Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Charles V

Holy Roman Emperor (1500 - 1555) [H. Hillerbrand (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, 1996]

Stephen Gardiner was first sent to Rome and then to the emperor, with Edward Foxe, on behalf of Anne Bolyn in the matter of the king's divorce. 1570, p. 1951, 1576, p. 1679, 1583, p. 1785.

Cranmer's wife is mentioned as niece to the wife of Osiander. Cranmer was married while acting as the king's ambassador to Charles the emperor. 1563, p. 1478, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Edward Foxe

(d. 1538)

King's almoner. Provost of King's College (1528 - 1538) [DNB]

Alexander Seton and Edward Foxe lodged with Cressey while Thomas Cranmer was there and dined with him. The following day Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

Stephen Gardiner was first sent to Rome and then to the emperor, with Edward Foxe, on behalf of Anne Bolyn in the matter of the king's divorce. 1570, p. 1951, 1576, p. 1679, 1583, p. 1785.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Hugh Latimer

(1485 - 1555)

Bishop of Worcester (1535 - 1539). Martyr. Of Thirkeson, Leicester. [DNB]

Foxe relates Latimer's formative years. 1563, p. 1297, 1570, pp. 1903-04, 1576, p. 1630, 1583, p. 1730.

Hugh Latimer, the martyr, was the son of Hugh Latimer of Thirkeson, Leicestershire. 1563, p. 1297, 1570, p. 1903, 1576, p. 1630, 1583, p. 1730.

Latimer declaimed the work of Melancthon. 1563, p. 1297, 1570, p. 1903, 1576, p. 1630, 1583, p. 1734.

Foxe records a sermon Latimer preached at Cambridge in 1529. 1563, pp. 1298-1304, 1583, pp. 1731-35.

Foxe records another of Latimer's sermons, the subject of which was Turks. 1563, pp. 1304-07, 1583, pp. 1735-36.

Foxe records Latimer's sermon on how to play with certain cards. 1563, pp. 1298-1304, 1583, pp. 1731-34.

Buckenham, prior of the Black friars or Lady friars, attempted to show Latimer why scripture should not be in English by use of his cards. 1570, pp. 1903-04, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1734.

Dr Venetus, a Grey friar, berated Latimer in his sermons. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1734.

Latimer's adversaries are listed: bishop of Ely (preached against him in King's College), Dr Watson (Master of Christ's College), Dr Norton (Master of Clare), Dr Philo (Master of Michael House), Dr Metcalfe (Master of St John), Dr Blith (of the King's Hall), Dr Bullock (Master of Queen's College), Dr Palmes (Master of St. Nicholas hostel), Bayne, Rud and Greenwood of St John's, Brikenden of St John's also, and said to have been a scholar of Latimer's. 1563, p. 1307, 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

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Henry VIII appointed Richard Stokesley (Bishop of London), Stephen Gardiner (Bishop of Winchester), Richard Sampson (Bishop of Chichester), William Repps (Bishop of Norwich), Thomas Goodrich (Bishop of Ely), Hugh Latimer (Bishop of Worcester), Nicholas Shaxton (Bishop of Salisbury) and William Barlow (Bishop of St David's) to compose a book of ecclesiastical institutions called the Bishops' Book. 1563, p. 1472.

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Dr West preached against Latimer at Barwell Abbey. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Barnes, prior of the Augustine friars, licensed Latimer to preach to the friars. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Articles were gathered out of Barnes' sermon against Master Tyrell, fellow of King's Hall, 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer would walk and talk on 'Heretykes hyll' with Bilney. 1563, pp. 1307-08, 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer went with Bilney to visit prisoners in the Tower in Cambridge. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer and Bilney spoke to a woman in prison who was accused of killing her own child. Latimer spoke to Henry VIII after a sermon he gave at Windsor and tried to get the woman pardoned. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

The woman gave birth to another child and Latimer became godfather, Mistress Cheek godmother. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

Latimer and Bilney gave the woman spiritual counselling and eventually she was pardoned. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1735.

