Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Edward Story

Edward Story witnessed the death of Wolsey and Pygot. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622, 1583, p. 1715.

 
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Mrs Wolsey

Wife of William Wolsey.

William Wolsey gave money to Thomas Hodilo to give to Wolsey's wife. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622,1583, p. 1716.

 
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Peter Valentius

Pygot and Wolsey were visited in prison by a chaplain of Bishop Goodricke's who was of French birth, Peter Valentius. He was almoner there for twenty years prior to his meeting with them. Valentius questioned Pygot and Wolsey on their beliefs. 1570, p. 1893, 1576, p. 1621,1583, p. 1715.

 
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Richard Best

Richard Best witnessed the death of Wolsey and Pygot. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622,1583, p. 1715.

 
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Richard Denton

(d. 1564)

Smith. Of Wellney, Cambridgeshire.

While in prison, William Wolsey gave Thomas Hodilo six shillings and eight pence to give to Richard Denton. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622,1583, p. 1715.

Denton gave Wolsey a book of scripture that ultimately brought Wolsey to the stake. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622, 1583, p. 1715.

Denton was afraid to burn, so lived quietly during Mary's reign. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622, 1583, p. 1715.

Richard Denton was burned in his own house with two others. 1570, p. 2303.

On 18 April 1564, Denton's house burned down. Denton and two others were killed in the fire. Denton had entered the burning building to try to save his goods. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622, 1583, p. 1715.

 
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Robert Crane

Robert Crane witnessed the deaths of Wolsey and Pygot. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622,1583, p. 1715.

 
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Robert Kendall

Robert Kendall witnessed the death of Wolsey and Pygot. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622,1583, p. 1715.

 
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Thomas Goodrich

(d. 1554)

Bishop of Ely (1534 - 1554) [Fasti] and Lord High Chancellor of England (1552 - 1553) [DNB]. Chaplain to Anne Boleyn. [Fasti]

As a member of the privy council, he signed a letter from the privy council to Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Lady Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

Foxe prints two letters which he claims that Robert Ferrar wrote to Goodrich 1563, pp. 1091-98; 1570, pp. 1725-26; 1576, pp. 1472[recte 1474] -80; 1583, pp. 1552-53 and 1555-56. [NB: See Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), pp. 166-67, for a persuasive argument that these letters were not written to Ferrar.]

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Pygot and Wolsey were visited in prison by a chaplain of Bishop Goodrich, Peter Valentius, who was of French birth and who was almoner there for twenty years prior to his meeting with them. Valentius questioned them on their beliefs. 1570, p. 1893, 1576, p. 1621,1583, p. 1715.

A letter regarding Green's treason was sent to Bonner by privy council on 11 November 1555 but not delivered until 17 November. It was signed by Winchester, Penbroke, Thomas Ely (Goodrich), William Haward, John Bourne, Thomas Wharton. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

Henry VIII appointed Richard Stokesley (bishop of London), Stephen Gardiner (bishop of Winchester), Richard Sampson (bishop of Chichester), William Repps (bishop of Norwich), Thomas Goodrich (bishop of Ely), Hugh Latimer (bishop of Worcester), Nicholas Shaxton (bishop of Salisbury) and William Barlow (bishop of St David's) to compose a book of ecclesiastical institutions called the Bishops' Book. 1563, p. 1472.

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Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1556 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

[Foxe also refers to him as 'Goodricke'.]

 
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Thomas Hodilo

Beer brewer of Ely.

Thomas Hodilo provided Foxe with an account of the imprisonment and death of Wolsey and Pygot. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622, 1583, p. 1715.

He visited Wolsey in prison and was given money by him to be distributed to Wolsey's wife, kinsfolk and friends, including one Richard Denton. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622, 1583, p. 1715.

