Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
 
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Elizabeth Warren

Wife of John Warren [Warne]. Martyr.

Elizabeth Warren was arrested on New Year's day in a house in Bow church churchyard, as she was gathered with others at prayer. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

She was a prisoner in the Counter until 11 June 1555. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

She was taken to Newgate and remained there until 2 July 1555. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

She was examined by Bishop Bonner on 6 July 1555. 1563, pp. 1250-51, 1570, pp. 1868-69, 1576, pp. 1599-1600, 1583, p. 1689.

Dr Martin gave suit for Warren's release, but this was overturned by Dr Story. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries (Wade, Hayle [Hall], King, Leyes, Fust, Smiyh, Harwood, Tankerfield, Warren [Warne] and Lashford [Warren/Warne]), dated 2 July 1555, signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

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She was examined and burned at Stratford Bowe in August 1555. 1563, pp. 1250-51, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

[Alias Warne.]

 
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George King

(d. 1555)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation and origin.

George King was examined by Bishop Bonner. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused London sacramentaries (including King). The letter was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

George King was a prisoner for his beliefs in Lollards' Tower. He became so weak he was removed to a house in the city, where he died. He was cast out into the fields and buried at night. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1883, 1576, p. 1575, 1583, p. 1702.

[Foxe calles him Thomas King in the 1563 edition.]

 
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George Tankerfield

(1527? - 1555)

Born in York, lived in London. Cook. Martyr.

George Tankerfield was a papist during the reign of Edward. He converted under Mary. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, 1689.

He was examined by Bishop Bonner. 1563, pp. 1250-51, 1570, pp. 1869-70, 1576, pp. 1600-01, 1583, pp. 1689-90.

His wife was tricked by Beard, who later attacked him. George Tankerfield was then taken to Newgate by Beard and Simon Ponder. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

He wa sent in by Roger Cholmey and Dr Martin. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries (including Tankerfield). It was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

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Tankerfield was burned at St Albans on 26 August 1555. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

 
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Joan Warren

Maiden. Alias Lashford (or Laishford).

Joan Warren was the daughter of Elizabeth and John Warne (step-father). She is described as a wife in 1563, p. 1451.

She was born in the parish of lytle Sainct Hallowes, Thomas / Thamis Street. 1563, p. 1468, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

Foxe recounts her formative years. 1563, p. 1468, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

She was apprehended in Bow churchyard, where she had been at communion. 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

She was examined by Bonner. Foxe lists the charges and her answers to the charges. 1563, pp. 1451-54, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

Dr Martin, the commissioner, gave suit for Warren's release, but this was overturned by Dr Scory. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries (including Lashford [Warren/Warne]). It was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

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John Harpsfield wrote a letter to Bonner about Whittle's subscription, in which he stated that he expected Warren to burn at the stake. 1563, pp. 1455-56, 1570, pp. 2017-18, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, p. 1846.

She was burned at Smithfield in January 1556. 1563, p. 1451, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

John Careless wrote a letter to Bartlett Green, Thomas Whittle, Joan Warren, Isabel Foster and certain other prisoners in Newgate. 1570, p. 2107, 1576, p. 1818, 1583, pp. 1924-25.

[Also referred to as 'Warne' and 'Warner'.]

 
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John Motham

Constable of Mauldon, Essex.

John Motham sent William Andrew to prison. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1883, 1576, p. 1575, 1583, p. 1707.

 
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John Warren

Upholsterer. Martyr. Husband of Elizabeth Warne and stepfather to Joan Lashford/Warren.

Dr Martin gave suit for Warren's release, but this was overturned by Dr Scory. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

John Warren was burned at the end of May 1555. 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

 
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Lord Richard Rich

(1496? - 1567)

1st Baron Rich (DNB)

Richard Rich was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 9 July 1553, from the Privy Council to Princess Mary, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Lady Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1658; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was present at Thomas Watson's Paul's cross sermon, 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey, 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Rich was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 27 November 1554, sent from the Privy Council to Bonner, informing the bishop that Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout the diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76).

 
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Robert Smith

(d. 1555)

Painter. Martyr.

