Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Edmund Grindal

(1519? - 1583)

Marian exile. DD (1564). Bishop of London (1559 - 1570). Archbishop of York (1570 - 1576). Archbishop of Canterbury (1576 - 1583). [Fasti; DNB; Venn]

Edmund Grindal's exile was mentioned in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09, 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. He mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. He had heard that West had relented, and Grimald cast into the Marshalsea. He had also heard that Thomas Ridley, of the Bull-head in Cheapside, had died. In addition, he had heard that his brother-in-law, Shipside, had spent much time in prison but was now released. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Edmund Grindal was a pall bearer at Bucer's funeral. 1563, p. 1559., 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

Edmund Grindal, with Matthew Parker, bore Martin Bucer's body on his shoulders. 1563, p. 1554 [recte 1562]

Matthew Parker, Edmund Grindal and Richard Goodrick requested that the body of Peter Martyr's wife be buried honourably. 1563, p. 1559., 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

Edmund Grindal was a participant in the Westminster disputation of 1559. 1563, p. 1717, 1583, p. 2119.

Foxe refers to his installation as bishop of London after Elizabeth's accession. 1583, p. 2128.

 
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George Shipside

George Shipside was the brother-in-law of Nicholas Ridley. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1717-18.

Dr Heath, bishop of Worcester, came to Shipside's aid when Bonner wished him dead. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1718.

Shipside could testify to Ridley's kindness to Edmund Bonner's mother and sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1718.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that his brother-in-law, Shipside, had spent much time in prison but was now released. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Ridley had married his widowed sister to his servant George Shipside and provided for them and for her three children. The lease had been lost through the action of Bonner, and Ridley pleaded with Queen Mary to provide relief for his sister. 1570, pp. 1935-36, 1576, p. 1660, 1583, p. 1768.

Ridley gave his gown and tippet to Shipside. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley's 'friendly farewell' sent greetings to him. 1570, pp. 1939-43, 1576, pp. 1622-28, 1583, pp. 1770-76.

 
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Hugh Weston

(1505? - 1558)

Dean of Westminster (1553 - 1556). Archdeacon of Colchester (1554 - 1558). Dean of Windsor (1556 - 1557) [Fasti]. Prolocutor of the Lower House [Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer: A Life (Yale, 1996), pp. 563-68].

Hugh Weston was appointed Prolocutor of the 1553 Convocation, over which he presided and during which he disputed with Philpot and Aylmer (1563, pp. 906-16; 1570, pp. 1571-78; 1576, pp. 1340-47; and 1583, p. 1410-17).

According to a story related to Sir Thomas White (and printed by Foxe), Sir Thomas Wyatt declared from the scaffold that Elizabeth and Edward Courtenay were innocent of any involvement in his treason. Weston, who was on the scaffold, cried out to the crowd that Wyatt had confessed otherwise before the Privy Council. Allegedly White, on hearing a report of the incident, denounced Weston as a knave (1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, p. 1425).

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Weston was prolocutor (technically Weston was prolocutor of the lower house of convocation) and head of a delegation sent to dispute with Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer (see MacColloch, Cranmer, p. 563) at the Oxford Disputations (1563, pp. 932 and 936; 1570, p. 1591; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1428).

He received the doctors sent from Cambridge to the disputation (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

He presided over the Oxford disputations of 1554 (1563, pp. 936-85; 1570, pp. 1592-1627; 1576, pp. 1358-88; 1583, pp. 1429-59).

[NB: A brief account of the entire disputations, which mentions Weston throughout, is given on 1563, pp. 933-35; part of this brief account listing the disputants with Ridley was reprinted in 1570, p. 1606; 1576, p. 1371; and 1583, p. 1441).

Weston presided over John Harpsfield's disputation for his D.D. on 19 April 1554. Weston debated with both Cranmer and Harpsfield (1563, pp. 986-91; 1570, pp. 1627-32; 1576, pp. 1389-92; 1583, pp. 1459-63).

Weston presided over the commissioners at the condemnation of Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer on 20 April 1554 (1563, pp. 935-36; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, pp. 1463-64).

Weston received a letter from Ridley of 23 April 1554, protesting that he had broken his promise to allow Ridley to examine a copy of the record of his disputation and also protesting the conduct of the disputation and demanding that Weston show Ridley's written answers to the propositions disputed to the Upper House of Convocation. Weston refused to deliver the letter and also a letter of protest which Cranmer had written to the Privy Council over the Disputations (Ridley's letter - included as part of Ridley's account of the disputation - is printed in 1563, p. 977, but Cranmer's letter and Weston's refusal to deliver the letters are not in this edition (see 1570, p. 1633; 1576, pp. 1393-94; 1583, p. 1464).

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Weston received Mary at Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

He preached at Paul's Cross on 20 October 1553, exhorting his auditors to pray for souls in purgatory, denouncing the communion table as an oyster board and denouncing Cranmer's recent catechism (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466).

He attended the execution of Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk, (according to Foxe) against the Duke's wishes. Also (according to Foxe) Weston was heckled by the crowd (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, pp. 1467-68).

He participated, together with Gilbert Bourne and Frances Mallet, in an effort to persuade Walter Mantell to recant (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1468).

When Sir Thomas Wyatt at his execution cleared Elizabeth and the Earl of Devon of involvement in his rebellion, Weston declared that this contradicted what Wyatt had earlier told the Privy Council. Wyatt retorted that what he said now was true (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

A prayer Weston made for the safe delivery of a child by Queen Mary is printed in 1563, p. 1015 (Latin and English versions); 1570, p. 1653; 1576, p. 1410; 1583, pp. 1480-81 (English only).

