1570, 1780; 1576, pp. 1339, 1520; and 1583, pp. 1497 (recte 1409), 1604).

One Sunday Bradford preached at the St Mary le Bow Church in Cheapside, reproving people for their 'sedicious misdeamenour'. He was accused of sedition in 1553 and committed to the Tower. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was committed to the Tower by the privy council on 16 August 1553 together with Thomas Becon and 'M. Vernon' [Jean Veron], (1583, p 1497, (recte 1409)). Another mention of Bradford being sent to the Tower, together with Veron and Becon, on 16 August 1553 is in 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1395; 1583, p. 1465.

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He was sent to the King's Bench in Southwark and later to the Counter, Poultry Street, London. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Rowland Taylor was imprisoned with him in the King's Bench. Taylor told his friends that Bradford was an angel of God sent to comfort him (1563, p. 1570; 1570, p. 1696; 1576, p. 1448; 1583, p. 1521).

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Bradford became ill whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

He received the sacrament whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's character and behaviour. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was generous with his money towards fellow prisoners. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe describes the conditions of Bradford's imprisonment. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1394; 1583, p. 1464; not in LM). It was rumored in May 1554 that Bradford, Saunders and John Rogers would be in a disputation to be held at Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p 1399; 1583, p. 1469). Bradford was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

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On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Robert Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to him and his fellow prisoners Robert Ferrar, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor (1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500).

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford's final days and execution are described. 1563, p. 1174-75, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, pp. 1521-22, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was examined after the lord chancellor and his commission had finished their talk with Ferrar. 1563, p. 1185, 1570, p. 1782, 1576, p. 1522, 1583, p. 1605.

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk and communication took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Secretary Bourne declared that Bradford had caused much trouble with letters, as had been reported to him by the earl of Derby. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bourne asked Bradford if the letters were seditious, but Bradford claimed they were not. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The bishop of Worcester was present at this examination. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The under-marshall was called to take watch over Bradford and was told to make sure that Bradford wrote no letters. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bradford was examined on 29 January 1555 before Bonner. 1563, pp. 1185-92, 1570, pp. 1782-87, 1576, pp. 1524-26, 1583, pp. 1607-09.

Thomas Hussey met Bradford and spoke with him after his first examination. He told him that he could organise an escape for him, and that all those who had witnessed the examination could see that they had not reason to hold Bradford, yet Bradford did not want any assistance. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

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During the conversation between Hussey and Bradford, Doctor Seton entered the room, and spoke a 'long sermon of my Lord Canterbury, M. Latimer, and M, Ridley'. He acknowledged that Latimer and Ridley were not able to answer anything at all at their examinations, and that Canterbury desired to confer with Durham and others, saying that Bradford should make a like suit, to which Seton received no agreement from Bradford. Seton berated Bradford for his attitude, and claimed that Bonner could be charitable. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

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Bradford was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Bradford's second examination took place directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1185, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner told Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner spoke on the subject of Bradford's allegedly seditious letters, referring to a report given by the earl of Derby. Bradford claimed that he had been denied paper, pen and ink. 1563, p. 1190, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford was taken to St Mary Overyes church and stayed there until early morning after his second examination. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford's last examination took place directly after the excommunication of Laurence Saunders. 1563, pp. 1192, 1195, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Mr Chamberlaine told Gardiner that Bradford had served Harrington, to which Gardiner answered that Bradford deceived Harrington out of ?7, and claimed that this was why Bradford left his service. Bradford said this was slanderous. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

The bishop of London referred to Bradford's letter to Mr Pendleton as proof of his heresy. A clerk named Allen then reminded Gardiner of Bradford's letters to Lancashire. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

Bradford and Gardiner debated transubstantiation and Bradford denied Christ's presence in the bread and wine. The bishops and council discussed Luther, Zwingli and Oecolampadius. A bishop asked Bradford if he received Christ's body to which he said that he did not. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

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In his last examination Bradford was also questioned by the bishop of Worcester. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

Gardiner excommunicated Bradford. 1563, p. 1198, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483; also see 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24).

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans were altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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On 4 February 1555, after the condemnation of Bradford, Bonner went to the Counter to degrade Master Taylor but spoke to Bradford first. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

Rowland Taylor told Bradford that he threatened to strike Bishop Bonner as he (Taylor) was being degraded (1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1451; 1583, p. 1524).

