Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Elizabeth Warren

Wife of John Warren [Warne]. Martyr.

Elizabeth Warren was arrested on New Year's day in a house in Bow church churchyard, as she was gathered with others at prayer. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

She was a prisoner in the Counter until 11 June 1555. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

She was taken to Newgate and remained there until 2 July 1555. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

She was examined by Bishop Bonner on 6 July 1555. 1563, pp. 1250-51, 1570, pp. 1868-69, 1576, pp. 1599-1600, 1583, p. 1689.

Dr Martin gave suit for Warren's release, but this was overturned by Dr Story. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries (Wade, Hayle [Hall], King, Leyes, Fust, Smiyh, Harwood, Tankerfield, Warren [Warne] and Lashford [Warren/Warne]), dated 2 July 1555, signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

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She was examined and burned at Stratford Bowe in August 1555. 1563, pp. 1250-51, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

[Alias Warne.]

 
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George Goodyear

George Goodyear was master of the artificer John Tudson (apprentice). Goodyear lived in the parish of St. Mary Botolph. 1563, p. 1467, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1749, 1583, p. 1857.

[Also referred to as 'Goodyere'.]

 
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Isabel Foster

(1501? - 1556)

Martyr. Born in Grafestocke, Carlisle. Wife of John Foster, of the parish of St Brides, Fleet Street.

Isabel Foster was examined and condemned by Bonner on 15 January 1556. 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1750.

Foxe records Bonner's charges and Foster's answers to the charges. 1563, pp. 1451-53, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1750, 1583, p. 1857.

She was burned at Smithfield on 27 January 1556. 1563, p. 1451, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1750, 1583, p. 1857.

[Foxe also refers to her as Elizabeth Foster.]

 
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Joan Warren

Maiden. Alias Lashford (or Laishford).

Joan Warren was the daughter of Elizabeth and John Warne (step-father). She is described as a wife in 1563, p. 1451.

She was born in the parish of lytle Sainct Hallowes, Thomas / Thamis Street. 1563, p. 1468, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

Foxe recounts her formative years. 1563, p. 1468, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

She was apprehended in Bow churchyard, where she had been at communion. 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

She was examined by Bonner. Foxe lists the charges and her answers to the charges. 1563, pp. 1451-54, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

Dr Martin, the commissioner, gave suit for Warren's release, but this was overturned by Dr Scory. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries (including Lashford [Warren/Warne]). It was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

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John Harpsfield wrote a letter to Bonner about Whittle's subscription, in which he stated that he expected Warren to burn at the stake. 1563, pp. 1455-56, 1570, pp. 2017-18, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, p. 1846.

She was burned at Smithfield in January 1556. 1563, p. 1451, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

John Careless wrote a letter to Bartlett Green, Thomas Whittle, Joan Warren, Isabel Foster and certain other prisoners in Newgate. 1570, p. 2107, 1576, p. 1818, 1583, pp. 1924-25.

[Also referred to as 'Warne' and 'Warner'.]

 
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John Foster

Cutler of St Brides parish, Fleet Street. Husband of Isabel Foster, martyr. 1563, p. 1468, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1750, 1583, p. 1857.

 
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John Story

(1510? - 1571)

1st Regius Professor of Civil Law. Roman catholic martyr. (DNB)

John Story was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

In the 1563 edition, Foxe claims that Story urged that Elizabeth be executed, maintaining that it was pointless to cut the branches off a tree and not strike at its roots (1563, p. 1004). These passages were never reprinted.

In a letter to Augustine Bernher, Bradford asked him to discover what Master G. had said to Doctor Story and others. 1570, p. 1837, 1576, p. 1572, 1583, p. 1654.

Dr Story was said by Dr Martin to have been the chief procurer of the deaths of John Warren, his wife and daughter, although he was a relative of theirs. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

When John Denley sang a psalm at his burning, Story rebuked him for it. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1686.

John Story is described by Foxe as one who was occupied with dispatching the godly during Mary's reign. 1563, p. 1383, 1570, p. 1952, 1576, p. 1679, 1583, p. 1786.

The first examination of John Philpot was by Cholmley, Master Roper and John Story and one of the scribes of the Arches at Newgate Hall on 2 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89 , 1583, pp. 1795-96.

In Philpot's first examination, Story claimed that Philpot was guilty of heresy for speaking against the mass. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

Philpot's second examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story and Cook and the scribe on 24 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1390-92, 1570, pp. 1962-64, 1576, pp. 1689-91, 1583, pp. 1797-98.