Foxe calls Weston a man whom 'all good and godly men worthily despise' and prints Laurence Saunders' account of Weston's attempting to persuade Nicholas Grimald and Saunders to recant. 1563, pp. 1041-42; 1570, p. 1667; 1576, p. 1422; 1583, p. 1496.

Weston was reported by Hooper to have obtained a commission in May 1554 to establish a disputation, despite its illegality. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

On 21 March 1555 Bradford talked with Dr Weston, after being told of Weston's intention to visit via the earl of Derby's servant (when master Collier, Warden of Manchester had come to dinner at the Counter). 1576, p.1536. Bradford and Westo spoke to each other in the presence of Master Collier, the earl of Derby's servant, the subdean of Westminster, the keeper (Master Clayden), and others. 1570, 1799-80, 1576, pp.1536-7, 1583, pp.1619-20.

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On 25 February, at about 5pm, Master Weston visited Bradford and asked to speak with him in private. When the two men were alone, Weston thanked Bradford for his writings to him and then produced the work that Bradford had sent him. It was entitled, 'Certayne reasons againste Transubstantiation gathered by John Bradforde, and geuen to Doctour weston and others'. 1563, p. 1212. They discussed transubstantiation. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1801-2. [In 1570 this meeting is dated as the afternoon of 28 March].

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On 25 February (1563) or 28 March (1570 onwards) Weston told John Bradford of Grimald's recantation. 1563, p. 1212, 1570, p. 1801, 1576, p. 1538., 1583, p. 1621.

Bradford's reasons against transubstantiation were given to Weston and others. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1800-1, 1576, pp. 1537-38, 1583, pp. 1620-21.

On 5 April, at 2pm, Weston went to visit Bradford in the Counter. Weston had not visited him earlier due to ill health and also because he had been busy withstanding monks from entering Westminster. He also thought that Pendleton would be coming to see him. Weston told Bradford that the pope was dead and that Weston had petitioned the queen and so thought that death would not come to Bradford soon. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

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As Weston left Bradford on 5 April, he set for Master Weale. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

After Weston left Bradford on 5 April, the keeper, Master Claydon, and Steven Bech came to Bradford and spoke unkindly to Bradford even though they had hitherto appeared to be friendly to him. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

Weston was one of the audience at the re-examination of Ridley and Latimer and interjected a question. 1563, p. 1363; 1570, p. 1926, 1576, p. 1652, 1583, p. 1761.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

Cranmer was condemned by Weston and others of the university. He was committed to the mayors and sherriffs of Oxford. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Hugh Weston displeased Pole for being willing to give up his deanery.

Weston was caught committing adultery and appealed to Rome for clemency.

He died after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2102.

 
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John Cardmaker

(d. 1555)

Franciscan friar. Vicar of St Bride's, London. Chancellor of Wells. Martyr. [DNB]

In 1554 Cardmaker attempted to flee England with his bishop, William Barlow, but both were arrested and imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, p. 1141; 1570, p. 1749; 1576, p. 1494; 1583, p. 1578.

On 9 November 1554 he was brought before the Star Chamber and then put in the Fleet (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

He was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Ovary's on 28 January 1555. Cardmaker submitted to Gardiner (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Barlow and Cardmaker appeared to be ready to recant. Cardmaker was imprisoned in the Counter in Bread Street where he had a 'Christian and comfortable conference' with Laurence Saunders who had been sent there after being condemned by Gardiner; Saunders persuaded Cardmaker not to recant. Thomas Martin and other catholics urged Cardmaker to recant. 1570, p. 1047; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500; also see 1563, pp. 1141-42; 1570, p. 1750; 1576, pp. 1494-95; 1583, p. 1578.

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Articles presented to Cardmaker by Bishop Bonner on 24 May 1555 and Cardmaker's answers are recorded. 1563, pp. 1142-43; 1570, pp. 1750-51; 1576, p. 1495; 1583, pp. 1578-79.

Foxe records Cardmaker's confession of faith 1563, pp. 1143-1135 [recte 1145].

Beard visited Cardmaker in Newgate a few days before Cardmaker's execution and tried to persuade him to recant; Cardmaker refused. 1570, p. 1754; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1581.

Cardmaker wrote a letter to a friend, denying that he had recanted. 1570, pp. 1753-54; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1581.

Cardmaker was executed on 30 May 1555. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, pp. 1751-52; 1576, pp. 1496-97; 1583, pp. 1579-80.

Stephen Gardiner told John Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Cardmaker sent greetings to John Bradford via the servant of an unnamed gentlewoman. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

When examined by Bonner, John Leafe (who was burned with John Bradford) denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a 'scholer' of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Copy of his submission. [BL Harley 421, fo.39v. Not printed in AM or LM. Gingerly described in 1563, p. 1141 et seq.]

[Alias Taylor.]

 
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John Hooper

(d. 1555)

Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester. Martyr. (DNB)

Foxe recounts Hooper's life and career before becoming a bishop (1563, pp. 1049-50; 1570, pp. 1674-76; 1576, pp. 1429-1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, pp. 1502-3).

Hooper refused to wear vestments at his consecration and was consequently imprisoned. Ultimately he made a qualified submission (1563, pp. 1050-52; 1570, pp. 1676-77; 1576, pp. 1403 [recte 1430]-31; 1583, pp. 1503-5).

Foxe relates his conduct as bishop (1563, pp. 1052-53; 1570, pp. 1677-78; 1576, pp 1431-32; 1583, p. 1505).