Foxe relates Robert Smith's early years, physical appearance and attributes. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

Robert Smith was in service to Sir Thomas Smith. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

He was transferred to Windsor, where he had a clerkship in the college of £10 per annum 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

He was influenced by the preaching and reading of M. Turner. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

He was sent to Newgate by John Matthew on 5 November 1555. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

Robert Smith interrogated William Flower, when they were both imprisoned in Newgate, about Flower's assault on a priest. 1563, pp. 1135 [recte 1134]-1144 [recte 1135]; 1570, pp. 1746-47; 1576, pp. 1491-92; 1583, p. 1574.

Smith was examined by Bonner, met with Harwood in the garden, and was re-examined. Smith was then left in the garden until Harwood was examined, after which Smith was examined again. 1563, pp. 1252-55, 1570, pp. 1870-72, 1576, pp. 1601-03, 1583, pp. 1691-92.

Robert Smith was examined by John Dee, Harpsfield and Bonner on eucharistic doctrine. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

Smith was held in a chamber at Bonner's house while Bonner went to condemn John Denley and John Newman. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

The lord mayor was brought to hear Smith's examination before Bonner and Harpsfield (probably on same day as the condemnation of Denley). 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1602, 1583, p. 1691.

Robert Smith was again examined before Bonner, Mordant and Dee. 1563, p. 1255, 1570, p. 1872, 1576, p. 1603, 1583, p. 1692.

Smith told his examiners of the time he was in waiting to a gentleman of Norfolk, who was persuaded by a priest to give away many of his goods and to give to Master Gresham and another man a great sum of money. The gentleman managed to recoup some of the money, to the sum of £200 - £300, from Gresham and the other man to whom he had given money. 1563, p. 1255, 1570, p. 1872, 1576, p. 1603, 1583, p. 1692.

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Smith told his examiners that he knew of the death of Richard Hunne, who had red-hot needles thrust up his nose and was then hanged. Smith accused his examiners of then telling the people that Hunne had hanged himself. He then followed this with the tale of a priest who had his flesh ripped away with a pair of pincers until he died, when the people were told that the rats had eaten him. He accused Bonner and the others of trying to kill Christ. 1563, p. 1255, 1570, p. 1872, 1576, p. 1603, 1583, p. 1692.

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During the last examination of Smith, his articles were read before the mayor and the sheriffs. 1563, pp. 12585-9, 1570, pp. 1874-75, 1576, pp. 1604-05, 1583, pp. 1694-95.

Bonner told the mayor that Tankerfield was 'Master speaker' and that Smith was 'Master Countroller'. 1563, p. 1258, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, 1604, 1583, p. 1694.

Gresham denied the story about the gentleman of Norfolk. 1563, p. 1258, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, 1604, 1583, p. 1694.

Mordant claimed to be present during Smith's tale of the Norfolk gentleman. Bonner said he was, but Smith insisted to the mayor that he was not. 1563, p. 1258, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, 1604, 1583, p. 1694.

Tankerfield professed to Gresham that his beliefs and Smith's were not heresies. 1563, p. 1258, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, 1604, 1583, p. 1694.

Woodruff joined in with Bonner's calls for Smith to be taken away, and Bonner said that Smith should do his preaching at the stake. 1563, p. 1259, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, 1605, 1583, p. 1694.

Smith told Bonner that he should not make up tales about Tankerfield. Bonner told Smith that he had offered Tankerfield a chance for instruction but he dismissed it. 1563, p. 1258, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, 1604, 1583, p. 1694.

Woodruff echoed Bonner's call for Smith and Tankerfield to be taken away after their condemnation. 1563, p. 1258, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, 1604, 1583, p. 1694.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries (including Smith). It was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

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Smith sent his mother-in-law some nutmeg and his daughter some comfets. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Smith's letters and verses: 1563, pp. 1261-67, 1570, pp. 1876-77, 1576, pp. 1606-07 [most of the verses are omitted in 1570 and 1576], 1583, pp. 1695-1702.