 
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Thomas Peacock

(1516 - 1582)

BD (1554). Canon of Norwich (1554 - 1556); rector of Downham, Cambs (1555 - 1569); and prebend of Ely (1556 - 1559 [deprived]). President of Queens' (1558 - 1559). [DNB; Venn]

Peacock preached a sermon in Latin at the assembly of Cambridge graduates and commissioners called by Cardinal Pole, part of Pole's attempt to reintroduce catholicism at the university. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

He preached at the burning of Wolsey and Pygot. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622, 1583, p. 1715.

Thomas Peacock gave a Latin sermon in January 1557, attended by the queen's commission to the University of Cambridge, in which he preached against Bilney, Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2144, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

[Stripped of all his preferments at the accession of Elizabeth. Resigned the presidency of Queens' College in 1559 in order to avoid expulsion. DNB]

 
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William Fulke

(1538 - 1589)

Puritan divine. [DNB]

William Fulke provided Foxe with an account of the imprisonment and death of Wolsey and Pygot. He is described by Foxe in 1570 as a Cambridge scholar. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622, 1583, p. 1715.

1740 [1716]

Queene Mary. The Martyrdome of William Wolsey, and Robert Pygot.

MarginaliaAnno. 1555. October.broken vp and ended, the sayd Wolsey and Pigot were caryed agayne to Eley into yrison, MarginaliaWolsey and Pigot returned to Eley to prison.where they both did remayne till the day of theyr death.

In the meane time certaine of theyr neighbors of Wisbych aforesayd being at Eley, came to see how they did.

There came thither also a Chapleine of MarginaliaTho. Goodricke Bishop of Eley.Bishop Gooderikes a Frenchman borne, one Peter Valentius, who said vnto the said Wolsey and Pygot: My brethren, according to mine office I am come to talk with you, for I haue bene Amner here this xx. yeares and aboue.

MarginaliaThe Bishops Chaplayne a Frenchmā confirmeth the prisoners in the truth.Wheerfore I must desire you my brethren to take it in good parte that I am come to talke with you, I promise you, not to pull you from your fayth. But I both requyre and desire in the name of Iesus Christ that you stande to the truth of the Gospell and worde, and I beseech the almighty God for his sonne Iesus Christes sake to preserue both you & me in the same vnto the end. For I knowe not my selfe (my brethrē) how soone I shal be at the same point that you now are. Thus with many other like wordes he made an end, causing all that were there present to water theyr cheekes, 

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I.e., they wept.

contrary to al the hope they had in him, god be praysed therfore.

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MarginaliaPigot and Wolsey called to iudgment in the Bishops Consistory.Then within short time after, Pygot and Wolsey wer called to iudgement about the ix. daye of October, before Doctor Fuller then Chauncellor, with old Doctor Shaxton, Christopherson, and others in Commission, who layd earnestly to theyr charge for theyr belief in diuers articles, but especially of the Sacrament of the aultar. Whereunto theyr aūswere was: that the Sacrament of the aultar was an Idoll, and that the naturall body and bloud of Christe was not present really in the sayd Sacrament, and to this opinion they sayd they would sticke, beleuing perfectly the same to be no heresye that they had affirmed, but the verye truth wherupō they would stand. 

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This answer appears word-for-word in the trial register (Ely Diocesan Register G 1/8, fo. 82r).

Then said the Doctors, that they were out of the Catholicke fayth.

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Then Doctor Shaxton 

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Wolsey's exchange with Shaxton and Fuller's remark do not appear in the trial record.

sayd vnto them: MarginaliaThe wordes of Nicholas Shaxton to the Martirs.good brethren remember your selues and become new men, for I my self was in this fond opinion that you are nowe in, but I am now become a new man. 
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Nicholas Shaxton had been a high-profile evangelical, and bishop of Salisbury, who had very publicly recanted his beliefs in 1546. Shaxton was villified by fellow evangelicals for his recantation; see Robert Crowley, The confutation of .xiii. articles, wherunto N. Shaxton, late byshop subscribed and caused to be set forth in print M.C.xlvi. when he recanted (STC 6083).