Hooper was summoned to London on Mary's accession and imprisoned (1563, pp. 1053-54; 1570, p. 1678; 1576, p. 1432; 1583, p. 1505).

He was ordered to attend the privy council on 22 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 31 August, Hooper appeared before the council and he was committed by them to the Fleet on the next day (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]). (APC IV, p. 337, has Hooper appearing on 1 September and committed to the Fleet the same day).

Foxe gives accounts of Hooper's imprisonment and examinations. 1563, pp. 1055-57; 1570, pp. 1678-80; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, pp. 1506-7.

He was deprived of his bishopric, but he defended the validity of clerical marriage at his deprivation (1563, pp. 1054-55; 1570, pp. 1678-79; 1576, pp. 1432-33; 1583, p. 1403 [recte 1430]).

Hooper was rumored to have recanted after he was condemned; he wrote denying this. 1563, p. 1057; 1570, pp. 1680-81; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, pp. 1507-8.

Foxe records his degradation, journey to Gloucester and execution. 1563, pp. 1057-62 and 1064; 1570, pp. 1681-86; 1576, pp. 1434-39; 1583, pp. 1508-12.

Hooper was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His letters: 1563, pp. 1062-63; 1570, pp. 1686-93; 1576, pp. 1439-45; 1583, pp. 1512-18.

Hooper was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

On 3 January 1555, a letter was sent to Hooper informing him of the arrest of Thomas Rose's congregation at the churchyard of St. Mary-le-Bow on 1 January 1555 (1563, p. 1020).

Hooper wrote an answer to this letter (1563, p. 1020; 1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1482).

Hooper also sent a letter of encouragement to the members of Rose's congregation imprisoned in the Counter in Bread Street (1563, pp. 1021-22; 1570, pp. 1654-55; 1576, pp. 1411-12; 1583, pp. 1482-83).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St. Mary Overy's on 28 January 1554 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley speaks of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, p. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

During his examination, John Hallingdale said that Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley and Hooper were not heretics. 1563, p. 1638, 1570, p. 2222, 1576, p. 1919, 1583, p. 2026.

Hooper's Latin epistle touching matters of religion was sent to Convocation House. 1583, pp. 2135-36.

 
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John Rogers

(1500? - 1555) (DNB)

Martyr.

Foxe describes Rogers' life and career. 1563, pp. 1022-23; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484.

John Rogers preached a sermon at Paul's Cross on 6 August 1553 denouncing 'popery', for which he was placed under arrest. 1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484. [NB: This contradicts the next two entries].

On 13 August 1553 Gilbert Bourne (Marian bishop of Bath and Wells) preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, praising Bonner and criticising Edward VI. This sermon incited a fanatic to throw a dagger at him and enraged the mob. John Rogers and John Bradford escorted Bourne to safety (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]. The story is in Rerum, pp. 464-65, but Rogers is not mentioned in that version).

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On 16 August 1553, Rogers was placed under house arrest by the privy council (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

He was committed to Newgate on 26 January 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

It was rumoured in May 1554 that Rogers, together with Bradford and Saunders, would take part in a disputation to be held in Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Rogers was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overies on 28 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Rogers' examination took place on 29 January 1555. [BL Harley 421, fos.40r-41r. Not printed in Acts and Monuments or Letters of the Martyrs but mentioned in 1563, p. 1029 et seq.]

Bradford's second examination took place on 29 January 1555, directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1188-92, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

He was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His examination and condemnation: 1563, pp. 1026-31; 1570, pp. 1656-62; 1576, pp. 1414-19; 1583, pp. 1484-89. He was examined and condemned with John Hooper on. 1563, p. 1056; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, p. 1507.

Rogers was degraded, with John Hooper, on 4 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1057-58; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, pp. 1434-35; 1583, p. 1508.

Rogers' martyrdom is described. 1563, pp. 1036-37; 1570, pp. 1663-64; 1576, pp. 1419-20; 1583, pp. 1492-93.

When examined by Bonner, John Leafe (who was burned with John Bradford) denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a scholar of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

In a letter to his mother and others, John Bradford asked that Rogers be remembered. 1570, pp. 1805-06,1576, pp. 1541-42, 1583, p. 1624.

John Rogers' martyrdom was referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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His other writings: (1563, pp. 1031-36; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, pp. 1489-92).

Rogers was involved in the debate over the clerical wearing of caps. 1563, p. 1732.

 
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John Scory

(d. 1585)

Bishop of Rochester (1551 - 1552). Bishop of Chichester (1552 - 1553) and of Hereford (1559 - 1585) [DNB]

John Scory's exile is mentioned in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

Scory, bishop of Rochester, visited Cranmer. He took a copy of Cranmer's writings about the rumour that he had said the mass (when Thornden had in fact said it) and had it published. Cranmer was commanded to appear before the council and bring an inventory of his goods. 1563, p. 1479, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

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Elizabeth Young said that Scory had taught her doctrine. 1570, p. 2271, 1576, p. 1960, 1583, p. 2067.

John Scory was a participant in the Westminster disputation of 1559. 1563, p. 1717, 1583, p. 2119.

Foxe refers to his installation as bishop of Hereford after Elizabeth's accession. 1583, p. 2128.

 
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Nicholas Grimald

(1519 - 1562)

Poet and chaplain to Nicholas Ridley. Of Huntingdonshire. [DNB]

Grimald was imprisoned in the Marshalsea and visited by Hugh Weston, who urged him to recant his protestant beliefs. 1563, p. 1041; 1570, p. 1607; 1576, p. 1422; 1583, p. 1496.

