Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
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Names and Places on this Page
John CardmakerRichard Woodman
 
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John Cardmaker

(d. 1555)

Franciscan friar. Vicar of St Bride's, London. Chancellor of Wells. Martyr. [DNB]

In 1554 Cardmaker attempted to flee England with his bishop, William Barlow, but both were arrested and imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, p. 1141; 1570, p. 1749; 1576, p. 1494; 1583, p. 1578.

On 9 November 1554 he was brought before the Star Chamber and then put in the Fleet (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

He was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Ovary's on 28 January 1555. Cardmaker submitted to Gardiner (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Barlow and Cardmaker appeared to be ready to recant. Cardmaker was imprisoned in the Counter in Bread Street where he had a 'Christian and comfortable conference' with Laurence Saunders who had been sent there after being condemned by Gardiner; Saunders persuaded Cardmaker not to recant. Thomas Martin and other catholics urged Cardmaker to recant. 1570, p. 1047; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500; also see 1563, pp. 1141-42; 1570, p. 1750; 1576, pp. 1494-95; 1583, p. 1578.

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Articles presented to Cardmaker by Bishop Bonner on 24 May 1555 and Cardmaker's answers are recorded. 1563, pp. 1142-43; 1570, pp. 1750-51; 1576, p. 1495; 1583, pp. 1578-79.

Foxe records Cardmaker's confession of faith 1563, pp. 1143-1135 [recte 1145].

Beard visited Cardmaker in Newgate a few days before Cardmaker's execution and tried to persuade him to recant; Cardmaker refused. 1570, p. 1754; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1581.

Cardmaker wrote a letter to a friend, denying that he had recanted. 1570, pp. 1753-54; 1576, p. 1498; 1583, p. 1581.

Cardmaker was executed on 30 May 1555. 1563, p. 1142; 1570, pp. 1751-52; 1576, pp. 1496-97; 1583, pp. 1579-80.

Stephen Gardiner told John Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Cardmaker sent greetings to John Bradford via the servant of an unnamed gentlewoman. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

When examined by Bonner, John Leafe (who was burned with John Bradford) denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a 'scholer' of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Copy of his submission. [BL Harley 421, fo.39v. Not printed in AM or LM. Gingerly described in 1563, p. 1141 et seq.]

[Alias Taylor.]

 
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Richard Woodman

(at least 1524 - 1557)

Ironmaker. Martyr. Of Warbleton, Sussex. Imprisoned with John Philpot.

Woodman is mentioned by Story at Philpot's first examination as a 'fellow' of Philpot, loving scripture. 1563, p. 1390; 1570, p. 1962; 1576, p. 1689; 1583, p. 1796.

Woodman was apprehended for challenging Fairebank [once a married priest, of Warbleton] for preaching differently under Mary from what he had preached under Edward VI. 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, pp. 1983-84.

He was brought before John Ashbornham, Master Tonston, Master Culpepper, and Master Roberts [all JPs for Sussex] who sent him to the King's Bench. 1563, p. 1573, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

He remained in the King's Bench for over 18 months (from June 1557), from whence he was transferred by Story to Bonner's coalhouse, where he remained for one month before examination. 1563, p. 1573, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

He answered courageously at his examinations. 1563, p. 1573, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

He was released from Bonner on 18 December only to be re-apprehended, thanks to his father, brother, kinsfolk and friends. 1563, p. 1573, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

He remained in the coalhouse for another eight weeks. 1563, p. 1573, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

He was examined a further six times, making a total of 32 examinations before he was condemned. 1563, p. 1573, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Foxe records Woodman's account of his appearance before the sheriffs on 15 March 1556 and before the bishop of Chichester at Blackfriars, followed by his examinations. 1563, pp. 1574-76, 1570, pp. 2171-74, 1576, pp. 1875-77, 1583, pp. 1984-85.