During Philpot's second examination, Story demanded that Philpot be taken to Lollard's Tower, after which he was imprisoned in Bonner's coal house. 1563, pp. 1390-92, 1570, pp. 1962-64, 1576, pp. 1689-91, 1583, pp. 1797-98.

Philpot's fifth examination was before Bonner, Rochester, Coventry, St Asaph, as well as Story, Curtop, Saverson, Pendleton and others. 1563, pp. 1398-1405, 1570, pp. 1968-72, 1576, pp. 1695-98, 1583, pp. 1803-05.

Story was one of the commissioners who sent John Went, John Tudson, Thomas Brown and Joan Warren to be examined and imprisoned. 1563, p. 1453, 1570, p. 2016, 1576, p. 1737, 1583, p. 1845.

A complaint about John Tudson was sent to Story. 1563, p. 1467, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1749, 1583, p. 1857.

Cranmer was examined by Brookes, Martin and Story. 1563, pp. 1479-83, 1570, pp. 2046-47, 1576, pp. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

A new commission was sent to Rome for the restoration of the pope's authority to allow the condemnation of Cranmer. Those sent were: James Brookes, Martyn and Story . 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Story's oration against Cranmer. 1576, pp. 1769-70, 1583, pp. 1875-76.

Story said that they were true witnesses, as they swore allegience to the pope. Cranmer was was sent to Gloucester by Story. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1773, 1583, p. 1879.

Henry Adlington received a letter from John Careless, which referred to Story. 1570, pp. 2110-12, 1576, pp. 1833-34, 1583, pp. 1928-29.

Robert Farrer talked with Laurence Sheriff in the Rose tavern and suggested to Sheriff that Elizabeth had been involved in Wyatt's rebellion. Sheriff complained to Bonner about Farrer before Mordaunt, Sir John Baker, Darbyshire, Story, Harpsfield, and others. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 1980.

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Ralph Allerton was examined on 24 April 1557 before Bonner, Lord North, Dr Story and others. 1563, p. 1621, 1570, p. 2210-11, 1576, p. 1907-08, 1583, p. 2015-16.

A chaplain asked Thomas Green to repeat the articles of his faith before Story. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1953, 1583, p. 2061.

Story questioned Green on the mass and the church fathers. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1954, 1583, p. 2061.

Green appeared again before Story. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1954, 1583, p. 2061.

Story commanded Green be whipped 100 times, although this was objected to, at which point Story said he would have Green's tongue cut out if he could. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1954, 1583, p. 2062.

Elizabeth Young's eighth examination was before Bonner, the dean of St Paul's and Story. 1570, pp. 2273-74, 1576, pp. 1962-63, 1583, pp. 2069-70.

Alexander Wimshurst was carried before Story and Cook who asked him where his whore was. Wimshurst defended his wife's honour and her whereabouts. 1570, p. 2276, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2072.

Edward Benet asked Story to help him out of prison, which he did, only to deliver him to Cluney who put him in stocks in the coalhouse for a week. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Richard Waterson was examined by Story, when he was told that £40 would release him from punishment. This was reduced to £10 but eventually a warrant was made to Richard Grafton who was forced to watch the beating of Gye upon a cross at Bridewell. 1563, p. 1730 [incorrectly numbered 1703], 1583, p. 2144.

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John Story had accused Angel's wife of murdering a woman and her child who resided with her in her house. He sent her to Newgate. Sir Roger Cholmley dismissed the charges against her. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

At Elizabeth's accession Story was committed to ward but he managed to escape overseas, where he met with the duke of Alva in Antwerp. 1583, p. 2153.

Parker, a merchant, was sent to apprehend Story and return him to England. 1583, p. 2153.

Parker told Story that a ship had come from England and that he might like to peruse the merchandise on board. Story suspected nothing, was caught and returned to England. 1583, p. 2153.

In prison, Story refused to agree to the act of supremacy and was subsequently hung, drawn and quartered as a traitor. 1583, p. 2153.

Foxe refers to his death. 1563, p. 1706.

 
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John Tudson

(d. 1556)

Artificer. Martyr.

John Tudson was born in Ipswich, Suffolk. He was apprentice in London to George Goodyear in the parish of St Mary Botolph. He was complained of to Sir Richard Cholmley and John Story. 1563, p. 1467, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1749, 1583, p. 1857.

Tudson was examined by Mr Cholmley and Dr Story. 1563, p. 1453, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1735, 1583, p. 1857.