On 4 February 1555 Bonner took Harpsfield to speak with John Bradford, who was imprisoned after his excommunication. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

In February 1555 Willerton, a chaplain to Bishop Bonner, went to speak with John Bradford in prison. They discussed the doctors and scripture and agreed that each would write down his own arguments over transubstantiation. Willerton sent his few sparse answers to Bradford the next morning and went to see him in the afternoon. They discussed whether or not the scriptures should be in the vernacular. Bradford gave Willerton his answers on transubstantiation and told Willerton to form his answers as reasons. 1563, pp. 1199-1200. Willerton was with Creswell, Harding, Harpsfield and others. 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 12 February 1555 a servant of the earl of Derby went to see Bradford in prison. He asked Bradford to tender himself, and what his answer would be if Derby petitioned the queen to have Bradford sent overseas. Bradford refused, as he believed he would only end up being burned in Paris or Louvain, instead of in England, which was where he wished to die. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 14 February 1555 Percival Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. Then at 3 o'clock the same day, Dr Harding, the bishop of Lincoln's chaplain, went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoke against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

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On 15 February 1555 Percival Cresswell and another man went to see Bradford once more. Harspfield discussed with Bradford the way to enter the kingdom of heaven and also baptism. 1563, pp. 1200-01. In 1570 the date is given as 25 February. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1791, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1613.

On 16 February 1555 John Harpsfield and two others went to see Bradford in prison, to defend the line of bishops in the catholic church. Bradford refuted the argument. 1563, pp. 1202-03, 1570, pp. 1792-93, 1576, pp. 1530-31, 1583, pp. 1614-15.

On 23 February 1555 the archbishop of York (Nicholas Heath) and the bishop of Chichester (George Day) went to the Counter to speak with Bradford. 1563, pp. 1204-08, 1570, pp. 1794-97, 1576, pp. 1532-34, 1583, pp. 1615-17.

Bradford was asked by Heath and Day to read a book that did Dr Crome good. 1563, p. 1208, 1570, p. 1797, 1576, 1524, 1583, p. 1617.

On 25 February , at about 8am, two Spanish friars visited Bradford in the Counter. One of them was the king's confessor, the other was Alphonsus, who had written against heresies. Their conversation was held in Latin. 1563, pp. 1208-11, 1570, pp. 1797-98, 1576, pp. 1534-36, 1583, pp. 1617-19.

On 25 February, at about 5pm, Master Weston visited Bradford and asked to speak with him in private. When the two men were alone, Weston thanked Bradford for his writings to him and then produced the work that Bradford had sent him. It was entitled, 'Certayne reasons againste Transubstantiation gathered by John Bradforde, and geuen to Doctour weston and others'. 1563, p. 1212. They discussed transubstantiation. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1801-02. [Note that in 1570 this meeting is dated as the afternoon of 28 March. 1570, p. 1800.]

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On 21 March 1555 Bradford talked with Dr Weston, after being told of Weston's intention to visit by the earl of Derby's servant (when master Collier, warden of Manchester, had come to dinner at the Counter). 1576, p. 1536. Bradford and Weston spoke to each other in the presence of Master Collier, the earl of Derby's servant, the subdean of Westminster, the keeper (Master Clayden), and others. 1570, pp. 1799-80, 1576, pp. 1536-37, 1583, pp. 1619-20.

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Bradford wrote his religious convictions down for Weston, and on or around 28 March 1555 Dr Pendleton, Master Colier (sometime warden of Manchester) and Stephen Beche visited Bradford in the Counter. 1563, p. 1213, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford questioned Pendleton as to why Pendleton changed his religion. 1563, pp. 1213-14, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Foxe states that he omitted the talk that Bradford and Pendleton had of 'my lord of Canterbury, of Peter Martirs boke, of Pendleto[n']s letter laid to Bradford.' 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford's reasons against transubstantiation were given to Weston and others. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1800-01, 1576, pp. 1537-38, 1583, pp. 1620-21.

Weston told Bradford of what he had done for Grimald, who had subscribed. 1563, p. 1212, 1570, p. 1801, 1576, p. 1538, 1583, p. 1621.