Dr Redman was an enemy of Latimer at Cambridge. 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, pp. 1735-36.

Foxe includes a copy in English and in Latin of a letter Latimer received from Dr Redman, who revoked him for the doctrine he taught, along with Latimer's brief response. 1563, p. 1308, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632 [English only], 1583, p. 1736.

Latimer subscribed to articles after three years' teaching and preaching at Cambridge. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, p. 1905, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1737.

Dr Buttes, the king's physician, housed Latimer while he was preaching in London. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer had been offered the benefice of West Kinton, Wiltshire, through the suit of Dr Buttes and Lord Cromwell. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer had been made bishop of Worcester, assisted by Cromwell and Buttes. 1570, p. 1907, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer refuted Dr Powell's articles. 1563, pp. 1309-11, 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1738.

Enemies of Latimer were Powell of Salisbury, Wilson of Cambridge, Hubberdin and Sherwood. 1563, p. 1311, 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer was called to appear before William Wareham (archbishop of Canterbury) and John Stokesley (bishop of London) on 29 January 1531. 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1738.

The wording in Tonstall's register seems to suggest that Latimer did subscribe. 1563, p. 1334, 1570, p.1907 , 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer was advanced to the post of bishop by Buttes and Cromwell. 1563, p. 1349, 1570, p. 1907, 1576, p. 1633., 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer told Morrice that the mayor had appointed him to preach at Easter. 1563, p. 1314, 1570, p. 1910, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer prayed for Dr Wilson and his countrymen who disliked Latimer. 1563, p. 1317, 1570, p. 1912, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

A friend of Latimer's told him that Wilson had gone to Beverley in Holdernesse and then on progress. 1563, p. 1317, 1570, p. 1912, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Latimer resigned his bishopric at the same time as Bishop Shaxton of Salisbury. 1563, p. 1353, 1570, p. 1907, 1576, p. 1634, 1583, p. 1740.

Articles were brought against Latimer. 1570, pp. 1926-28, 1576, pp. 1652-53, 1583, p. 1732.

Latimer was injured by a falling tree. He went to London for a remedy but was imprisoned in the Tower by the bishops in Edward's reign. 1563, p. 1353, 1570, p. 1908, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1738.

A justice in the diocese of Worcester bought land for his brother or for himself and and tried to have a poor man in the diocese damned. This man appealed to Latimer, who wrote to the gentleman about this. The gentleman later mended his ways and died prior to 1563. 1563, p .1353, 1570, p. 1908, 1576, pp. 1634-35, 1583, p. 1739.

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Latimer preached in Stamford before the duchess of Suffolk in London in convocation and in the garden before King Edward at court. 1563, p. 1353, 1570, p. 1908, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1739.

He prophecied that plagues would come in Queen Mary's reign. 1563, p. 1354, 1570, p. 1909, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1740.

He believed that preaching the gospel would cost him his life and that was why Winchester was imprisoned. 1563, p. 1354, 1570, p. 1909, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1740.

Articles were imputed to Latimer by Powell of Salisbury. 1563, p. 1654, 1570, p. 1906, 1576, p. 1633, 1583, p. 1739.

Hubberdin railed against Latimer and also railed against Luther, Melancthon, Zwingli, Frith, and Tyndale. Hubberdin danced in the pulpit. 1570, p. 1912, 1576, p. 1639, 1583, p. 1748.

On 4 September 1553, the privy council ordered Latimer to appear before them (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]; APC IV, p. 340).

On 13 September, Latimer appeared before the privy council and was committed to the Tower as a 'close prisoner' (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1704] - 1410]; APC IV, p. 345-46). [NB: Foxe did not reprint the description in the privy council register of Latimer's 'sedycious demeanour'].

Latimer was committed to the Tower on 17 September 1553 (1570, p. 1466; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1635). [Note that Foxe never corrected these inconsistent dates].

He was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, pp. 933 and 938; 1570, pp. 1593; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; 1583, p. 1430).