He was charged and condemned by Bonner. 1563, pp. 1451-54, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1735, 1583, p. 1857.

He was burned at Smithfield on 27 January 1556. 1563, p. 1451, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1749, 1583, p. 1857.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Warren

Upholsterer. Martyr. Husband of Elizabeth Warne and stepfather to Joan Lashford/Warren.

Dr Martin gave suit for Warren's release, but this was overturned by Dr Scory. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

John Warren was burned at the end of May 1555. 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

 
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John Went

(1529? - 1556)

Martyr. Born in Langham, Essex.

John Went is referred to as Thomas Went. 1563, p. 1451.

He was an artificer and / or shereman. [For artificer see 1563, p. 1451; shereman: 1563, p. 1467]. He is described as shereman from 1570 onwards.

He was examined by Story and then by Bonnner. Foxe records Bonner's charges and Went's answers to the charges. 1563, pp. 1451-53, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1750, 1583, p. 1857.

While imprisoned in Lollards' Tower, he and his fellow prisoners received a letter from Thomas Whittle. 1570, p. 2019, 1576, p. 1740, 1583, p. 1848.

He was burned at Smithfield on 27 January 1556. 1563, p. 1451, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1750, 1583, p. 1857.

 
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Sir Roger Cholmley

(d. 1565)

Lord chief justice of King's and Queen's Bench (1552 - 1553), privy councillor (under Mary) and MP [Bindoff, Commons; Hasler, Commons; DNB]. Judge, lieutenant of the Tower. Son of Sir Richard Cholmley [DNB]

Sir Roger Cholmley persuaded the royal guard to support Northumberland against Mary (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, p. 1407).

He was sent to the Tower, with Sir Edward Montagu, on 27 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was released from the Tower together with Sir Edward Montagu on 7 September 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Sir Roger Cholmley was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Cholmley participated in a debate/dinner conversation between Nicholas Ridley and John Feckenham and Sir John Bourne, on the nature of the eucharist, held while Ridley was a prisoner in the Tower (1563, p. 931; 1570, p. 1591; 1576, pp. 1357-58; and 1583, p. 1428).

Cholmley came to William Flower at the stake and urged Flower, on pain of damnation, to recant his heretical beliefs. 1563, p. 1733; 1570, p. 1749; 1576, p. 1493; 1583, p. 1577.

George Tankerfield was sent into Newgate by Roger Cholmey and Dr Martin. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

Philpot's first examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story, and one of the scribes of the Arches at Newgate Hall, 2 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

Cholmley was one of the commissioners who sent John Went, John Tudson, Thomas Brown and Joan Warren to be examined and imprisoned. 1563, p. 1453, 1570, p. 2016, 1576, p. 1737, 1583, p. 1845.

A complaint about John Tudson was made to Cholmley. 1563, p. 1467, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1749, 1583, p. 1857. [Foxe erroneously calls him 'Sir Richard Cholmley'.]

Cuthbert Symson was brought before Cholmley, examined and racked. 1563, p. 1651, 1570, p. 2229, 1576, p. 1924, 1583, p. 2032.

Cholmley sent to Newgate 27 prisoners who were members of an illegal conventicle in Islington. 1563, p. 1659, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2037.

Thomas Hinshaw was taken by the constables of Islington to appear before Master Cholmley, who sent him to Newgate. 1563, p. 1690, 1570, p. 2242, 1576, p. 1937, 1583, p. 2043.

Robert Farrer, haberdasher of London, had two daughters, one of whom was delivered to Sir Roger Cholmley for a sum of money, to be at his commandment, the other sold to Sir William Godolphin, who took her to Boulogne as his lackey, dressed in men's clothing. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2294.

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The lord mayor of London and Chomley examined Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax. 1563, p. 1683, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Elizabeth Young's fourth examination was before Bonner, Roger Cholmley, Cooke, Dr Roper of Kent, and Dr Martin. 1570, pp. 2270-71, 1576, pp. 1959-60, 1583, pp. 2066-67.

Tingle was a prisoner in Newgate. His keeper realised that Edward Benet had a New Testament and sent him to Cholmley, who imprisoned him in the Compter for 25 weeks. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Benet was apprehended again in Islington and sent before Cholmley but was cut off from the rest. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

John Story had accused Angel's wife of murdering a woman and her child who resided with her in her house. He sent her to Newgate. Sir Roger Cholmley dismissed the charges against her. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

[Also referred to as 'Lorde Chiefe Baron' or 'Chomley']

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Brown

(1519? - 1556)

Martyr. Of Histon, Histi[n]win, Cambs. Lived in Fleet Street, St Bride's parish. Married.