On 5 April, at 2pm, Weston went to visit Bradford in the Counter. Weston had not visited him earlier due to ill health and also because he had been busy withstanding monks from entering Westminster. He also thought that Pendleton would be coming to see him. Weston told Bradford that the pope was dead and that Weston had petitioned the queen and so thought that death would not come to Bradford soon. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

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As Weston left Bradford on 5 April, he sent for Master Weale. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

After Weston left Bradford on 5 April, the keeper, Master Claydon, and Steven Bech came to Bradford and spoke unkindly to him even though they had hitherto appeared to be friendly to him. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

Bradford spoke to the servant of an unnamed gentlewoman, misused by her family for not going mass, who visited Bradford while he was in prison. [Note that Foxe says that the gentlewoman is still alive and so does not give her name, but simply records the conversation between the servant and Bradford.] 1570, pp. 1802-03, 1576, pp. 1539-40, 1583, pp. 1622-23.

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Bradford told the servant of the unnamed gentlewoman that he had read the work of Friar Fonse. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman gave Bradford greetings from Cardmaker. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman told Bradford that she saw a priest come to him in the morning and Bradford told her that he had brought a letter from a friar, to which he was replying. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

Rowland Tayor joked to Bradford as he was about to be led away to execution (1563, p. 1080; 1570, p. 1703; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1527).

Foxe describes Bradford's behaviour at his burning at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Sheriff Woodruff chided Bradford at his burning. When Woodruff went home after the burning of John Bradford, he became paralysed in his legs and arms. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

Bradford sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-7, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

He was described as a faithful witness of Christ by Robert Glover in a letter to his wife.1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, p. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Bradford was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to debate the rectitude of the Edwardian religious reforms. The petition is printed in 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated February 1548. [BL Harley 416, fos.33r-34r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated Christmas 1549. [BL, Harley 416, fo.37v. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to an unnamed gentleman or noble, written during Lent 1549. [BL Harley 416, fo.37r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letters of Bradford: 1563, pp. 1176-85, 1570, pp. 1805-40, 1576, pp. 1541-75, 1583, pp. 1624-64.

Ridley and his fellow prisoners sent a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1295, 1570, p. 1897, 1576, pp. 1624-25, 1583, p. 1725.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley spoke of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, pp. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

Another letter was written by Ridley to Bradford. 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1626, 1583, p. 1726.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe includes Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-1784.

Bradford received a letter from John Careless. 1570, pp. 2104-05, 1576, pp. 1815-16, 1583, p. 1922-23.

Bradford wrote a letter to Careless. 1570, p. 2105, 1576, p. 1816, 1583, p. 1923.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Launder

(1530? - 1555)

Husbandman and martyr. Born and lived in Godstone, Surrey.

John Launder was apprehended with Derick Carver at the end of October 1554 by Edward Gage, while at prayer in Carver's house. 1563, pp. 1239-40, 1570, pp. 1860-61, 1576, pp. 1592-93, 1583, p. 1680.

He appeared to hold prayer meetings at his own house. 1563, p. 1242, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1593, 1583, p. 1680.

He was sent to Newgate. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1593, 1583, p. 1680.

On 8 June 1555 Launder was sent to prison after a letter was sent to Bonner from the marquess of Winchester, now lord treasurer [?], on 8 June 1555. He appeared in the consistory court of 10 June 1555. 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

He made a confession before Bonner. 1563, p. 1240, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

Robert Smith told his wife in a letter that Launder was condemned. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Launder sent a piece of Spanish money to Anne Smith. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Foxe records the articles against him and answers. 1563, p. 1240, 1570, pp. 1861-62, 1576, pp. 1593-94, 1583, pp. 1681-82.

William Paulet was ordered by the privy council on 12 June 1555 to send a writ for John Launder's execution to the sheriff of Sussex. 1583, p. 1581.

He was burned with Derick Carver at Lewes on 22 July 1555. 1563, p. 1239, 1570, p. 1860, 1576, p. 1592, 1583, p. 1680.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Simson

(c. 1521 - 1555)

Husbandman and martyr. Fellow prisoner of Robert Smith.

John Simson was accused of heresy and, together with John Ardeley, was brought to London to be tried by Bishop Bonner. 1563, p. 1169; 1570, p. 1754; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1582.

Simson sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Tooley

(d. 1555)

Poulterer and posthumous martyr

John Tooley robbed a Spaniard, was caught and sentenced to hang. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, p. 1756; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, p. 1583.

At the gallows, Tooley prayed that the Lord deliver them from the tyranny of the bishop of Rome. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, p. 1756; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, pp. 1583-84.

The privy council ordered that Tooley be posthumously punished by ecclesiastical law for his prayer. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, pp. 1756-57; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, p. 1584.