[There is a summary of Latimer's disputation on Wednesday 18 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, p. 934-35.]

Latimer disputed with Weston, Smith and the other catholic doctors on 18 April 1554 (1563, pp. 978-85; 1570, pp. 1622-27; 1576, pp. 1384-89; 1583, pp. 1454-59).

Latimer was summoned, together with Cranmer and Ridley, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant what he had said during the disputations. He was condemned and taken in custody by the bailiffs (1563, pp. 935-36; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, pp. 1393; 1583, pp. 1463-67).

He was brought out of the bailiff's house where he was being held, on 21 April 1554, to observe a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried a canopy over Weston. Latimer, however, thought he was about to be taken to execution and urged one Augustine Cooper to make a fire that would burn quickly. When he came to Carfax and understood that he was being taken to view the procession, Latimer refused to look at it and ran 'to one Spensers shop' (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, p. 1464).

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Foxe mentions Latimer's condemnation and disputation in passing in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Bullinger sent commendations to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554 (1570, p. 1692; 1576, p. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley from the Marshalsea(1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500).

The examination of Latimer and Ridley before White and Brookes took place on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from Cardinal Poole. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

Latimer appeared at a second session with Brookes and White on 1 October 1555. 1570, pp. 1930-33, 1576, pp. 1758-59.

Ridley was cast into Bocardo prison with Hugh Latimer. 1563, p. 1285, 1583, p. 1718.

There was a conference between Ridley and Latimer in prison upon the objection of Antoman. 1563, pp. 1285-94, 1583, pp. 1718-24.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Bullinger sent commendations to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554. 1570, p. 1692; 1576, p. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Latimer, Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley from the Marshalsea. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Foxe relates the behaviour of Ridley and Latimer at their martyrdom. 1563, pp. 1376-79, 1570, pp. 1937-39, 1576, pp. 1661-62, 1583, p. 1769.

Foxe records Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which Ridley makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1556 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Letters. 1563, pp. 1314-17, 1321-25, 1333-34, 1344-48, 1349-53, 1570, pp. , 1576, pp. , 1583, pp. 1736-37, 1741-42, 1745-56.

Hugh Latimer presented a new year's gift to Henry VIII. 1563, p. 1734.

Foxe includes one of Latimer's card sermons. 1583, p. 2142.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley

(d. 1555) (DNB)

Bishop of London (1550 - 1553). Martyr. [DNB]

Nicholas Ridley gave John Rogers a prebend in St Paul's (1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484).

He led the bishops who compelled John Hooper to wear vestments at his consecration. Ridley wrote a letter to Hooper apologising for this in Mary's reign (1563, pp. 1050-2; 1570, pp. 1676-7; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5).

He preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, at the behest of the privy council, supporting Jane Grey's claim to the throne. After Mary's accession Ridley visited the queen at Framlingham and was arrested (1563, p. 903; 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; and 1583, p. 1408).

He was engaged, over dinner with John Feckenham and Sir John Bourne, in a debate on the nature of the eucharist. An account of the debate, 'penned with his own hand,' is first printed in 1563, (1563, pp. 928-31; 1570, pp. 1589-91; 1576, pp. 1356-58; and 1583, pp. 1426-28). There is no earlier printed version or manuscript of the exchange.

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Ridley was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, p. 933 and 937-38; 1570, p. 1593; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; 1583, pp. 1429-30).

[NB: There is a summary of Ridley's disputation on Tuesday 17 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, pp 933-34].

Ridley disputed with Richard Smith and the other catholic doctors on 17 April 1554 (1563, p. 957-78; 1570, pp. 1606-22; 1576, pp. 1370-84; 1583, pp. 1441-54).

Ridley's preface to his account of the disputation is 1563, pp. 956-57 and (in a differently worded version) 1570, p. 1632; 1576, pp. 1392-93; 1583, p. 1463.

Ridley's conclusion to his account of the Oxford disputations is printed (only) in 1563, p. 978.