Thomas Brown was aged 37 at his death. He refused to take mass on 26 September 1556 and denied transubstantiation. He was presented by the constable to Bonner. 1563, p. 1466, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1749, 1583, pp. 1856-57.

He was examined and condemned by 15 January 1556. 1563, p. 1466, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1735, 1583, p. 1857.

Foxe lists Bonner's charges and Brown's answers to the charges. 1563, pp. 1451-54, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, pp. 1735-37, 1583, p. 1857.

Brown was burned at Smithfield, 27 January 1556. 1563, pp. 1451, 1466, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1735 1583, p. 1857.

 
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Grafestocke [Greystoke]
NGR: NY 440 308

A parish in Leath ward, county of Cumberland. 5 miles west by north from Penrith. The living is a rectory in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Carlisle.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Langham
NGR: TM 025 325

A parish in the Colchester division of the hundred of Lexden, county of Essex. 1.75 miles west by north from Dedham. The living is a rectory in the Archdeaconry of Colchester and Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1881 [1857]

Queene Mary. Iohn Went, Jsabell Foster, Ioane Lashford Martyrs.

MarginaliaAnno 1556. Ianuary.was presented by the Constable of the Parishe to Boner. MarginaliaTho. Browne presented by the Constable of S. Brides.As touching whose articles, wherupon he was examined by the sayd Boner, with his aunsweres also annexed to þe same, mention goeth before, as in the generall processe of him and of the rest, may appeare. This Thomas Browne being had to Fulhā, wt the other there to be examined, was required vpon Thursday, being þe xxvi. day of September, to come into the Chappell to heare Masse, whiche he refusing to doe, went into the warren, and there kneled among the trees. MarginaliaBrowne kneeleth among the trees at the Masse tyme.For this hee was greatly charged of the Bishop, as for an haynous matter, because he sayd it was done in despite and contempte of theyr masse: which seemed to the Byshop and his Chaplaynes no small offence. At length being producted to his last examination before the sayd Bishop, xv. day of Ianuarye, there to heare the sentence diffinitiue agaynst him, first hee was required wyth many fayre wordes and glosing promises to reuoke hys doctrine, to whome the foresayd Byshoppe speaking these woordes, sayde: MarginaliaB. Boners words to Tho. Browne.Browne, ye haue bene before me many tymes and ofte, and I haue trauailed with thee, to wynne thee from thyne erroures: yet thou and suche like haue and doe reporte that I goe about to seeke thy bloud. &c.

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MarginaliaB. Boner charged to be a bloudsucker.To whome the sayd Thomas Browne aunswered agayne: yea my Lord (sayd he) in deede ye be a bloudsucker & I would I had as much bloud, as is water in the Sea, for you to sucke.

Boner then proceeding to the articles, when he hadde red them vnto him agayne, as he had done diuers tymes before, asked him whether he was content and willing to relinquishe those hys heresies and erroneous opinions (as he called them) and returne agayne vnto the vnitie of the catholicke fayth. Whereunto he made aunswere again saying, MarginaliaThe aunswere of Thomas Browne to Bishop Boner.if they were heresies, he would forsake them. They be heresies (quoth the Byshoppe.) Howe will ye proue it, sayd Browne? for I will not goe frō mine aunsweres, except you cā proue them to be heresies, which ye shal neuer do. For that whiche you call heresie, is no heresie. Wyth that Boner not able, or els not disposed to supply the part of a sufficient teacher, in prouing that which the other had denyed by good authoritie and doctrine of the scripture went about with wordes and promise of pardon, to allure him to renounce those his heresies, as he called them and to returne vnto the vnitie of his mother the Catholicke Churche. &c.

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To whom the sayd Thomas inferred agayne, as followeth: Proue it (sayd he) to be heresie, that I do hold and mayntayne, and I will turne to you. But you condemne me, because I wil not confesse and beleue the bread and in the sacrament of the aultar (as you call it to be the body of Christ, and therfore ye spill myne and such like innocents bloud, being the Queenes true subiectes, for whiche you shall aunswere, and that shortly.