Depositions of witnesses to Tooley's heretical prayer: 1563, pp. 1144-46.

Bishop Bonner published a writ excommunicating Tooley. 1563, pp. 1142-44; 1570, p. 1757; 1576, pp. 1500-1; 1583, pp. 1584-85.

Tooley was posthumously tried and his remains exhumed and burned. 1563, p. 1144; 1570, pp. 1757-58; 1576, p. 1501; 1583, p. 1585.

 
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Katherine Smith

Daughter of Robert and Anne Smith.

Katherine Smith was mentioned in a letter Robert Smith sent to his wife. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

She was sent money by Thomas Iveson. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

She was sent 'comfets' by her father. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
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Mrs Simpson

Wife of Simson, fellow prisoner of Robert Smith.

Mrs Simpson sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
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Mrs Tankerfield

Wife of George Tankerfield.

Mrs Tankerfield was tricked by Beard into exposing her husband's whereabouts. George Tankerfield was later attacked by Beard. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

In a letter to his wife,Robert Smith asked that letters to him be delivered to 'sister Tankerfield', who could be trusted to deliver them into his hand. 1563, p. 1267, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
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Nicholas Chamberlain

(d. 1555)

Weaver and martyr.

Nicholas Chamberlain was denounced to Bishop Bonner by the earl of Oxford and Sir Philip Paris on 1 May 1555. 1563, p. 1166; 1570, p. 1777; 1576, p. 1518; 1583, pp. 1601-02

He was examined by Bonner on 17 May 1555 and articles were presented to him. He answered the articles, denying that the church of Rome was part of the catholic church, denying transubstantiation and denying auricular confession. 1563, pp. 1167-68; 1570, pp. 1778-79; 1576, pp. 1518-19; 1583, pp. 1502-03

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Bonner urged him to recant; he refused. Chamberlain was condemned on 18 May 1555 and executed at Colchester on 14 June. 1563, p. 1168; 1570, p. 1779; 1576, p. 1520; 1583, p. 1603

Robert Smith told his wife in a letter that Chamberlain was dead. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Hawkes

(d. 1555)

Gentleman and martyr. Fellow prisoner of Robert Smith.

Thomas Hawkes was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555; he was condemned by Bonner on 8 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

Hawkes sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Foxe describes Hawkes' life and character; Hawkes served in the household of the earl of Oxford (1563, p. 1161; 1570, p. 1758; 1576,pp. 1501-1550 [recte 1502]; 1583, p. 1585).

Hawkes refused to allow his infant son to be baptized in a catholic service. The earl of Oxford reported this to Bishop Bonner (1563, p. 1162; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1550 [recte 1502]; 1583, p. 1585).

Hawkes was examined informally by Bonner (1563, pp. 1148-51; 1570, pp. 1758-60; 1576, pp. 1550 [recte 1502]-1551 [recte 1503]; 1583, pp. 1585-87).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and and John Harpsfield (1563, pp. 1151-52; 1570, pp. 1760-1; 1576, pp. 1551 [recte 1503]-1504; 1583, pp. 1587-88).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and John Bird (1563, pp. 1152-53; 1570, pp. 1761-62; 1576, pp. 1504-05;1583, p. 1588).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Feckenham (1563, pp. 1153-54; 1570, p. 1762; 1576, p. 1505; 1583,pp. 1588-89).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and William Chedsey (1563, pp. 1154-55; 1570, pp. 1763-64; 1576, pp. 1505-06; 1583, pp. 1589-90).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Bonner on 29 June 1554 (1563, pp. 1155-56; 1570, p. 1764; 1576, p. 1506; 1583, p. 1590).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Bonner on 30 June 1554 (1563, p. 1156; 1570, p. 1764; 1576, pp. 1507-08; 1583, p. 1590).

A conversation took place between Hawkes and Bonner on 1 July 1554 (1563, pp. 1156-57; 1570, pp. 1764-65; 1583, p. 1590).

A formal examination of Hawkes was held on 3 September 1554 (1563, pp. 1157-58; 1570, pp. 1765-66; 1576, pp. 1507-08; 1583, pp. 1590-91).

Hawkes was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555 and condemned by Bonner on 8 February 1555 (1570, pp. 1705 and 1766; 1576, pp. 1456 and 1508; 1583, pp. 1529 and 1591-92).

Hawkes dined and prayed with Thomas Wattes and other Marian martyrs on the night of 9 June 1555, when they were all detained at an inn at Chelmsford, awaiting execution (1563, p. 1166; 1570, p. 1771; 1576, p.1513; 1583, p. 1596).