Woodman's own brother delivered him to the authorities. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Woodman was married with children. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Woodman's neighbours were Cardillar and James Gage. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Gage and his men arrived at Woodman's house late at night to seize him, having already seized two of his children. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Woodman hid in a secret place in his house, after which his wife let the men who were searching for him enter. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Woodman was found. He tried to escape but fell into a hole and was captured by 'Parker the Wild'. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

John Fauconer berated Woodman, saying that he was no angel (an accusation had been made by parishioners that he had said he was an angel). 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Woodman's brother-in-law George Beching was worried that Woodman might have thought that he had betrayed him, but Woodman told him that he did not suspect him. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

A pewterer from Lewes turned against Woodman. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Woodman's first examination before Christopherson, Story, Cooke and others took place on 14 April 1557. 1563, pp. 1573-79, 1570, p. 2174-78, 1576, pp. 1877-81, 1583, pp. 1986-89.

After his first examination, Woodman was taken by the sheriffs to Cooke's house, from whence he was taken to the sheriff's prison in Southwark. 1563, pp. 1579-82, 1570, p. 2178, 1576, p. 1881, 1583, p. 1992.

Woodman's second examination before Christopherson and two of his chaplains, as well as Story, took place on 27 April 1557. 1563, pp. 1582-87, 1570, pp. 2178-82, 1576, pp. 1881-84, 1583, pp. 2089-92.

Woodman's third examination was before Alban Langdale and Master James Gage at Montague's house, beside St Mary Overy's, Southwark, on 12 May 1557. Gage, the sheriff, was also present. 1563, pp. 1582-87, 1570, p. 2182-88, 1576, pp. 1884-89, 1583, pp. 1992-97.

Woodman's fourth examination took place before White (Winchester), Griffith (Rochester), a certain doctor and others on 25 May 1557. 1563, pp. 1596-99, 1570, pp. 2188-90, 1576, pp. 1889-90, 1583, pp. 1997-99.

Woodman's fifth examination took place before Winchester, Nicholas Harpsfield, Langdale, a fat-headed priest, and many others at St Mary Overy's church on 15 June 1557. 1563, pp. 1599-1601, 1570, pp. 2190-92, 1576, pp. 1890-92, 1583, pp. 1999-2000.

The sixth and last examination of Woodman took place before Chichester, Roper, Nicholas Harpsfield, the fat priest, Winchester and others. 1563, 1599-1601, 1570, p. 2192-94, 1576, p. 1892-93, 1583, pp. 2000-02.

Woodman wrote a letter to Mistress Roberts of Hawkhurst. 1563, pp. 1571-72, 1570, pp. 2194-95, 1576, pp. 1893-95, 1583, pp. 2002-03.

He was burned at Lewes on 22 June 1557. 1563, p. 1602, 1570, p. 2195, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2003.

1820 [1796]

Queene Mary. The first examination of M. Iohn Philpot, Martyr.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. October.to view me among other that there were, & passing by me sayd: MarginaliaD. Storyes wordes to M. Philpot.Ha M. Philpot, and in returnyng immediately agayne, stayed against me, beholdyng me, and saying, that I was well fed in deed.

Philpot. If I be fat and in good liking (M. Doctor) it is no maruell, since I haue bene stalled vp in prison this twelue months and a halfe, in a close corner. I am come to know your pleasure wherfore you haue sent for me.

Story. We heare that thou art a suspect person, and of hereticall opinions, and therfore we haue sent for thee.

MarginaliaIohn Philpot imprisoned for the disputation in the Conuocation house.Phil. I haue bene in prison thus long, only vpon the occasion of disputation made in the Conuocation house, and vpon suspect of settyng foorth the report thereof. 

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This suspicion was justified; there is no doubt that John Philpot was the author of The trew report of the disputacyon had in the convocacyon hows at London (Emden: 1554), STC 19890. Significantly, Philpot does not actually deny his authorship of the work.

Story. If thou wilt reuoke the same, and become an honest man, thou shalt be set at liberty, and do right well: or els thou shalt be committed to the Bish. of London. How saiest thou, wilt thou reuoke it or no?

Phil. I haue alredy answered in this behalfe to myne Ordinarie. 

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The bishop who had jurisdiction over an accused heretic because the accused resided in his diocese. In Philpot's case, this was Stephen Gardiner, the bishop of Winchester.

Story. If thou answerest thus when thou commest before vs auone, thou shalt heare more of our myndes: and with this he went into the Parler, and I within a little whyle after, was called in.

The Scribe. Sir, what is your name?

Phil. My name is Iohn Philpot. And so he intituled 

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Transcribed.

my name.