 
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Sir Nicholas Hare

(1495 - 1557)

Judge. Eldest son of John Hare of Homersfield, Suffolk, by Elizabeth Fotescue, his wife. [DNB] Master of the Rolls (1553 - 1557) MP for Downton, Wiltshire (1529), Norfolk (1539 - 1540), Lancaster (1544 - 1545). Speaker of the House (1539 - 1540) (DNB; Bindoff)

Sir Nicholas Hare was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

On 15 April 1555, Hare was ordered by the privy council to interrogate William Flower and also to have Bishop Bonner and the Middlesex JPs initiate proceedings against Flower. 1583, p. 1561.

Sir Nicholas Hare wrote a letter to Edmond Tyrrell in June 1555. 1563, p. 1245, 1570, p. 1864, 1576, p. 1596, 1583, p. 1683.

Edmond Tyrrel wrote to one of the queen's commissioners stating that he had received a letter from that [unnamed] commissioner and Sir Nicholas Hare via John Failes on 12 June 1555. 1563, p. 1245, 1570, p. 1864, 1576, p. 1596, 1583, p. 1683.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries. The letter was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689. [Hare sent ten Newgate prisoners to be examined by Bonner: Elizabeth Warne, George Tankerfield, Robert Smith, Steven Harwood, Thomas Fust, William Haile, George King, John Wade, Joan Lashford.] 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, p. 1702.

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Thomas Leyes was sent to Newgate by Sir Nicholas Hare. 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, p. 1702.

[Hare was not a knight, but both Foxe and the Privy Council Register mistakenly call him 'Sir' (cf. APC V, p. 115). The overseers to Hare's will were the outspoken conservatives Sir Edward Waldegrave and Sir John Baker; his three sons were all Elizabethan recusants (Bindoff, Commons).]

 
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Sir Richard Southwell

(1504 - 1564)

Master of the Ordinance; elder brother of Sir Robert Southwell. Courtier and official. (DNB)

Sir Richard Southwell was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Bishop Bonner, dated 27 November 1554, informing him that Queen Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout his diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-75).

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Southwell was one of the examiners of John Rogers on 22 January 1555. 1563, pp. 1023-26; 1570, pp. 1657-59; 1576, pp. 1414-15; 1583, pp. 1484-86.

He was present at John Rogers' execution on 4 February 1555. 1570, p. 1664; 1576, p. 1420; 1583, p. 1493.

He was one of the commissioners who interrogated Robert Ferrar on 4 February 1555. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, pp. 1553-54.

Richard Southwell was one of the privy councillors who signed a letter to Bishop Bonner, dated 28 April 1555, ordering the bishop to proceed posthumously against John Tooley in ecclesiastical court. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, p. 1757; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, p. 1584.

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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A declaration was made at Paul's Cross by William Chedsey at Bonner's commandment. He mentioned two letters, one from the queen and another from the privy council. The council letter was about procession and prayer at the agreement of peace between England and France. The signatories were: Francis Shrewsbury, Penbroke, Thomas Cheyny, William Peter, Thomas Wharton and Richard Southwell. Foxe suggests that he had seen the letter. 1563, p. 1217.

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He sent a letter to Bishop Bonner about William Andrew. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, pp. 1702-03.

Robert Farrer's examination took place before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Robert Rochester, Sir Richard Southwell and Gilbert Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

After Wyatt's rebellion, Southwell went to see Elizabeth at Ashridge and found her to be unwell. 1563, p. 1711, 1570, p. 2288, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2091.

 
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Steven Harwood

(d. 1555)

Brewer. Martyr. Of Stratford.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries (including Harwood). The letter was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

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Harwood was examined by Bishop Bonner. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

Robert Smith agreed with Harwood's confession. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

Harwood was condemned with Thomas Fust, Robert Smith and George Tankerfield. 1563, p. 1268, 1570, p. 1877, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1702.

He was burned at Stratford. 1563, p. 1268, 1570, p. 1877, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1702.

[Foxe also refers to him as 'Horwood'.]