He met Laurence Saunders when the martyr was being conveyed to Coventry for execution and refused to share Saunders's 'spiritual cup'. 1563, p. 1047; 1570, p. 1670; 1576, p. 1425; 1583, p. 1498.

On 25 February (1563) or 28 March (1570 onwards) Weston told John Bradford of Grimald's recantation. 1563, p. 1212, 1570, p. 1801, 1576, p. 1538, 1583, p. 1621.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Grimald had been cast into the Marshalsea. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

[Foxe refers to him as 'Grimoald' or 'Grymald'.]

 
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Richard Cox

(1500 - 1581)

Chaplain to Henry VIII, Archbishop Cranmer and Bishop Goodricke. Bishop of Ely (1559-1581). Exile during Mary's reign.[DNB]

Richard Cox was committed to the Marshalsea. 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, p. 1465.

A commission was sent to Kent to find out the truth about Cranmer's beliefs and the charges of heresy against him. The commission members were Dr Belhouse, Chauncellor Cox and Hussey the registrar. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1867.

During Careless' first examination, Martin claimed that Cox had refuted some of Careless' arguments. 1563, pp. 1529-35, 1570, pp. 2101-02.

Julins Palmer's first examination was by the mayor, with charges brought by Thomas Thackham (who had been in the teaching post that Palmer had taken). False witnesses against him were Cox, Cately and Downer. Foxe records the articles against him. 1570, pp. 2120-21, 1570, pp. 1842-43, 1583, pp. 1937-38.

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Richard Cox was a participant in the Westminster disputation of 1559. 1563, p. 1717, 1583, p. 2119.

[Also referred to as 'D. Cockes']

 
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Richard Turner

Curate to Ralph Morrice, Cranmer's secretary. [MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer (1996)]

Richard Turner was a minister in Kent and curate to Morrice. Complaints were made about his preaching. 1570, p. 2043, 1576, pp. 1761-62, 1583, pp. 1868-70.

A letter to Denny and Buttes was written by Moryce. Ralph Morrice was Turner's patron. 1570, pp. 2043-44, 1576, pp. 1762-63, 1583, pp. 1868-70.

Complaints about Richard Turner's sermons were made to Sir John Baker, Sir Christopher Hales, Sir Thomas Moyles. 1570, p. 2043, 1576, p. 1762, 1583, p. 1869.

Morrice got Moyle to hear one of Turner's sermons in Easter week, his rehearsal sermon in his parish at Westwell. Moyle heard him before noon and after noon on the Wednesday and approved. 1570, p. 2043, 1576, p. 1762, 1583, p. 1869.

Turner was told to recant the doctrine he had heard and taught in other countries. 1570, p. 2044, 1576, p. 1762, 1583, p. 1869.

Moyles appealed for Turner's release. 1570, p. 2044, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1869.

Buttes made suit to the king for Turner's release. He was retained as a loyal subject. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

 
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Robert Ferrar

(d. 1555)

Bishop of St David's (1547 - 1554) and martyr. [DNB]

Foxe gives a brief summary of Ferrar's career. Foxe calls him a double martyr because of the tribulations he endured in the reigns of both Edward VI and Mary. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, pp. 1121-22; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

Articles accusing Ferrar of various offences were sent to the privy council in 1551 by Hugh Rawlins and Thomas Lee. 1563, pp. 1055-58; 1583, pp. 1544-46. [These articles were summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.] Ferrar's answers to these articles are given in 1563, pp. 1088-93; 1583, pp. 1546-50). [These answers were summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.] Ferrar's exceptions to the witnesses against him and 'matters justificatory' against him are given in 1563, pp. 1093-96; 1583, pp. 1550-52. [These are summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.]

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Ferrar sent letters to the lord chancellor Thomas Goodrich defending himself and denouncing George Constantine and his other enemies. 1563, pp. 1096-98; 1570, pp. 1725-26; 1576, pp. 1472-80 [recte 1474]; 1583, pp. 1555-56.

Ferrar was imprisoned throughout the remainder of Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1098; 1583, p. 1553. [In 1570, p. 1722 and 1576, pp. 1470-71, Foxe states that Ferrar 'was deteined in custody under sureties' which is much closer to being correct. For proof that Ferrar was not imprisoned during Edward VI's reign, see Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), pp. 216-18.]

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Ferrar was imprisoned under Mary. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, p. 1553.

On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Ferrar was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ferrar and his fellow prisoners, John Bradford, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Ferrar was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Ovary's on 30 January 1555. He was not examined and was sent back to prison (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

He was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking that they allow protestant ministers to defend the Edwardian religious reforms in public debate (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Ferrar was sent to Carmarthen on 14 February 1555 for trial and execution. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1705 and 1722-23; 1576, pp. 1456 and 1471; 1583, pp. 1529 and 1553-54.

Ferrar's hearings and trial in Carmarthen, from 26 February to 11 March 1555, are recounted. 1563, pp. 1098-99; 1570, pp. 1723-24; 1576, pp. 1471-72; 1583, pp. 1554-55.

Ferrar was condemned and degraded on 13 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1099-1100; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for John Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

The night before he was transferred to Newgate he had a dream about the chain for burning him. He was transferred on the Saturday night / Sunday morning and burned at Smithfield the following Monday. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ferrar was executed in Carmarthen on 30 March 1555. 1563, p. 1100; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

He was mentioned in Bradford's letter to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar had been martyred. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Robert Ferrar was examined before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Richard Southwell and Gilbert Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

Dr Leyson refused to let him speak at the stake. 1563, p. 1736, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

[Also referred to as 'Farrer' and as 'Robert Menaven'. 'Menaven' is an abbreviation for the Latin name of Ferrar's diocese of St David's; as is the custom, Ferrar's signature was in Latin with his first name and the name of his diocese.]