Story. This man was Archdeacon of Winchester of Doct. Poinets presentment.

Phil. I was Archdeacon in deed, but none of his presentment, but by vertue of a former aduouson geuen by my L. Chancellor that now is.

Story. Ye may be sure that my L. Chauncellor would not make any such as he is Archdeacon.

Roper. Come hither to me M. Philpot. We heare say that you are out of the catholike church, and haue ben a disturber of the same: out of the which who so is, hee cannot be the chyld of saluation. Wherfore, if you will come into the same, you shall be receiued and finde fauour.

Phil. I am come before your worshipfull Maisterships at your apointmēt, vnderstanding that you are magistrates authorised by the Queenes maiesty, to whom I owe and wil do my due obedience to the vttermost. Wherfore I desire to know what cause I haue offended in, wherefore I am now called before you. And if I cānot be charged with any particuler matter done contrary to the lawes of this Realme, I desire your maisterships that I may haue the benefit of a subiect, and be deliuered out of my long wrongfull imprisonment, MarginaliaIohn Philpot lying in prison a yeare and a halfe before he was called to his aunswere. No particular matter agaynst M. Philpot but onely suspition.where I haue lyen this tweluemonth and this halfe, without any calling to answer before now, and my liuyng taken from me without all law.

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Roper. Though we haue no perticular matter to charge you withall, yet we may both by our Commission, and by the law driue you to answer to the suspicion of a slaunder goyng on you: & besides this, we haue statutes to charge you herein withall.

Phil. If I haue offended any statute, charge me therewithall: and if I haue incurred the penaltie therof, punish me accordingly. And because you are magistrates and executors of the Queens maiesties lawes, by force wherof you do now sit, I desire that if I be found no notorious transgressor of any of them, I may not be burdened with more then I haue done.

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Cholm. If the Iustice doe suspect a fellon, he may examine him vpon suspition therof, & commit him to prison though there be no fault done.

Sto. I perceiue whereabout this man goeth. He is playne in Cardmakers case, for he made the selfe same allegatiōs. But they will not serue thee, for thou art an heretike, and holdest against the blessed masse: how sayst thou to that?

Phil. I am no heretike.

Story. I wil prooue thee an heretike. Whosoeuer hath holden against the blessed masse, is an heretike: but thou hast holden agaynst the same, therfore thou art an heretike. MarginaliaThe Maior is not vniuersally true, for in the tyme of K. Edward, who that spake agaynst the Masse as M. Philpot did by those lawes was no heretick but a perfect christiā.

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Phil. That which I spake, & which you are able to charge me withal, was in the conuocatiō, where by the Queenes maiesties will & her whole counsail, liberty was geuen to euery man of the house to vtter his conscience, & to say hys mynd freely of such questiōs in religiō, as there were propounded by the Prolocutor, for the which now I ought not to be molested and imprisoned as I haue bene, neither now be compelled of you to answer to the same.

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Story. Thou shalt go to the Lollards Tower, 

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A tower at the northwest corner of St Paul's cathedral. Accused heretics were occasionally held here because it was a secure place convenient to both the bishop of London and the consistory court of St Paul's.

& be handled there like an heretike as thou art, and answer to þe same that thou there didst speake, and be iudged by the Byshop of London.

MarginaliaIohn Philpot appealeth to his Ordinary.Phil. I haue already bene conuented of this matter before my Lord Chancellor myne Ordinary, who this long time hath kept me in prison: therfore if his Lordship will take

my lyfe away, as he hath done my liberty and liuyng, hee may, the which I thinke he cannot doe of hys conscience, and therefore hath let me lye this long in prison: wherefore I am content to abyde the ende of hym herein that is myne Ordinary, and do refuse the auditorie of the Bishop of Londō, because he is an vncompetent iudge for me, and not myne Ordinary.

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MarginaliaM. Philpot hauing publicke leaue, spake in the Conuocation, Ergo, he must be committed to Lolardes Tower, by D. Stories Logicke.Story. But Sir, thou spakest wordes in the Conuocation house, which is of the B. of Londons Dioces, & therefore thou shalt be caried to the Lollardes Tower to be iudged by hym for the words thou spakest in his Dioces agaynst the blessed masse.