Foxe describes the martyrdom of Hawkes (1563, p. 1162; 1570, pp. 1766-67; 1576, pp. 1508-09; 1583, pp. 1592-93).

Hawkes sent a letter to a congregation (1563, pp. 1558-59; 1570, pp. 1767-68; 1576, pp. 1509-10; 1583, p. 1593).

Hawkes sent a Letter to his wife (1563, pp. 1159-60; 1570, pp. 1768-69; 1576, p. 1510; 1583, pp. 1593-94).

Hawkes sent a letter to Clement Throgmorton (1570, p. 1769; 1576, pp. 1510-11; 1583, p. 1594).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Iveson

(d. 1555)

Born in Chichester. Carpenter. Of Godstone, Surrey. Martyr.

William Paulet was ordered by the Privy Council to send a writ for Thomas Iveson's execution to the sheriff of Sussex on 12 June 1555. 1583, p. 1581.

Thomas Iveson was apprehended with Derick Carver at the end of October 1554 by Edward Gage, while at prayer in Carver's house. 1563, pp. 1239-40 1570, pp. 1860-61, 1576, pp. 1592-93, 1583, p. 1680.

Iveson was burned in the same month as Carver and Launder. 1563, p. 1243, 1570, p. 1863, 1576, p. 1594, 1583, p. 1682.

He gave answers to Bonner in July 1555. 1563, pp. 1243-44, 1570, p. 1863, 1576, pp. 1594-95, 1583, pp. 1682-83.

Robert Smith told his wife in a letter that Iveson had sent her money and in another letter that Iveson was condemned. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Iveson sent money to Anne, Katherine Smith and Anne's mother. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

[Foxe also refers to him as Thomas 'Everson' and 'Juison'.]

 
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Thomas Osmund

(d. 1555)

Fuller.

Thomas Osborne was denounced to Bishop Bonner by the earl of Oxford and Sir Philip Paris on 1 May 1555. He recanted on 17 May 1555. 1563, p. 1166; 1570, p. 1777; 1576, p. 1518; 1583, p. 1601

Robert Smith told his wife in a letter that Osborne was dead. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
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Wattes

Fellow prisoner of Robert Smith.

Wattes sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
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William Andrew

(d.1555)

Carpenter. Of Essex. Fellow prisoner of Robert Smith.

William Andrew sent some ginger to Anne Smith. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Sir Richard Southwell sent a letter to Bonner about William Andrew. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, pp. 1702-03.

Southwell believed that the Lord Rich had sent Andrew before the council. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, pp. 1702-03.

He was sent to Newgate by John Motham, constable of Mauldon, Essex. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, p. 1702.

He was to be burned but died in prison at Horsley, Essex. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, p. 1702.

He was cast into a field and was buried at night. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, p. 1703.

 
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William Bamford (alias Butler)

(d. 1555)

Weaver and martyr.

William Bamford was denounced to Bishop Bonner by the earl of Oxford and Sir Philip Paris on 1 May 1555. 1563, p. 1166;1570, p. 1777; 1576, p. 1518; 1583, pp. 1601-02

He was examined by Bonner on 17 May 1555 and articles were presented to Bamford then. He replied to them, denying that the church of Rome was part of the catholic church, denying transubstantiation and denying the need for auricular confession. 1563, pp. 1167-68; 1570, pp. 1778-79; 1576, pp. 1518-19; 1583, pp. 1602-03

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Bonner urged him to recant; he refused. Bamford was condemned on 18 May 1555 and executed at Harwich on 15 June. 1563, p. 1168; 1570, p. 1779; 1576, p. 1520; 1583, p. 1603

Robert Smith told his wife in a letter that Bamford was dead. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

 
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William Flower

(d. 1555)

Monk, priest, schoolteacher and martyr

Foxe recounts William Flower's life and career. 1563, p. 1135 [recte 1134]; 1570, p. 1746; 1576, p. 1491; 1583, pp. 1573-74.

Flower attacked, with a knife, a priest celebrating mass at St Margaret's, Westminster, on Easter Sunday 1555. 1563, p. 1135 [recte 1134]; 1570, p. 1746; 1576, p. 1491; 1583, p. 1574.

He was interrogated by Robert Smith, a fellow prisoner in Newgate, about his actions. 1563, pp. 1135 [recte 1134]-44 [recte 1135]; 1570, pp. 1746-47; 1576, pp. 1491-92; 1583, p. 1574.