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MarginaliaWolseys aunswere to Shaxton.Ah sayd Wolsey, are you become a new man? Wo be to thee thou wicked new man, for God shal iustly iudge thee.

Doctour Fuller then spake saying, this Wolsey is an obstinate felow, and one that I could neuer do good vpon. 

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John Fuller, the chancellor of the diocese, had visited Wolsey numerous times in prison in the hope of making him recant (Ely Diocesan Register G 1/8, fo. 81r-v).

But as for the Paynter hee is a man quiet and indifferent (as farre as I perceiue) and is soone reformed, and maye very well be deliuered for any euill opinion I find in him.

MarginaliaM. Christopherson writeth what he would haue Pigot confesse of the Sacrament.Then Christopherson called for penne and yncke and wrote these wordes folowing: I Robert Pygot do beleue that after ehe wordes of consecration spoken by the Priest, there remaineth no more bread and wine, but the very body and bloud of Christ really, substauntially, the selfe same that was borne of the virgine Mary: and reading it to the Paynter, he sayd thus: doest thou beleue all this according as it is written?

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MarginaliaPigot refuseth to subscribe to Christophersons fayth.Pygot. No Syr, sayd the Paynter: that is your fayth and not mine. 

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The trial register records Pygot as making this very denial, but it does not mention Christopherson (Ely Diocesan Register G 1/8, fo. 83r).

Christopher. Loe Mayster Doctor Fuller you would haue lettē this felow go: he is as much an heretick as the other.

And so immediately iudgemēt was geuen vpon thē to dye. Which done, after the sētēce read, they were sent again to the prison, where they did lye till the day of theyr death.

At which day one Peacocke Bachelor of diuinity being appoynted to preach, 

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Thomas Peacock had visited both Wolsey and Pygot in prison to try to induce them to recant (Ely Diocesan Register G 1/8, fo. 81r-v and 83r-v).

MarginaliaM. Peacoke appoynted to preach at the burning of Wolsey and Pigot.took his text out of the first Epistle of S. Paul to the Corin. 5. chap. of one that had liued vnordinately by abusing his fathers wife: likening the sayd Pygot and Wolsey to the same man, often times saying, that such members must be cut of from the congregation, most maliciously reporting the sayd Wolsey to be cleane out of þe fayth, and in many places quite denying the Scripture. 
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Either Foxe or his sources probably edited Peacock's comments. The judges accused Wolsey of being an Anabaptist at his trial (Ely Diocesan Register G 1/8, fo. 82r) and Peacock's 'malicious reporting' probably included similar remarks. In fact, Wolsey's statements at his trial may well have been edited by Foxe or his informants; Wolsey declared that the word 'trinity' could not be found in scripture and denied that baptism affected salvation (Ely Diocesan Register G 1/8, fo. 81v). Foxe would have regarded both statements as heretical.

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So his Sermon being ended, the forenamed, Pygot & Wolsey being brought to the place of executiō and so boūd to the stake with a chain, thither commeth one sir Richard Collinson a priest, at that time desolate of any biding place or stay of benefice, who sayd vnto Wolsey: brother Wolsey the preacher hath openly reported in his Sermon this day that you are quite out of the Catholicke fayth, & deny baptisme, and that you do erre in the holy Scripture: Wherefore I beseech you for the certifying of my conscience wyth others here present: that you declare in what place of the Scripture you do erre or finde fault.

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MarginaliaW. Wolsey cleareth himselfe to be sound in all pointes of the scripture belonging to his saluation.Wolsey. I take the eternall and euerlasting God to witnesse that I do erre in no part or poynt of Gods booke the holy Bible, but hold & beleue in the same to be most firme and sound doctrine in all poyntes most worthy for my saluation and for al other Christians to the end of the world. Whatsoeuer mine aduersaries report by me, God forgeue thē therfore. With that cōmeth one to the fire with a great sheet knit ful of books to burne, like as they had bene new

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¶ The burning of William Wolsey, and Robert Pygot, Martyrs. MarginaliaThe Martyrdōe of W. Wolsey and Rob. Pigot at Eley. Anno 1555. Octob. 16.