 
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Thomas Fust

(d. 1555)

Hosier. Martyr.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries (including Fust). The letter was dated 2 July 1555 and was signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

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Thomas Fust was condemned with Robert Smith, George Tankerfield and Stephen Harwood. 1563, p. 1268, 1570, p. 1877, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1702.

He was burned at Ware, August 1555. 1563, p. 1268, 1570, p. 1877, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1702.

[Also referred to as Thomas 'Foist'.]

 
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Thomas Leyes

(d. 1555)

Of Thorpe, Essex. Prisoner for his beliefs in Newgate.

Thomas Leyes was sent to Newgate by Sir Nicholas Hare. 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, p. 1702.

Leyes was examined by Bishop Bonner. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

He became so weak he was removed to a house in the city, where he died. He was cast out into the fields and buried at night. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, p. 1702.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries (including Leyes). It was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

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William Andrew

(d.1555)

Carpenter. Of Essex. Fellow prisoner of Robert Smith.

William Andrew sent some ginger to Anne Smith. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Sir Richard Southwell sent a letter to Bonner about William Andrew. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, pp. 1702-03.

Southwell believed that the Lord Rich had sent Andrew before the council. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, pp. 1702-03.

He was sent to Newgate by John Motham, constable of Mauldon, Essex. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, p. 1702.

He was to be burned but died in prison at Horsley, Essex. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, p. 1702.

He was cast into a field and was buried at night. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1878, 1576, p. 1608, 1583, p. 1703.

 
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William Hales

(d. 1555)

Martyr. Of Thorpe, Essex.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries (including Hayle [Hall]). The letter was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

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William Hales was examined by Bishop Bonner on 12 July 1555 with Robert Smith, George Tankerfield and others. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

He was sent for examination by Sir Nicholas Hare. 1563, p. 1268, 1570, p. 1877, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1702.

William Hales was delivered to the sheriff to be burned. 1563, p. 1268, 1570, p. 1877, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1702.

He was burned at Barnet towards the end of August 1555. 1563, p. 1268, 1570, p. 1877, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1702.

[Foxe uses the variants 'Hayle', 'Haile'.]

 
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William Harris

Of Bromhill. Sheriff of Essex (1555). JP in Essex (1555) [SP11/5, no. 6]

William Hales was delivered to the sheriff [William Harryes] to be burned. 1563, p. 1268, 1570, p. 1877, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1702.

William Harris's servant, James Harris, was delivered to Bonner by Mordant and Tyrrel for examination. 1563, p. 1518, 1570, p. 2091, 1576, p. 1804, 1583, p. 1910.

 
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Barnet
NGR: TQ 245 956

A parish in the hundred of Cashio, liberty of St Albans, county of Hertford. 10.25 miles north from London. The living is a rectory with the perpetual curacy of Chipping Barnet annexed, in the Archdeaconry of St Albans and Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Horsley, Essex
NGR: TM 120 273

 
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Layshforde [Latchford]
NGR: SP 656 015

A hamlet in the parish of Great Haseley, hundred of EweIme, county of Oxford. 2.5 miles west from Tetworth.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Maldon
NGR: TL 845 075

A borough, port and market town having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Dengie, county of Essex. 10 miles east from Chelmsford, 38 miles east-north-east from London. The borough comprises the parishes of All Saints, St Peter and St Mary, the first two in the Archdeaconry of Essex, diocese of London, the third a royal peculiar in the jurisdiction of the Dean and Canons of Westminster. The living of All Saints is a vicarage, with which that of St Peter is united. The living of St Mary is a perpetual curacy in the patronage of the Dean and Canons.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Stratford Bowe, Stratford the Bow, Stratford the Bowe, [Stratford]
NGR: TQ 373 830

A parish in the Tower division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex. 4.5 miles east-north-east from London. The living is a rectory (separated in 1730 from the parish of Stepney, of which it was a chapelry) in the Archdeaconry of Middlesex and Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Thorpe [Thorpe le Soken]
NGR: TM 180 223

A parish in the hundred ofTendring, county of Essex. 9.5 miles south-east by south from Manningtree. The living is a discharged vicarage consolidated with those of Kirby le Soken and Walton le Soken, in the jurisdiction of the peculiar court of the Sokens.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1726 [1702]