Ridley wrote to Weston protesting the conduct of the 1554 Oxford disputations and demanding that Ridley's written responses to the three propositions be shown to the higher house of convocation (1563, p. 977; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, pp. 1393-94; 1583, p. 1464).

The queen's letter ordering Ridley, together with Cranmer and Latimer, to be held in the custody of the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford during the disputation is printed in 1563, p. 999.

He was summoned, together with Cranmer and Latimer, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant what he had said during the disputations. He was condemned and taken to the sheriff's house (1563, pp. 935-38; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, pp. 1463-64).

On 21 April 1554, Ridley was compelled to observe, having been brought from the sheriff's house, a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried a canopy over Weston (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, p. 1464).

Ridley wrote a letter to Cranmer, which was sent together with copies of his account of the disputation and news of recent developments (1570, pp. 1633-34; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, pp. 1464).

Foxe mentions Ridley's condemnation and disputation in passing in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469.

In a letter of 10 October 1554, Heinrich Bullinger asked John Hooper to pass his commendations toRidley, Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer (1570, p. 1692; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Ridley was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ridley, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer from the Marshalsea(1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97).

Foxe describes Ridley's character. 1563, p. 1283, 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

John Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Ridley called Bradford to take the position of deacon and, at Bradford's willing, ordered him deacon. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He led the bishops who compelled John Hooper to wear vestments at his consecration. Ridley wrote a letter to Hooper apologising for this in Mary's reign. 1563, pp. 1050-2; 1570, pp. 1676-7; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5.

In a letter of 10 October 1554, Heinrich Bullinger asked John Hooper to pass his commendations to Ridley, Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer. 1570, p. 1692; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Ridley was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms. 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ridley, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer from the Marshalsea.1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Foxe recounts the life of Ridley. 1563, pp. 1283-96, 1570, pp. 1895-96, 1576, pp. 1623-24, 1583, pp. 1717-30.

Ridley was kind to Heath, archbishop of York during Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley was kind to Edmund Bonner's mother. She would dine at Ridley's manor in Fulham with Ridley and Mistress Mungey, Bonner's sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley's sister and her husband, George Shipside, were also kind to Bonner's mother and sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1717-18.

Ridley was converted through the reading of Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

After Mary's accession, Ridley was kept first in the Tower, then in the Bocardo in Oxford, and then held in custody at Master Irish's house until his death. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley was cast into Bocardo prison with Hugh Latimer. 1563, p. 1285, 1583, p. 1718.

A conference took place between Ridley and Latimer in prison on the objections of Antonian, in other words, those of a popish persecutor, such as Winchester. 1563, pp. 1285-94, 1583, pp. 1718-24.

Letters of Ridley. 1570, pp. 1896-1902, 1576, pp. 1624-30, 1583, pp. 1724-30.

A letter was sent by Ridley to West, in which Ridley asked West and also Dr Harvey to remember their promises to him. Foxe also includes West's letter and Ridley's response. 1570, pp. 1900-01, 1576, pp. 1627-28, 1583, pp. 1728-29.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. He mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. He had heard that West had relented, and Grimald been cast into the Marshalsea. He had also heard that Thomas Ridley, of the Bull-head in Cheapside, had died. He had heard that his brother-in-law, Shipside, had spent much time in prison but was now released. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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The examination of Ridley and Latimer by White (Lincoln) and Brookes (Gloucester) took place on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from Cardinal Poole. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

A communication took place between Ridley and Brookes in Irish's house on 15 October, on which day he was degraded, and at which Edridge ('reader then of the Greek lecture') was present.. 1563, pp. 1374-76, 1570, pp. 1934-35, 1576, pp. 1659-60, 1583, pp. 1768-69.

Ridley had a discussion with Brookes on 16 October, on which day he was degraded. 1563, pp. 1374-76.