 
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Rowland Taylor

(d. 1555)

Rector of Hadleigh. Martyr [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Rowland Taylor's life and early career. 1563, p. 1065; 1570, p. 1693; 1576, pp. 1445-6; 1583, pp. 1518-19.

[A letter from William Turner to John Foxe describing, among other things, Rowland's early life and background survives among Foxe's papers (BL, Harley 416, fols. 132r-133r). Foxe never printed this information].

Foxe recounts Taylor's conflict with catholics in Hadleigh; Taylor was summoned before Stephen Gardiner and refused to flee. 1563, pp. 1065-68; 1570, pp. 1693-95; 1576, pp. 1446-47; 1583, pp. 1519-20. [Note that this contradicts the next entry, in which the privy council orders Taylor's arrest in Hadleigh].

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The privy council ordered Sir Henry Doyle and one Foster to arrest Rowland Taylor and one Henry Alskewe (or Askew in Foxe) and bring them before the council on 26 March 1554 (1583, p. 1428, from APC 1554 - 1556, p. 3).

Taylor's first examination by Stephen Gardiner and deprivation of his livings: 1563, pp. 1068-71; 1570, pp. 1695-96; 1576, pp. 1447-48; 1583, pp. 1520-21.

On 6 May 1554, John Hooper wrote to Taylor and his fellow prisoners, Robert Ferrar, John Bradford and John Philpot,discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Taylor was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against a proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He wrote an account of his examination by Stephen Gardiner on 22 January 1555 and also wrote defending clerical marriage. 1563, pp. 1071-74; 1570, pp. 1696-99; 1576, pp. 1448-50; 1583, pp. 1520-21.

[An eyewitness account of Rowland Taylor's fourth and final examination, which Foxe did not print, is found in Foxe's papers: BL, Harley MS 590, fols. 64r-68r].

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Taylor and his fellow prisoners John Bradford, Robert Ferrar and John Philpot. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1428; 1583, pp. 1501-02.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Taylor was brought before Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

[An eyewitness account of Rowland Taylor's fourth and final examination, which Foxe did not print, is found in Foxe's papers: BL, Harley MS 590, fols. 64r-68r].

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His condemnation, degradation, last supper with his family and his will: 1563, pp. 1074-76; 1570, pp. 1699-1700; 1576, pp. 1450-51; 1583, pp. 1523-25.

His journey to Hadleigh and execution there on 9 February 1555: 1563, pp. 1076-80; 1570, pp. 1700-03; 1576, pp. 1451-54; 1583, pp. 1525-27.

He wrote a letter to Margaret Taylor. 1570, pp. 1703-05; 1576, pp. 1454-56; 1583, pp. 1527-29.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Stephen Knight and William Pygot claimed that they were taught their religious beliefs by Rowland Taylor. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

Rowland Taylor's martyrdom is referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

In a letter to Laurence Saunders, John Bradford stated that he should refer to the answers of both Taylor and Philpot when considering the plight of Saunder's friend, mentioned in Saunder's letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1195, 1570, p. 1815, 1576, p. 1550-51, 1583, p. 1633.

Rowland Taylor was mentioned in a letter by John Bradford to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Ridley, in a letter to John Bradford and others, expressed his joy at hearing the report of Dr Taylor and his godly confession. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Taylor made Robert Drakes a deacon, at the commandment of Thomas Cranmer. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Joan Waste said that the doctrine taught and sermons given by Dr Taylor were believed by Taylor and others to be a true doctrine. 1570, p. 2138, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1952.

 
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Sir John Cheke

(1514 - 1557)

Tutor to Edward VI, privy councillor under Edward VI. [DNB]

Sir John Cheke was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1567; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

Cheke was placed in the Tower on 28 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Actions were taken by Stephen Gardiner against Cheke. 1563, p. 1382, 1570, p. 1951, 1576, p. 1679, 1583, p. 1785.

When Cheke was in Germany he was greatly esteemed by the Germans. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

He travelled with Sir Peter Carew from High Germany to Brussels, having checked his route by the stars. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

He was famous for his knowledge of astronomy. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Cheke had safe passage from King Philip, with Lord Paget and Sir John Mas securing their safety. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

He arrived in Brussels to see the queen's ambassadors. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Having seen Paget safely off to England, Carew and Cheke were taken en route between Brussels and Antwerp. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Cheke was shipped to the Tower of London in dreadful conditions. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Feckenham spoke up in defence of Cheke. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Cheke recanted but was so remorseful that he became sick and died. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Nicholas Carre wrote a letter to John Cheke about Martin Bucer which was then passed on to Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2143, 1576, p. 1863, 1583, p. 1957.

[Also referred to as 'Sir John Cheeke']

 
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Thomas Ridley

(d. 1555?)

Friend of Nicholas Ridley. Of the Bull-head in Cheapside.

Grindal wrote to Nicholas Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Thomas Ridley, of the Bull-head in Cheapside, had also died. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

 
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Thomas Tomkins

(d. 1555)

Weaver and martyr

Thomas Tomkins' godly life and character are recounted. 1570, p. 1710; 1576, p. 1459; 1583, p. 1533.