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MarginaliaBookes burned with Wolsey & Pigot.Testamentes. O sayd Wolsey, geue me one of thē, & Pigot desired an other, both of them clapping them close to theyr brestes saying the 106. Psalme, desiring all the people to say Amen, and so receiued the fire most thankefully.

Witnesses and informers hereof.


Robert Scortred.
Robert Crane,
Edward Story.

Robert Kendall,
Richard Best. &c.
 
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These were Foxe's sources for much, if not all, of the account of Wolsey and Pygot up to this point.

Concerning the storye of William Wolsey I receiued moreouer from the vniuersity of Cambridge by a credible person and my faythfull frend William Fulke, this relatiō which I thought in this place not vnmeete to be notified vnto the Reader in order and forme as foloweth.

MarginaliaThe natures of Wolsey, and Pigot described.There were burned 

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Fulke must have gone out and got Hodilo's testimony and sent it on to Foxe. This is an excellent example of Foxe's friends acting as unpaid research assistants for him. This is one reason why Foxe obtained such extensive information from personal sources.

at Ely two Godly Martyrs, the one called Wolsey, the other Pygot. In these two appered diuers opinions of one spirit. Pygot was mylde, humble, and modest, promising that he would be cōformable to his persecutors, if they could perswade him by the Scripture. The other Wolsey, was stout, strong and vehemēt, as one hauing πληροφορίαν of the spirite, MarginaliaThe zelous spirite of William Wolsey.and detested all theyr doinges, as of whom he was sure to receiue nothing but cruelty and tyranny. He was wonderfull ielous ouer his cōpanion, fearing lest his gentle nature would haue bene ouercome by the flattering inticementes of the worlde, 
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Wolsey was worried that Pygot might be persuaded to recant.

and therefore the same day that they were burned, when they would haue talked wt him alone, he pulled him away from them almost by force. MarginaliaW. Wolsey desirous of Martirdome.He was so desirous to glorify God with his suffering, that being wonderfull sore tormented in the prison with the toothe ake, hee feared nothing more thē that he should depart before the day of executiō (which he called his glad day MarginaliaWolsey calleth the day of his Martirdome, his glad day.) were come.

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This Wolsey being in prison at Elye, was visited by MarginaliaThomas Hodilo Berebruer of Cambridge witnes of this story.Thomas Hodilo Berebruer in Ely. To him he deliuered certayne mony to be distributed (as he appoynted) part to his wife, and part to his kinfolkes and frends, and especially 6. shillinges. 8. pence to be deliuered to one MarginaliaRichard Denton first conuerter of Wolsey.Richard Denton Smith dwelling at Welle in Cambridgeshyre wtin the iurisdiction of the Ile of Ely, with this commendation, that he maruelled that he taryed so long behinde him, seing he was the first that did deliuer him the book of scripture into his hand, and told him that it was the truth, desiring him to make hast after as fast as he could. MarginaliaMoney sent by Wolsey to Denton. Wolsey exhorting Richard Denton to persist in the truth.

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This Thomas Hodilo, both to auoyde daunger of the time, and to haue a witnes of his doings herein deliuered the sayd summe of money, to one M. Laurence preacher in Essex (which then resorted often to his house) to be distributed as Wolsey had appoynted: which thing they performed, riding from place to place. And when this 6. shilling 8. pence was deliuered to Richard Denton with the commendation aforesayd, his aunswere was this: I confesse it is true, but alas I can not burne. MarginaliaDenton afrayde of burning.This was almoste one whole yeare after Wolsey was burned. But he that coulde not burne in the cause of Christ, was afterward burned agaynst his will whē Christ had geuen peace to his church.

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