Foxe recounts the behaviour of Ridley at supper the night before he was martyred. 1563, pp. 1376-79, 1570, pp. 1936-37, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Foxe recounts the behaviour of Ridley and Latimer at their martyrdom. 1563, pp. 1376-1379, 1570, pp. 1937-39, 1576, pp. 1661-62, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley gave his gown and tippet to Shipside. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley gave a new groat to Henry Lea. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley spoke with Lord Williams before his martyrdom. 1563, p. 1379, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1662, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley's friendly farewell. 1563, pp. 1379-81, 1570, pp. 1939-43, 1576, pp. 1622-28, 1583, pp. 1770-76.

Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Cranmer was confirmed in his reformist beliefs after conference with Ridley. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1556 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

In the third year of Edward's reign, Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Robert Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Letter to Augustine Bernher [BL, Harley 416, fo.16v. Printed in LM, p. 72 et seq. Also in 1570, p. 1902 et seq.].

Letter to Augustine Bernher [BL Harley 416, fos.17v and 32r. Not printed in Foxe or LM].

Letter to Bernher [BL Harley 416, fo.32r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letter to Bradford. [BL Harley 416, fo.32v. Printed in LM, pp. 62 et seq. and 1570, p. 1897 et seq.]

Foxe records Nicholas Ridley's writings against idolatry. 1583, pp. 2128-31.

Lord Dacre would have paid a ransom to Mary for his kinsman Nicholas Ridley's life if it were possible but she refused. 1563, p. 1733, 1583, p. 2131.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Cromwell

(1485?-1540)

Earl of Essex (1540). Vicegeneral of Spiritual Affairs, Lord Privy Seal, lawyer (1523), MP (1524), member of Gray's Inn (1525). (DNB; Bindoff; G. R. Elton, The Tudor Revolution in Government [Cambridge, 1953])

Dr Buttes, the king's physician, housed Latimer while he was preaching in London. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer was offered the benefice of West Kinton, Wiltshire, through the suit of Dr Buttes and Lord Cromwell. 1563, p. 1309, 1570, pp. 1905-06, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Latimer was made bishop of Worcester, assisted by Cromwell and Buttes. 1570, p. 1907, 1576, p. 1632, 1583, p. 1738.

Cromwell's character is compared to that of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 1382, 1570, p. 1951, 1576, p. 1679, 1583, p. 1785.

Cromwell was sent with Norfolk and Somerset to dine with Cranmer at Lambeth. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1862.

Complaints were sent to Cromwell about a priest who was a relative of Chersey of London. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1863.

The priest was sent to the Fleet. Cromwell forgot about him and eventually sent him to Cranmer. Cranmer in time spoke to the priest and set him free. 1570, pp. 2036-38, 1576, pp. 1756-57, 1583, pp. 1863-64.

After Cromwell was apprehended, bishops Heath and Skip forsook Cranmer and stood against him. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, pp. 1865-66.

Cromwell was suspected of protecting John Frith when Frith was imprisoned in the Tower for speaking against the writings of Sir Thomas More. 1583, p. 2126.

Lewes told Richard Wilmot that there had been troubles since the Bible was translated into English, that Crome was a heretic and then falsely accused Cromwell of biblical translation. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

 
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Bury St Edmunds

[St Edmundsbury; Berry; Bery]

West Suffolk

OS grid ref: TL 855 645

Contains a ruined abbey, the shrine of St Edmund

1809 [1785]

Queene Mary. The lyfe and story of Gardiner B. of Winchester.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. October.and made like vnto Christes glorious body, and that by þe power wherby he is able to subdue vnto himselfe al thinges. Then, that which is now corruptible, shall be made incorruptible: that nowe is vile, shall then bee made glorious, that is now weake, shal rise then mighty and strong that is grosse and carnall shall be made fine and spirituall for then we shal see and haue the vnspeakable ioy and fruition of the glorious maiestie of our Lord euen as he is.

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Who or what then shall let vs to ieoparde, to ieopard? 