Thomas Tomkins was mistreated (notably by having his beard forcibly shaven and his hand burned in a candle flame) while in Bonner's custody. 1563, pp. 1101-2 and 1733; 1570, pp. 1710-11; 1576, pp. 1459-60; 1583, pp. 1533-34.

Foxe mentions that Tomkins was examined by Bishop Bonner on 8 February 1555, and condemned on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1705; 1576, p. 1456; 1583, p. 1529.

He was examined on 8 February 1555 by Bishop Bonner. 1563, pp. 1102-3; 1570, p. 1711; 1576, pp. 1460-61; 1583, pp. 1534-35.

He was examined on 9 February 1555 by Bishop Bonner. 1563, p. 1103; 1570, pp. 1711-12; 1576, p. 1461; 1583, p. 1535.

He was condemned by Bishops Edmund Bonner, Gilbert Bourne and Henry Morgan on 9 February 1555. 1563, p. 1101; 1570, p. 1712; 1576, pp. 1461-62; 1583, p. 1535.

Tomkins was executed on 16 March 1555. 1563, p. 1103; 1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1462; 1583, p. 1535 [Foxe says 15 March in 1563, but corrects this in subsequent editions].

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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[NB: Although Foxe does not mention it, Tomkins was a member of a heretical conventicle which was detected in London in January 1545 (See Brigden, London , p. 388)].

[Not to be confused with the composer Thomas Tomkins.]

1753 [1729]

Queene Mary. Letters of Doct. Ridley Bish. of London.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. October.is so common to all, and also incurre the gylt of death and eternall damnation? Lord graunt that I may vtterly abhorre and detest this damnable agreement so long as I lyue. And because (I dare say) you wrote of friendshyp vnto me this short earnest aduertisement, and I thynke veryly, wishing me to lyue, and not to dye, therefore bearyng you in my hart no less loue in GOD, then you doe me in the worlde, I say vnto you in the worde of the Lord (and that I say to you, I say to all my friendes and louers in God) that if you do not confesse & maintayne to your power & knowledge that which is grounded vpon Gods worde, but will eyther for feare or gayne of the worlde, shrinke and play the * Marginalia* Apostata was he who fled from his captayne to the enemye. He was also so called that departed from the Christians to the Iewes and Gentiles.Apostata, in deede you shall dye the death: you know what I meane. And I beseeche you all my true frendes & louers in God, remember what I say, for this may be the last time peraduenture that euer I shall write vnto you.

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From Bocardo in Oxford, the. viij.
day of Aprill. 1555.

MarginaliaThe Summe of M Grindals letter to B. Ridley.M. Grindal now Archbishop of Canterbury, being in the tyme of exile in þe citie of Frankford, wrote to D. Ridley thē prisoner, a certaine Epistle,  

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Cattley/Pratt, VII, 433, fn 7

"A certain Epistle;" see "Letters of the Martyrs." London. 1837. page 34, - ED.

wherin first he lamenteth his captiuitie, exhorting him withall to be constant. Secondly he certifieth him of þe state of the English exiles being dispersed in Germany, and of the singuler prouidence of God in stirring vp the fauour of the Magistrates and rulers there towardes them. Thirdly, he writeth to know his minde and will concerning the printing of his booke agaynst Transubstantiation, and of certayne other treatises and his disputations. Wherunto Bishop Ridley answereth agayne in order, as foloweth.

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¶The aunsweare of Doctor Ridley to the letter abouesayd. 
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This letter was a response to a letter which Edmund Grindal, Ridley's close friend and protégé, had sent to Ridley from exile. (Grindal's letter is printed in Letters of the Martyrs, pp. 49-51, and in The Works of Nicholas Ridley, ed. Henry Christmas [Parker Society, 1841], pp. 386-88). Grindal's letter was dated 6 May 1554 and Ridley's reply, judging by a reference to the execution of John Cardmaker, was written in early June. This letter was first printed in Letters of the Martyrs (pp. 51-56) and was reprinted in the 1570 edition and all subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments. Bull and Foxe deleted an important section of this letter. ECL 260, fos. 114*r-115v is a copy of this letter.

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MarginaliaAn aunswere of B. Ridley to M. Grindals letter sent from Franckford.BLessed be God our heauēly father which enclined your hart to haue such a desire to write vnto me, & blessed be he againe which hath heard your request, & hath brought your letters safe vnto my handes: and ouer all this, I blesse him through our Lorde Iesus Christe, for the great comfort I haue receiued by the same, of the knowledge of your state, and of other our dearely beloued brethren and countreymen in those parties beyond the sea.

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Dearely beloued brother Grindall, I say to you and all the rest of our brethren in Christe with you, reioyce in the Lord, and as ye loue me and the other my reuerend fathers and concaptiues ( whiche vndoubtedly are Gloria Christi,) lament not our state, but I beseech you and them all to geue to our heauenly Father for his endlesse mercies and vnspeakeable benefits euen in the myddest of all our troubles geuen vnto vs, most harty thankes. MarginaliaExperience of Gods strength toward his Saintes in their imprisonment.For knowe ye, that as the weight of his crosse hath increased vpō vs, so he hath not nor doth not cease to multiply his mercies to strengthen vs, and I trust, yea by his grace I doubt nothing, but he will so do for Christe our Maisters sake, euen to the end. To heare that you and our other brethren doo finde in your exile fauour and grace with the Magistrates, Ministers, and Citizens, at Tigury, at Frankford, and other where, it doth greatly comfort (I dare say) all here that do in deede loue Christe and his true woorde. I ensure you it warmed my hart, to heare you by chaunce to name some, as Scory and Coxe. &c. 