Q. Mary. Persecution in London Dioceße.
A letter sent to his frende. 
Commentary  *  Close

This letter was written to a woman to urge her not to attend mass. In addition to appearing in all editions of the Acts and Monuments, it was printed in Letters of the Martyrs, pp. 552-53.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. August. MarginaliaAn other letter of Robert Smith to a friend of his.THe eternall God keepe you in his feare. I haue hearty commendations vnto you and your husbande, beseeching almighty God to preserue you in well doing, and in perfecte knowledge of his Christe, that yee may be founde faultles in the day of the Lorde. I haue heard saye, that my frende is geuen ouer to vanitie: it breaketh my hearte, not onely to heare that he so doeth, but also teacheth other, that it is vnhurtful to goe to all abhominations, whych nowe stand in the Idols temples: neuerthelesse deare frende, be ye not mooued to follow sinners: for they haue no inheritance with God and Christe. But looke that by going into the Idoll temple, ye defile not the temple of God: for light hath no felowship wt darkenesse. But looke what the Lord hath commaunded, that doe. For if not going to Churche were without persecution, they would not learne you that lesson. But all thing that is sweete to the flesh, is allowed of the fleshly. The Lord shal reward euery man according to his woorkes, and he that leadeth into captiuitie, shall go into captiuitie, and hee that by the fleshly man is led in the flesh, shall of the flesh reape corruption. The Lorde Iesu geue thee his holy spirite. Amen.

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I haue sent thee an Epistle in metre, 

Commentary  *  Close

This is very probably the set of verses exhorting Christians to be strong under persecution printed in 1563, p. 1270 and 1583, p. 1702.

whiche is not to be laid vp in thy cofer, but in thy heart.

Seeke peace and ensue it. Feare God, loue God with al thy heart, with all thy soule, and with all thy strength.

Thy frend and al mens in Christ Iesus, Rob. Smith.

Scribled in much hast from N. the 12. of May.

Robert Smith to all faithfull seruants of Christ, exhorting them to be strong vnder persecution. 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, Addenda: ref page 369, bottom

These verses are given to Hooper as what he "wrote on the wall with a cole in the Newe Inn in Gloceter, the night before he suffered." See his Later Writings P. S., Biogr. Notice, p. xxx.


Content thy selfe with pacience,
With Christ to beare the crosse of paine:
Which can and will thee recompence,
A thousande folde with ioyes againe.
Let nothing cause thy heart to quaile,
Lanch out thy boate, hale vp thy saile.
Put from the shore:
And be thou sure thou shalt attaine,
Vnto the port that shall remaine.
For euermore.

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The burning of Steuen Harwood, and Thomas Fust, martyred for the testimonie of the Gospel. 
Commentary  *  Close
Martyrdoms of Harwood and Fust

There was a note in the Rerum stating that Harwood was burned at Stratford on 30 August 1555 while Thomas Fust was burned at Ware (Rerum, p. 523). Foxe's complete account of these martyrs was first printed in the 1563 edition and was drawn entirely from official records, now lost, of the diocese of London. This account was unchanged in subsequent editions.

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MarginaliaSteuen Harwood Thomas Fust Martyrs.ABout this time died also (by cruell fire) these two martyrs of God, þt is to saye, Steuen Harwoode, at Stratford, and Thomas Fust, at Ware. Which both two, as they were about one time burned with the fore mētioned Robert Smith and George Tankerfield, although in sundry places: so were they also examined and openly cōdemned togethers wyth them. Their processe because it was ioyned all in one with the processe of Robert Smith & other of the said company aboue mentioned, I thought it superfluous againe to repeate the same: saue that of Thomas Fust this is to be added, that where as he in his last appering the 12. of Iuly, was mooued by the Byshop to reuoke his opinion, thus he answered: MarginaliaThe aunswere of Thomas Fust to Byshop Boner.No (said he) my Lorde, for there is no truth commeth out of your mouth, but all lyes. Yee condemne men, and will not heare the truthe. Where can ye finde any annoynting or greasing in Gods booke? I speake nothing but the truthe, and I am certaine that it is the truthe that I speake. This answere of hym onely I finde noted by the Register: although howe slenderly these Registrers haue dealt in vttering such matters, that is, in omitting those thinges which moste woorthy were to be knowen, by their doings it is easie to be seene. 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe is articulating here one of the two reasons why he preferred to use a martyr's own account, or the testimony of sympathetic witnesses, to official records: official records were often terse, formulaic and those who wrote them often uninterested in recording details of considerable interest to Foxe. (The other reason was that they often contained statements by the martyrs that were embarrassing to Foxe). While historians such as A. G. Dickens or G. R. Elton praise Foxe for his pioneering research in archival sources, it should be remembered that for Foxe they were a poor second choice, to be used only, as in the case of Harwood and Fust, when there was nothing better available.