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'Let us to jeopard', i.e., prevent us from risking.

yea, to spende this lyfe whiche wee haue here, in Christes cause? in our Lorde God his cause? O thou therefore man of God, thou þt art loden, & so letted  
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Burdened.

like vnto a great bellied woman, that thou canst not flie the plague, yet if thou lust after suche things as I haue spoken of, stand fast what soeuer shall befall, in thy maysters cause: and take this thy letting to flye, for a calling of God to fight in thy mayster Christ his cause. MarginaliaNothing happeneth without Gods foresight.Of this be thou certaine, they can do nothing vnto thee, whiche thy father is not aware of, or hath not foreseene before: they can do no more thē it shal please hym to suffer them to do for the furtheraunce of his glory edifying of his Church, and thine owne saluation. Let thē then do what they shall, seeing to thee (O man of God) all thinges shall be forced to serue, and to worke with thee vnto the best before God. O be not afrayd and remember the end.

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All this whiche I haue spoken for the comforte of the lamentable case of the man whome Christ calleth greate bellied woman, I meane to bee spoken of likewyse to the captiue and prisoner in Gods cause: for suche I counte to be as it were already summoned and pressed to fight vnder the banner of the crosse of Chryste, and as it were souldiours allowed and taken vp for the Lordes warres, to do their Lorde and mayster good and honourable seruice, and to sticke to him, as men of trusty seruice in hys cause, euen vnto death, and to thinke their lyfe lost in his cause, is to win it in eternal glory for euermore.

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Therfore, nowe now to conclude and to make an end of thys treatise, I say vnto all that loue God our heauenly father that loue Christ Iesus our redeemer and sauioure: þt loue to follow the wayes of the holy Ghost whiche is our comforter and sanctifier of all: vnto al that loue Christs spouse and bodye, the true catholicke Churche of Christe, yea that loue lyfe and theyr owne soules health: I say vnto al these hearken my deare breathren and sisters, all you that be of God, of all sortes, ages, dignities, or degrees: hearken to the word of our sauiour Iesus Christ spoken to his Apostles, and meant to all his in S. Mathewes Gospel: Feare not them whiche kill the body, for they cannot kil þe soule: but feare hym more which may destroy and cast both body and soule into hell fire, Are not two small sparrowes sold for a mite, and one of them shall not fall or light vpon the ground without your father? All the heares of your head be numbed. Feare them not, you are much more worthe then are the litle sparrowes. Euery one that confesseth me before men, him shal I likewise confesse before my Father which is in heauen. But who soeuer shall deny me before men, I shall deny him likewise before my father which is in heauen. MarginaliaMath. 10.

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The Lord graunt vs therfore of his heauenlye grace and strengthe, that here wee maye so confese him in thys world amongst this adulterous and sinneful generation, that he may confesse vs agayne at the latter day before hys father whiche is in heauē, to his glory and our euerlasting comfort, ioy and saluation.

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To our heauenly Father, to our sauiour and redemer Iesus Christ, and to the holy Ghost, be all glory and honour now and for euer. Amen.

Thus with the deathe and martyrdome of these two learned Pastorsr and constant souldiours of Christ, mayster Latimer, and B. Ridley, you haue dyuers of theyr letters and other writinges of theirs expressed, with þe Farewels also of B. Ridley, wherein he tooke hys leaue of the world, taking hys iourny to the kingdome of heauen. Diuers and sondry other treatises of his remayne also in my hand both in Latine and English, to be remembred, by þe leaue of the Lorde in time and place conuenient. 

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Note that Foxe changed this passage in the 1583 edition, deleting the reference to his planned appendix of the writings of the martyrs. By this time, the planned appendix had been abandoned.

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The death and end of Stephen Gardiner Byshop of Winchester. 
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The Death of Stephen Gardiner

The account of Gardiner's character and career first appeared in the 1563 edition along with Ridley's treatise on the theological differences between Gardiner and other catholics. In the 1570 edition, Foxe expanded this account with a diatribe of his own on Gardiner's inconstancy. He also moved Gardiner's sermon from Book IX, where it had been placed in the 1563 edition, to here. He also added quotations from Gardiner's works which appeared to attack catholic doctrines, and William Turner's attack on Gardiner. Enzinas?s letter describing Gardiner's hostile reception at Louvain was also moved from Book IX, where it had been printed, to this section of the book. There was no changemade to this material in 1576, but in 1583, material was added to show Henry VIII's distrust of Gardiner. Another account of Stephen Gardiner's death was also added to this edition.