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In his letter, Grindal had reported that John Scory was head of an English exile congregation at Emden and that Richard Cox was head of the English congregation at Frankfurt. (Letters of the Martyrs and The Works of Nicholas Ridley, ed. Henry Christmas [Parker Society, 1841], p. 387. Unfortunately only Bull's version of Grindal's letter survives; judging from the manuscript copy of Ridley's response, Bull deleted passages from Grindal's letter about the disputes in the English church at Frankfort).

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Oh that it had come in your mynde to haue sayd somewhat also of Cheeke, of Turner, of Leauer, of Sampson, of Chambers,  
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Actually Grindal may not have had much information on some of these old friends of Ridley. Sir John Cheke had been imprisoned at the start of Mary's reign but had been released in the spring of 1554 and arrived in Strasbourg on 14 April. He journeyed on, reaching Padua in July and would remain in Italy until the spring of 1555. William Turner had fled England in September 1553 and went to Emden and subsequently traveled throughout Germany. Thomas Sampson's movements are mysterious although he eventually arrived in Strasbourg. Thomas Lever, on the other hand, arrived in Frankfurt in February 1555 and took a prominent role in the disputes there. Richard Chambers, the moneyman for the Marian exiles, settled in Zurich in 1554, but his movements would have been known to Grindal.

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but I trust in God they be all well. And sir, seeyng you say, that there be in those parties with you of studentes and Ministers so good a number, nowe therefore care ye not for vs, otherwyse then to wish that Gods glory may be set forth by vs. For whensoeuer God shall call vs home (as we looke dayly for none other, but when it shal please God to say, come) you, blessed be God, are enough through his ayde, to light and set vp againe the lanterne of his worde in Englande.  
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At this point in the letter Bull and Foxe deleted passages from the letter in which Ridley disapproved strongly of John Knox's determination to use the Geneva liturgy rather than the Book of Common Prayer in the English congregation's services there. (ECL 260, fos.114*r-v. The deleted passages are printed in The Works of Nicholas Ridley, ed. Henry Christmas [Parker Society, 1841], pp. 533-35, although Christmas does not indicate that these passages were deleted from this letter). It is worth pointing out that Foxe himself was in Frankfurt at this time and was a prominent supporter of Knox (see the introduction to this edition on Foxe's life).

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As concerning the copies ye say ye haue with you, I wonder how euer they did and could find the way to come to you. My disputation, except he haue that whiche I gathered my selfe after the disputation done, I can not thynke ye haue it truly.  
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Grindal had informed Ridley that he had a copy of Ridley's answers in the Oxford disputation (Letters of the Martyrs, p. 50, and The Works of Nicholas Ridley, ed. Henry Christmas [Parker Society, 1841], p. 388). Ridley is saying that unless Grindal had Ridley's version of his answers the versions which Grindal did have were inaccurate.

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If ye haue that, then ye haue therwithall the whole maner after the which I was vsed in the disputation.

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As for the treatise in English. Contra transubstantiationem, vix possum adduci vt credam operæpretium fore vt in latinum transferatur. Cæterum quicquid sit nullo modo velim vt quicquam quocunq; modo meo nomine ederetur, donec quid de nobis dominus constituerit fieri, vobis prius certo constiterit: 

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Grindal had informed Ridley that he had a copy of Ridley's attack on transubstantiation (Letters of the Martyrs, p. 51, and The Works of Nicholas Ridley, ed. Henry Christmas [Parker Society, 1841], p. 388). Ridley wrote his answer to this in Latin because it was particularly sensitive. His reply reads: 'I can scarcely be persuaded to believe that it is worth translating into Latin. Moreover, whatever may happen, I wish that nothing be published in my name in any way until it is certainly known to you what it may have pleased God to determine be done to us'. What Ridley is saying is that he did not want any works published in his name until his fate was settled; the bishop feared that such publication might trigger reprisals against Cranmer, Latimer and himself.

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and thus much vnto your letters. Now although I suppose ye know a good parte of our state here (for we are

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forth commyng, euen as when ye departed. &c.) MarginaliaB. Ridley prisoner in the Tower halfe a yeare and more.You shall vnderstande that I was in the Towar about the space or two monethes close prisoner, and after that had graunted to me without my labour, the liberty of the Tower, and so continued about halfe a yeare, and then because I refused to allow the Masse with my presence, I was shut vp in close prison agayne.

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The last Lent saue one, it chaunsed by reason of the tumult styrred vp in Kent, 

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Wyatt's rebellion.

there was so many prisoners in the Tower, that my Lord of Canterbury, M. Latimer, Maister Bradford, and I were put altogether in one prison, MarginaliaCanter. Ridley, Latimer, Bradford, prisoners together in the Tower.where we remayned still almost to the nexte Easter, and then we three, Canterbury, Latimer and I, were sodenly sent a litle before Easter to Oxford, MarginaliaCanter. Ridley, Latimer, remoued to Oxford.and were suffered to haue nothing with vs, but that we caried vpon vs. About the Whitsontide followyng was our disputations at Oxford, after the which was all taken from vs, as pen and inke. &c. Our owne seruauntes were taken from vs before, and euery one had put to hym a straunge man, and we eche one appoynted to be kept in seuerall 
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Separate.

places, as we are vnto this day.