On 15 April 1555, the privy council ordered that Flower be interrogated about a sign he wore. They also ordered that Bishop Bonner proceed against him for heresy and the Middlesex JPs proceed against him for shedding blood in a church. On 22 April, the council issued a writ for Flower's execution, together with an order that his hand be cut off first. 1583, p. 1561.

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Flower was interrogated by Bishop Bonner on 19 April 1555; Foxe prints articles presented to him and his answers. 1563, pp. 1135 [recte 1134] and 1144 [recte 1135]-37; 1570, pp. 1746 and 1747-48; 1576, pp. 1491 and 1492-93; 1583, pp. 1574 and 1575-76.

Bonner urged Flower to recant; when Flower refused, his answers to his articles were read back to him. Flower amended the record to express his contrition at having stabbed the priest, but refused to change his denial of transubstantiation. 1563, p. 1137; 1570, p. 1748; 1576, p. 1493; 1583, pp. 1575-76.

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On 20 April 1555, Flower was again brought before Bonner. Depositions of witnesses to Flower's assault were taken. Bonner condemned Flower and degraded him from the priesthood. 1563, pp. 1137-38; 1570, pp. 1748-49; 1576, p. 1493; 1583, pp. 1576-77. [The depositions of the witnesses are printed in 1563 and 1583, but not in 1570 and 1576.]

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Flower was burned at Westminster on 24 April 1555. 1563, pp. 1139 and 1733; 1570, p. 1749; 1576, pp. 1493-94; 1583, pp. 1576-77.

 
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William Vassy

Robert Smith told his wife in a letter that Vassy had been reprieved. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

1725 [1701]

Queene Mary. Letters of Robert Smith Martyr.

MarginaliaAnno. 1555. Iuly.friendes shall appoint in God. And beare well in mind þe wordes which I spake at our departing, that as god hath found vs, and also elected vs worthy to suffer with hym. We may endeuour our selues to follow vprightly in thys our vocation, desiring you to present my hartye commendations to all our friendes, and in especiall to youre Parentes, keeping your matter close in any wise. Geue most harty thankes to my frend, whiche onely for oure cause is come to Windsor. 

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It is unclear why a friend of Smith's would journey to Windsor. Perhaps he or she had visited court to try to intercede for Smith and his comrades.

Continue in prayer. Do well. Be faultles in all thinges. Beware abhominations.  
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I.e., do not attend catholic services, particularly mass.

Keepe you cleane from sinne. Praye for me, as I doe for you. I haue sent you a peece of golde for a token, and moste entierlye desire you to send me word if ye lacke any thing. The lord Iesu preserue you and yours. Amen. From Newgate the 15. of Aprill.

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By your husband here and in
heauen Robert Smith.

MarginaliaThe Martyrdome and comfortable death of Rob. Smith of Vxbridge. An. 1555. August. 8.This foresayde Robert Smith 

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This account of Smith's execution must have come from an eyewitness. Foxe obtained it while the 1563 edition was being printed, and it was placed in an appendix at the end of the volume.

the valiaunt and constant martyr of christ, thus replenished (as ye haue heard) with the fortitude of Gods spirite, was condemned at Lōdon by Boner there Bishop, the xii. day of Iulye, and suffered at Vxbridge the 8. day of August: who as he had bene a comfortable instrument of God before to all them that were in prison with him, so nowe also being at the stake, hee did no lesse comforte the people, there standyng aboute hym, willing them to thinke well of his cause, and not to doubte but that his bodye dying in that quarrell, shoulde rise agayne to life. And sayde hee, I doubte not, but that God wil shew you some token thereof. MarginaliaA token of comfort and resurrection geuen by R. Smith at his Martirdome.At length he being well nigh halfe burnt, and all blacke with fire, clustered together as in a lumpe like a blacke cole, all men thinking him for dead, sodaynely rose vp right before the people, lifting vp the stumpes of his armes, and clapping the same together, declaring a reioysing heart vnto them, and so bending downe agayne, and hanging ouer the fire, slept in the Lord, and ended this mortall life. 
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Once again, Foxe is eager to demonstrate the stoicism and constancy of the protestant martyrs. On the polemical importance of this stoicism see Collinson [1983] and Freeman [1997].