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MarginaliaThe death of Steuen Gardiner, enemy to Gods word.THe next moneth, after the burning of Doctor Ridley and mayster Latimer, which was the moneth of Nouember, Stephen Gardiner Byshop and Chauncelloure, a man hated of God and all good men, ended hys wretched lyfe. MarginaliaNouember.Concerning the quallities, nature, and disposition of which man, for somuch as somewhat hath bene declared before in the storye of kinge Edwardes raygne, I shall neede therefore the lesse now to stand greatly vpon the same. First this Vipers byrd crept out of the towne

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of Bery in Suffolke, brought vp most parte of his youth in Cambridge, his wit, capacitie, memorye, and other indumentes of nature not to bee complayned of, if he hadde wel vsed and rightly applyed the same: wherein ther was no great want of Gods part in hym, if hee had not rather hymselfe wanted to þe goodnes of his gifts. Through this promptnes, 

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Readiness, energy.

actiuitie, & towardnes  
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Willingness to learn.

of hys, he profited not a little in such studyes as he gaue hys head vnto, as first in the law ciuil, then in languages and such other like, especially in those artes and faculties, which had any prospect to dignitie and preferment to be hoped for. Besides other ornaments or helpes of nature, memory chiefly seemed in hym very beneficiall, rather then dilligence of study.

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MarginaliaThe vices of Winchester described.To these giftes and quallities were ioyned agayne is great or greater vices, which not so much followed hym as ouertooke him, not so muche burdened hym, as made hym burdenous to the whole realme. Hee was of a proude stomacke 

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Of a proud spirit.

and high minded, in hys owne opinion and conceit flattering himselfe to much, in wit, crafty and subtile, towarde his superiour flattering and faire spoken to hys inferiours fierce, agaynst hys equall stoute  
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Proud, arrogant, haughty (OED).

and enuious, namely if in iudgement and sentence he any thyng withstoode hym, as appeared betweene the good Lorde Crōwell and hym in the raygne of kyng Henry, being of like hautinesse of stomacke, as the Poets wryte of Pelides, Cedere nescius. 
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Cattley/Pratt, VII, 585, fn 1

Hor. Od. lib. i. Ode vi. - ED.

Who although would geue no place to men yet notwtstanding I wish he woulde haue geuen place to truth, according as he semed not altogether ignorant of þe truth. What his knowledge was therin, it is euident partly to vnderstand as wel by his book De vera obedientia, 
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Stephen Gardiner, De vera obedientia (London, 1535), STC 11584. This work argued that the English king, and not the pope, was the legitimate head of the English church. It was frequently cited by protestants as proof of Gardiner's opportunism and lack of principle.

 
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Cattley/Pratt, VII, 585, fn 2

Stephani Winton. Episc. De Verâ Obedientiâ Oratio; 1535. An edition appeared, also bearing the imprint of Hamburg in 4to, and another in 8vo. at Strasburg, both in 1536. See Dibdin's Typogr. Ant. III. 292; Panzer's Annales Typogr. VII. 118; Schelhorn's Amænit. Eccles. I. 837; and Mr. Stevens' Memoirs of Bradford for a translation, Append. LXIV. &c. - ED.

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as also by his sermon before king Edward: also by his aunsweres to þe Councell the same time, 
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Gardiner's answers to the articles the privy council charged against him in 1550 are printed in 1563, pp. 755-68; 1570, pp. 1524-32; 1576, pp. 1300-06 and 1583, pp. 1550-06.

and moreouer by hys own wordes may be gathered in sundrye places, as more playnly may appeare by that whiche hereafter followeth,  
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See 1563, pp. 1384-86; 1570, pp. 1956-59; 1576, pp. 1683-86 and 1583, pp. .