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Blessed be God, we three at the writing hereof, were in good health, and (in God) of good cheare. We haue looked long agoe to haue bene dispatched, for we were all three on one day within a day or two of our disputations, of D. Weston MarginaliaD. Weston condemner of Canter. Ridley, and Latimer.being the head Commissioner, condemned for heretikes, and since that tyme we remayne as we were of hym left. The Lordes will be fulfilled in vs, as I do not doubt, but by his grace it shal be to his glory, and our endles saluation through Iesus Christ our Lord.

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Likewise the Lord hitherto hath preserued aboue all our expectation, our deare brother, and in Christes cause a strong Champion Iohn Bradford. MarginaliaWrittes for the burning of Iohn Bradford called in agayne.He is likewyse condemned, and is already deliuered to the secular power, and writtes (as we haue heard say) geuen out for his execution, and called in agayne. Thus the Lord, so long as his blessed pleasure is, preserueth whom he listeth, notwithstanding the wonderfull raging of the world. Many (as we heare say) haue suffered valiauntly, confessyng Christes truth, and nothyng yeeldyng to the aduersary, yea not for the feare or paynes of death.

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MarginaliaNames of Martyrs.The names of them whiche I knewe, and haue nowe suffered, are these, Farrar the Bishop of S. Dauides, Hooper the Bishop of Worcester, Rogers tuus olim comprebendarius. 

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'Formerly your fellow prebendary'.

D. Tailour of Hadley, M. Sanders, and one Tomkins a weauer, and now this last day M. Cardmaker, with an other, were burnt in Smithfielde at London,  
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John Cardmaker and his fellow martyr John Warne were burned on 30 May 1555; this passage dates this letter to the early days of June.

and many other in Essex and Kent, whose names are written in the booke of lyfe, whom yet I do not know.

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MarginaliaThis West, when he had relented and sayd Masse agaynst his conscience, shortly after pined away and dyed for sorrow.West, your olde companion and sometyme myne officer (alas hath relented (as I haue heared) but the Lorde hath shortned his dayes, for anone he dyed and is gon. Grimbolde was caught by the heele and caste into the Marshalsey, but now is at liberty againe, but I feare me he escaped not without some becking and bowyng (alas) of his knee vnto Baall. 

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I.e., Grimoald recanted.

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My deare friende Thomas Ridley of the Bulhead in Cheape, which was to me the most faythfull friende that I had in my trouble, is departed also vnto God. My brother Shipside that hath maried my sister, hath ben almost halfe a yeare in prison, for deliuering (as he was accused) of certayne thynges, I wene, from mee: but now thankes be to God, he is at libertie agayne, but so that the Bishop hath taken from him his * Marginalia* Note how Boner here requited the kindnes of B. Ridley shewed to his mother.Parke.

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Of all vs three concaptiues at Oxford, I am kept most strait, and with least libertie, Vel quia viro in cuius ædibus, ego custodior, vxor dominatur (licet modo sit Prefectus ciuitatis) mulier vetula, morosa, & superstiosiss. quæ etiam hoc sibi laudi ducit quod me dicatur arctissime & caustissime custodire, vir autem ipse Irischius nomine, mitis satis est oībus, vxori vero plusquam obsequentiss. Licet vxorem (vti nosti) nunquam habuerim, tamen ex hac quotidiana consuetudine, quem cum istis coniugibus habeo, videor mihi nonnihil posse intelligere quam graue malum & intolerabile iugum sit cum mala muliere in coniugio collocari. Recte ergo sapiens dixit, vxor bona donum Dei: & iterum mulieris bonæ beatus vir. 

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The wise man is Solomon; Ridley is quoting Proverbs 19:14 and 31:28 in the Vulgate.

Vel hæc inquam causa est, vel quia á magnis magistratibus (nescio quas ob causas) illud est, vt ita fieret, ipsis mandatum: idq; illi si quando de mea nimia seruitute apud eos conqueror, sedulo sæpe rursus mihi inculcant.  
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The preceding paragraph, in translation, reads: 'either because the man in whose house I am detained, is dominated by his wife (even though he is the mayor), an old woman, bad-tempered and very superstitious, who takes it as praise for herself that she is said to guard me most strictly and with the greatest care. The man himself, who is named Irish, is on the other hand, easy-going enough but overly obedient to his wife. As you know, I have never had a wife, but from the daily association which I have had with this couple, I am able to understand somewhat how serious an evil and heavy a yoke it is to be joined in wedlock with a bad woman. Truly therefore has the wise man said, A good wife is the gift of God and again, blessed is the husband of a good woman. Whether it is for this reason, I say, or whether they have been commanded by higher powers, for whatever reason, when I complain about the severity of my imprisonment, it is a fact that [then] they frequently and zealously persecute me anew'.

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This unfair characterization of the Irishes is corrected by Carl I. Hammer, 'The Oxford Martyrs in Oxford: The Local History of their Confinements and Keepers', Journal of Ecclesiastical History 50 (1999), pp. 238-44. It also should be noted that Margaret Irish seems to have been genuinely distressed by Ridley's impending execution.

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MarginaliaAll the statutes of reformation in Cambridge broken, and all thinges reduced agayne into the olde state of Popery.At Cambridge (as I heare say) Omnes studiorum & statutorum reformationes nuper factæ, nunc sunt denuo deformatæ & deletæ, & omnia sunt in pristinum chaos & in antiquum papismum reducta: omnes collegiorum prefecti qui synceritati Euangelij fauebant, vel qui coniugati erant, loco moti sunt, & alij Papisticæ factionis in eorum loca surrogati, quod & de socijs collegiorum qui noluerunt flectere genu Baal factum esse audio. Nec mirum, nam & illud passim factum est in vniuerso

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regno
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