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¶ Letters.
A sententious 
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Aphoristic, full of maxims [OED].

letter of Robert Smith to Anne Smith hys wyfe

MarginaliaA letter of Robert Smith to his wyfe, full of ghostly instruction.SEeke first to loue God deare wife, with your whol hart and then shall it be easy to loue your neighbour.

Be frendly to al creatures, and especially to your own soule.

Be alwayes an enemy to the deuil and the world, but especially to your owne flesh.

In hearyng of good thinges ioyne the eares of youre head and hart together.

Seeke vnitie and quietnes with all men, but especially with your conscience: for he wil not easely be entreated.

Loue all men, but especially your enemies.

Hate the sinnes that are paste, but especiallye those to come.

MarginaliaBe good to thine enemy.Be as ready to further your enemy, as he is to hinder you, that ye may be the childe of God.

Defile not that which Christ hath clēsed, least his bloud be layd to your charge.

MarginaliaA double hedge to the tongue.Remember that God hath hedged in your tongue, wt the teeth and lips, that it might speake vnder correction.

Be ready at all tymes to looke in youre brothers eye, but especially in your owne eye. MarginaliaCast out the mote in thine owne eye first.For hee that warneth other of that he himselfe is faultie, doth geue hys neighbour the cleare wyne, and keepeth the dregges for hymselfe

MarginaliaCouet not to be rich.Beware of riches and worldly honor: for without vnderstansting prayer, and fasting, it is a snare and also pouertie, all whiche are like to consuming fire, of whiche if a man take a little, it will warme hym, but if hee take too much, it will consume him. For it is hard for a man to cary fire in his bosome, and not be brent.

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Shew mercy vnto the sayntes for Christes sake, and Christ shall reward you for the sayntes sake. MarginaliaBlessed be the mercifull.Among all other prisoners visite your owne soule: for it is enclosed in a perilous prison.

If ye will loue God, hate euill, and ye shall obteyn the reward of well doyng.

Thus fare you well, good Anne. Haue me hartily commended to all that loue the Lorde vnfaynedly. I beseeche you haue me in your prayer while I am liuing, and I am assured the Lord will accept it. Bring vp my children and yours in the feare of God, and then shall I not fayle but receaue you together in the euerlasting kingdome of God, which I goe vnto.

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Your husband, Robert Smith.


If ye will meete with me agayne,
Fosake not Christ for any payne.

¶ An other letter sent to his wife Anne Smyth. 
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Although this letter is undated, the reference to John Tooley's execution dates this letter to sometime around the end of April 1555.

MarginaliaAn other letter of R. Smith to his wyfe.THe grace of almighty God be alwayes with you and comfort, strength, and stablishe you in all thinges, that what his blessed will is, ye may followe faythfully, to hys honour, my comfort, and your owne saluation, and the good ensample to our posteritie.

I haue receiued your letter, and I prayse God, without any danger: neuerthelesse if Gods meruailous goodnes had not brought it to my handes by Peter the keeper MarginaliaCommendation of Peter the keeper.there might haue risen a great trouble vpon the same. For will ye know that George is a wicked man, vtterly without all feare of God: and if he had gotten it, the Counsaile sure had seene it. But Peeter like an honest man neuer opened it. Wherefore I desire you from henceforth let your letters be deliuered at Chauncery lanes ende, to my sister Tankerfield, 

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Very probably this is the wife of George Tankerfield, the martyr.

and she may deliuer them safe into my hand. We are very straitely  
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Strictly.

kepte, I prayse God of hys mercye Neuerthelesse, almighty God is alwayes with vs. I haue sent you that ye wrote for. The two Nutmegges þt shulde haue gone by Nicholas to our frendes, I send nowe, and desire them to accept them as a poore prisoners gift vntill God geue more largely. Thomas Iuison sendeth you a peny, I pray you geue him thankes for the same, and Diricke also. I haue sent you of that little that I haue two peeces of spanishe mony. The Lorde Iesus haue you in his custody, & send you good speed. In any case keepe your selfe close, I doubt much of your walkings. Haue my harty commendations to your parentes, and desire thē with you to haue me in theyr prayers. Be feruēt in prayer, pray pray, pray, that God would of his mercy put vp his sword and looke on his people. Tell my brother,  
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Smith may be referring to an actual brother or simply to a fellow protestant.

with commendations, that the next commer shall bryng vp the Epistle & exhortation. I haue written all this fourtnight for my Lady, yea, and almost done nothing els.  
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Smith was either writing an epistle for an evangelical lady or he was copying an epistle written by another protestant for her benefit. On the copying of illicit religious manuscripts by Marian protestant prisoners, see Thomas S. Freeman, ?Publish and Perish: The Scribal Culture of the Marian Martyrs? in The Uses of Script and Print, 1300-1700, eds. Julia Crick and Alexandra Walsham (Cambridge, 2003), pp. 235-54.