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MarginaliaThe condēnation and Martyrdom of Steuen Harwood and Tho. Fust. Anno 1555 August.But to be short, after their answeres made, both he & Thomas Fust were for their faithfull perseuerance condemned together by the Bishop in his accustomed pitie, as heretikes to be burned, and so (as before ye haue heard) finished they their martyrdom, the one at Stratford, and the other at Ware, 
Commentary  *  Close

Note that during the summer of 1555, after the burning of John Bradford and John Leaf, the authorities had those who had been condemned in London burned in isolated villages instead of in the capital. This was undoubtedly from fear of the mobs drawn to the executions of heretics in London.

in the moneth of August and yere abouesayd.

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The constant Martyrdome of William Haile, burned at Barnet. 
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The Martyrdom of William Hale

The Rerum contains a note that William Hale was burned at Barnet in late August 1555 (Rerum, p. 523). Foxe's entire account of William Hale was printed in the 1563 edition and was unchanged in subsequent editions. Foxe's information on Hale was drawn from official records, now lost, of the London diocese.

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MarginaliaWilliam Haile Martyr.OF the same companie of these x. about recorded, whych were sent vp to Byshop Boner, by sir Nicholas Hare and other Commissioners, in the companie of George Tankerfielde and Roberte Smith, was also Willyam Hayle of Thorpe in the Countie of Essex, who lykewise being examined with the rest, the 12. day of Iuly, receiued with them also the sentence of cōdemnation. Geuing thys exhortation with al to the lookers on: Ah good people, sayd he, beware of this Idolatrer, and thys Antichriste, poyn-

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The martyrdome of VVilliam Haile. MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Williā Haile at Barnet about the ende of August. Anno. 1555.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
This small cut is one of the two single-column blocks (that of Thomas Wattes, small cut [e] is the other) that show a martyr in an unlit pyre and with the pikes of armed men in the background. It too was repeated, though only once in the last two books of 1583, at page 2047. It already had a chip in its frame in 1570.

MarginaliaHailes wordes to the people. MarginaliaEx Regist.ting vnto the Bishop of London, and so was he deliuered to the Sheriffes as an heretique to be burned, who sente him to Barnet, 

Commentary  *  Close

In the months following the burning of John Bradford and John Leaf at the beginning of July 1555, the London authorities had heretics who had been convicted in the capital burned in villages surrounding it, instead of in Smithfield. This was undoubtedly due to fears of tumultous behaviour from the crowds drawn to the Smithfield executions.

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where, about the latter ende of August,  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VII, Addenda: ref page 370, line 8 from the bottom

Machyn in his Diary (p. 94) dates Hale's burning August 31st.

hee moste constantly sealed vp his faith with the consuming of his bodye by cruell fire, yeelding hys soule vnto the Lorde Iesus his onely and most sure redeemer.