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Vpon hys estimation and fame he stoode to too muche more then was meete for a man of hys coate and callynge, whose profession was to be crucified vnto the world, whiche thing made him so stiffe 

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Stubborn, obstinate.

in mayntayning that hee had once begon to take vpon hym. I will not heare speake of þt which hath bene constantly reported to me, touching the monstrous making & mishaped fashion of hys feete and toes, the nayles wherof were sayd not to bee like to other mens, but to crooke downeward, and to be sharpe lyke þe clawes of rauening beastes.  
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Foxe derived this colourful, if spurious, piece of gossip from John Ponet, A shorte treatise of politike power (Strasburg, 1556), STC 20178, sig. I4r. Notice thatFoxe does not say that this information is true, he merely repeats it by saying that he will not repeat it.

What hys learning was in þe Ciuil and Canon law, I haue not to say. MarginaliaWinchester not worthy the title of a learned man.What it was in other liberal sciences and artes thys I suppose, þt neyther hys continuance in study, nor diligence of readynge was such (by reason of hys to muche intermedling in Prynces matters) as could truely wel merite vnto hym þe title of a deepe learned man. But what learning or cunning soeuer it was he had, so it fared in him, as it dothe in Butchers, whiche vse to blow vp theyr flesh: 
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Unscrupulous butchers sometimes increased the apparent size of their wares by inflating the entrails.

euen so he with boldnes and stoutnes, and speciallye with authoritie made those giftes that he had to appeare much greater then they were in very deede. Wherunto vse peraduēture also & experiēce abroad brought no little helpes, rather then eyther quicknes of wit, or happines of education.

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And as touching Diuinitie, he was so variable wauering with time, that no constant censure can be geuē what to make of hym. If hys doynges and writinges were accordinge to hys conscience, no man can rightly saye whether he was a right protestant or Papist. If hee wrote otherwise then he thought, for feare, or to beare with tyme then was he a double deep dissēbler before God and man, to say & vnsay, to write and vnwrite, to sweare and forsweare so as hee did. MarginaliaThe mutability of Steuen Gardiner in religion.For first in the beginning of queene Annes 

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I.e., Anne Boleyn.

tyme, who was so forward or so busy in the matter of the kings diuorce as Ste. Gard. who was first sent to Rome and then to the Emperour with Edward Foxe, as chiefe agent in the behalfe of Lady Anne.  
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Foxe's account is confused here. Gardiner was sent on two missions to Clement VII, one in 1528 and one in 1529, as part of Henry VIII's efforts to secure a divorce from Catherine of Aragon. But Gardiner was not sent on an embassy to Charles V until 1540, years after Anne Boleyn was dead, and the purpose of this embassy had nothing to do with advancing the protestant cause.

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By whome also he was preferred to the Bishopricke of Winchester, & Ed. Boner was preferred  
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Cattley/Pratt, VII, 586, fn 1

"'Preferred' by the lord Cromwell." Edit. 1570. - ED.

to þe Bishoprick of Londō. Agayn, at the abolishing of the Pope, who so ready to sweare, or so vehement to write agaynst the Pope as he, as not onely by hys sermons, but also by his booke De obedientia may appeare. In whiche booke De obedientia, least any shuld thinke him drawne thereunto otherwise then by his own consent, he playnly declareth how not rashly nor vppon a sodeine, but vppon a long deliberation and aduisement in hymselfe about the matter, he at length vttered hys iudgement: Whereof read before. And moreouer so hee vttered his iudgement in wryting agaynst the vsurped supremacie of the Pope, that comming to Louane, MarginaliaTouching the doinges of Winchester at Louane, reade the letter of Driander to Crispine.afterwarde hee was there accompted for a person excommunicate, and a schismaticke, in so much that he was not permitted in their Church to say Masse, and moreouer in their publicke sermons they openly cryed out agaynst hym. Whereof read hereafter following.

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And
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