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I woulde haue sēt him the articles of William Flower, and my talk with him, if I could haue deliuered it from the prison.  
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Foxe printed Robert Smith's discussion with William Flower earlier in the Acts and Monuments (1563, p. 1144; 1570, pp. 1746-47; 1576, pp. 1491-92 and 1583, p. 1594).

The holy Ghost keepe you. I would ye could make a meanes for your money, to send a cheese to Peter: for I finde muche kindenesse at his handes. Ye shall alwayes heare of me at Tankerfieldes house. All the Congregation salute you. Fare you most hartily well.

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I haue not yet (tell my brother) spoken with the person. There hathe come so straite a commaundement, that no man might come to vs, because Tooly cursed the pope at the gallowes. 

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Tooley was executed on 26 April 1555.

They thought it to be our counsell.

Yours, and euer yours, Robert Smith.

¶ An other letter sent to hys wife. 
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The reference to the condemnations of Dirick Carver, Thomas Iveson and John Lander dates this letter to shortly after 10 June 1555.

MarginaliaAn other letter of R. Smith to his wyfe.GRace, mercy, and peace from God the father, and from the Lord Iesus Christ be with you, deare wyfe, now & euer Amen: and preuent your wayes through hys holye spirite, that ye may in all your wordes and workes please God, and eschew euil, to hys honor and your saluation, þt they which see your conuersation, may in all things learne to doe like, euen to the vtter shame and confusion of the wicked and vngodly. Amen.

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I sent you by M. Alexander, a purse with money. I haue certayne tokens for you, sent by my prison fellowes to you, MarginaliaBeholde here the Coōmunion of Saintes.þt is, from M. Haukes. xii. d. frō M. Simson. xii. d. from his wife. iiij. d. from M. Wattes fiue new grotes, frō M. Ardely. xij. d. from M. Bradford xij. d. which men be all gone to death, except M. Bradford, he abideth stil. Ther is also gone to death Nicholas Chamberlayne, Tho. Osmund, William Bamford. There is also condemned thys monday 

Commentary  *  Close

Dirick Carver, Thomas Iveson and John Launder were all condemned on 10 June 1555 (PRO C/85/127, fo. 10r).

 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, Appendix: ref page 369, line 7

This letter was evidently written on Monday, June 10th, the day on which Carver, Saunders, and Iveson were condemned.

Diricke Caruer, Thomas Iuison, Iohn Launder, and William Vassy 
Commentary  *  Close

William Vassay was arrested along with Dirick Carver and is mentioned in Carver's confession of faith (1563, p. 1240; 1570, p. 1861; 1576, pp. 1592-93 and 1583, p. 1680).

is repriued. Pray to God to haue mercy vpon his people, and bid my brother, if he can conueniently, come downe on monday next: if he can not wel do it, let hym abide at home. Haue me hartily commended to your parents. I haue sent each of them a token, a bowed grote, and desire them for Gods sake to helpe vs with theyr prayers. Haue litle Katherine in minde. Commend me vnto all good friendes. Continue in prayer. Beware of vanitie. Let not God be dishonored in your conuersation, but like a good Matron, keepe your vessel in holines. The peace of God rest with you for euer. Amen.

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My brother Iuison 

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Thomas Iveson, the martyr.

sendeth to you a tokē, to your mother a token, and to Katherine a token, iij. pence. Iohn Launder sendeth you a peece of Spanish mony, father Heralt  
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Herault may be the 'Heralt' mentioned in Smith's examinations and he may also be the Thomas Harold who was a protestant prisoner in the Marshalsea.

a peece of vi. d. William Androwes sendeth you a rase of Ginger,  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, Addenda: ref page 369, line 20

"Rayz de gingebre," Spanish; a root or sprig of ginger: moe properly "raze." (Todd.)

and I sēd your mother one, and a Nutmeg. I send Katherine Comfites 
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Sweetmeats.

for a token to eate. I haue sent you a keyclog  
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A piece of wood tied to a key to prevent it from being lost [OED].

for a token.

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Your husband, Robert Smith.

A letter
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