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George King, Thomas Leyes, Iohn VVade, sickened in prisone, and were buried in the fieldes. 
Commentary  *  Close
George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade

There was a great deal of confusion about the names of these martyrs. In the Rerum, there is a note stating that 'Richard Smith' and George 'Bing' died in Lollard's Tower in September 1555 (Rerum, p. 525). John Wade and Thomas Leyes are not mentioned in the Rerum. The 1563 edition corrects the name 'Bing' to King but it still names the non-existant 'Richard Smith'. Wade is still not named but Leyesis mentioned and described as having died in Newgate. In the 1570 edition, their names are finally correctly rendered as George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade and they are all stated to have died in Lollard's Tower. Foxe probably obtained his scant information on this trio from oral sources: since they were not brought to trial or even examined, there was no accessible official record of them. The 1563 account was unchanged in subsequent editions.

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YEe hearde before of ten sundry personnes sent oute of Newgate by Maister Hare and other Commissioners, to be examined of Boner Bishoppe of London. Of whome sixe already haue bene executed in seuerall places, as hathe beene shewed: whose names were Elizabeth Warne, George Tankerfielde, Robert Smith, Steuen Harwoode, Thomas Fust, and William Haile. Marginalia3. Martyrs sickened in prison & buryed in the fieldes. MarginaliaGeorge King, Thomas Leyes, Iohn Wade, Martyrs.Other three, to witte, George King, Thomas Leyes, and Iohn Wade sickening in Lollardes Tower, were so weake that they were remooued into sundry houses wythin the Citie of London, and there departed, and cast out into þe fieldes, and there buryed by nighte of the faithfull brethren, when none in the day durste doe it, propter metum Iudæorum. 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Foxe narrative
Foxe text Latin

Propter metum Iudeorum.

Foxe text translation

Not translated.

Translation (Wade 2003)

Because of their fear of the Jews.

MarginaliaThe story of Ioane Layshford hereafter followeth among the Martyrs of the next yeare.The last that remained of thys foresayde company, was Ioane Layshe of Layshforde, the Daughter in lawe to Iohn Warne and Elizabeth Warne Martyrs, but because shee was reprieued to a longer day, her storie and Martyrdom we will deferre till the moneth of Ianuarie the next yeare following.

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William Andrewe. 
Commentary  *  Close
William Andrew

The Rerum has a note stating that William Andrew died in Lollard's Tower in September 1555 (Rerum, p. 525). Foxe's complete account of Andrew, including Southwell's letter, first appeared in the 1563 edition. All of this material was drawn from official records, now lost, of the London diocese. The account of William Andrew was substantially unchanged in later editions.

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MarginaliaWilliam Andrew buryed in the fieldes.THe like catholike charitie was also shewed vpon William Andrew of Horsley in the Countie of Essex Carpenter, who was brought to Newgate the firste day of Aprill 1555. by Iohn Motham 

Commentary  *  Close

John Motham's name was only introduced in the 1570 edition; it may have come from oral sources or it may have been a detail from the official documents which had been previously overlooked.

Constable of Mauldon in Essex. MarginaliaThe L. Rich the first sender vp of W. Andrew.The first and principall promoter of hym was the Lorde Riche, who sent him first to prisone. An other great doer against him also seemeth to be sir Richard Southwel Knighte, by a letter wrytten by him to Boner, as by the copie heereof appeareth. 
Commentary  *  Close

This letter had probably originally been copied into a court book of Bishop Bonner which contained the examinations of Andrew. This court book is now lost.

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A letter sent to Boner Bishop of London, from sir Richard Southwel knight.

MarginaliaA letter of Syr Richard Southwell to Bishop Boner.PLeaseth it your Lordship to vnderstand, that the Lord Rich did about seuen or eight weekes past, send vppe vnto the Counsaile, one Wil. Andrew of Thorpe within the Countie of Essex, an arrogant heretike. Their pleasure was to commaund me to commit him vnto Newgate where he remaineth, and as I am infourmed, hathe infected a noumber in the prisone wyth hys heresie. 

Commentary  *  Close

Andrew must have been quite effective in proselytizing for word of it to have reached the privy council. This was one of the dangers of the long incarceration of protestants; it gave them an opportunity to convert fellow prisoners. The martyr Richard Gibson was a prisoner converted to protestantism.

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Your Lordshippe shall doe verye well (if it please you) to conuent him before you, and to take order with him, as his case doth require. I knowe the Counsaile meant to haue wrytte heerein

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