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Phil. Sir, you know by the law, that I may haue Exceptionem fori: and it is agaynst all equitie, that I should bee twise vexed for one cause, and that by such, as by the lawe haue nothyng to do with me.

Roper. You can not deny, but that you spake agaynst the Masse in the Conuocation house.

Sto. Doest thou deny that which thou spakest there, or no?

Phil. I cannot deny that I haue spoken there, and if by the law you may put me to death therefore, I am here redy to suffer whatsoeuer I shall be adiudged vnto.

The Scribe. This man is fed of vayne glory.

Cholm. Play the wise gentleman and be conformable, and be not stubborne in your opinions, neither cast your selfe away. I would be glad to you good.

MarginaliaIohn Philpot charged further by the Commissioners then the law would beare.Phil. I desire you sir with the rest here, þt I be not charged further at your hands, then the law chargeth me, for that I haue done, since there was then no law agaynst that directly, wherewith I am now charged. And you M. Doctor (of old acquaintance in Oxford) I trust will shew me some friendship, and not extremitie.

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Story. I tell thee, if thou wouldst be a good catholike man, I would be thy friend, and spend my gowne to doe thee good: MarginaliaNow commeth in the Butchers axe.but I wyll be no friend to an hereticke as thou art, but wil spend both my gowne & my coat, but I wil burne thee. How sayest thou to the Sacrament of the aultar?

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Phil. Sir, I am not come now to dispute with your maistership, and the tyme now serueth not thereto, but to answer to that I may be lawfully charged withall.

Story. Wel, since thou wilt not reuoke that thou hast done, thou shalt be had into the Lollards Tower.

MarginaliaM. Philpot requireth to see their commissiō.Phil. Sir, since you will needes shew me this extremitie, and charge me with my conscience, I do desire to see your Commission, whether you haue this autority so to do, and after the view therof I shal (according to my duety) make you further answer, if you may by the vertue therof burthen me with my conscience.

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Roper. Let hym see the Commission: is it here?

Story. Shall wee let euery vyle persone see our Commission?

Cholm. Let him go from whence he came, and on Thursday he shall see our Commission.

Story. No, let hym lie in the meane while in the Lollardes Tower: for I will sweepe the Kings Bench & all other prisons also of these heretikes: they shall not haue that resort as they haue had, to scatter their heresies. 

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Story was quite correct to worry about heresy sweeping through the King's Bench prison; the fact that many Marian protestants were confined there, combined with the protestant sympathies of the marshal of the King's Bench, Sir William Fitzwilliam, ensured that the prison was a centre of protestant activity.

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Phil. You haue power to transferre my body from place to place at your pleasure: but you haue no power ouer my soule. And I passe not 

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I do not care.

whether you commit me, for I can not be worse entreated then I am, kept all day in a close chamber: wherfore it is no maruell that my flesh is puft vp wherewithall M. Doctor is offended.

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Story. Marshall, 

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Sir William Fitzwilliam, the marshal of the King's Bench.

take him home with you agayne, and see that you bring him againe on Thursday, and then we shal ridde your fingers of him, and afterward of your other heretikes.

Philpot. God hath appointed a day shortly to come, in the which he will iudge vs with righteousnesse, how so euer you iudge of vs now.

Roper. Be content to be ruled by M. Doctor, & shew your selfe a catholike man.

MarginaliaPhilpot wil not dissēble agaynst his conscience.Phil. Sir, if I should speake otherwise then my conscience is, I should but dissemble with you: & why be you so earnest to haue me shew my self a dissembler both to God and you, which I cannot do?

Roper. We do not require you to dissemble with vs, but to be a Catholike man.

Phil. If I do stand in any thing against that wherein any man is able to burthen me with one iote of the Scripture, I shall be content to be counted no Catholike man, or an heretike, as you please.

Story. Haue we Scripture, Scripture? and wyth that he rose vp, saying: who shalbe Iudge I pray you? This mā is lyke his fellow Woodman, 

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Richard Woodman, who would later be martyred, was being held in prison and would be released on a technicality, on 18 December 1555, the day on which Philpot was executed.

which the other day woulde haue nothyng els but scripture. And this is the beginning of this tragedie.  
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The notes are at the end of the examinations were written Philpot, not by Foxe.

¶ The
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