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MarginaliaSentence read against Thomas Browne.After this being spoken, Boner as hee had done to the other before, read in writing the sentence diffinitiue agaynst him. The copie and forme of which sentence wherwith the Papistes were wont to condemne all the innocent saynts of Christes, is aboue expressed, pag. 1417. And so this done he was committed to the Sheriffes to be had away, and burned the xxvii. day of the sayd moneth of Ianuary, 

Commentary  *  Close

The date of the execution of Whittle, Green and the others has been disputed. The normally reliable London diarist Henry Machyn states that it took place on 22 January (The Diary of Henry Machyn, ed. J. G. Nichols, Camden Society, original 42 [1848], p. 99). The chronicler Charles Wriothesley supports Foxe in stating that Whittle and the others were executed on 27 January. The dates of two of Green's letters further confirm the date of 27 January as that of his execution.

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constantly abiding with the other, the Popes tormentes for the true confession of his Christian fayth.

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4. Iohn Tudson Martyr. 
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John Tudson

Tudson's death was merely listed in the Rerum (p. 634). This account of his martyrdom was first printed in 1563 and remained substantially unchanged. It was based entirely on official records, now lost, of his trial.

MarginaliaIohn Tudson, Martyr.THe same daye and tyme, when the foresayde Iohn Browne, with his fellowes was condemned (as is aboue rehearsed) being the xv. day of Ianuarye MarginaliaIanuary. 27.was also producted Iohn Tudson with the rest of the sayde company, vnto the like condemnation. This Iohn Tudson was borne in Ipswich in the Countye of Suffolke, after that apprentise in London, dwelling with one George Goodyeare of the parishe of saynct Mary Botulphe, within the dioces of London, who being complayned of to Sir Richard Cholmley and Doct. Story, was by them sent vnto Boner bishop of London, and was diuers tymes before him in examination.

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MarginaliaOf these articles read before pag. 215.The Articles and interrogatories ministred vnto hym, as vnto the rest, before are specified, with hys aunsweres also to the same annexed. &c. After this hee was brought vnto the open Consistory: where the sayd blessed and true seruaunt of the Lord Iohn Tudson, appearyng before the sayde byshoppe and his complices, was moued with sundry perswasions (as theyr maner is) to goe from his opinion (which they named heresie) and to persiste in the vnitie of the Churche which they were of, MarginaliaThe constant persisting of Iohn Tudson.but hee constātly persisting in that which he had receiued by the preachers in king Edwardes tyme, refused so to doe, saying

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there was no heresie in his answeres. For I (sayd he) defy all heresie. The Byshop yet sitll vsed his olde accustomed perswasions to remoue him, promising moreouer all hys offences and erroures (as he called them) to bee forgeuen hym, if he would returne. &c. Then sayde Tudson: Tell me wherein I haue offended, and I will returne. Then sayd the Byshop: In your aunsweres. No, sayd Tudson agayne, I haue not therein offended: and ye, my Lord pretend Charitie, but nothing therof appeareth in your workes. MarginaliaSentence read against Iohn Tudson.Thus after a few wordes þe bishop did likewise promulgate agaynst hym sentence of condemnation, whiche being red, the godly and constant martyr was committed to the secular power, and so wyth much pacience finished this life with the other aboue named, the xxvii. daye of Ianuary. 

Commentary  *  Close

The date of the execution of Whittle, Green and the others has been disputed. The normally reliable London diarist Henry Machyn states that it took place on 22 January (The Diary of Henry Machyn, ed. J. G. Nichols, Camden Society, original 42 [1848], p. 99). The chronicler Charles Wriothesley supports Foxe in stating that Whittle and the others were executed on 27 January. The dates of two of Green's letters further confirm the date of 27 January as that of his execution.

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5. Iohn Went Martyr. 
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John Went

Went's death was merely listed in the Rerum (p. 634). This account was first printed in the 1563 edition and it remained substantially unchanged through subsequent editions. It was based entirely on official records of Went's trial.

MarginaliaIohn Went Martyr. MarginaliaIanuary. 27.IOhn Went borne in Langham in Essex, within the Dyoces of London, of the age of 27. & a Shereman by occupation, first was examined (as partly is touched before) by Doctor Story vpon the sacrament of his popishe Aultar and because the poore man did not accord wt him throughly in the reall presence of the body and bloud of Chryst, the sayd Story did send hym vp to Boner Byshop of London. Who likewise after diuers examinations vppon the articles aforesayde in the Consistory, attempted the lyke maner of perswasions with hym, as he did to the other to recant and returne. To whome in fewe wordes the sayde Went aunswered agayne, he woulde not, but that by the leaue of God, he would stand firme and constant in that he had sayd. And when the Bishop yet notwithstanding did still vrge and call vpon him with words and fayre gloses, to geue ouer himselfe to theyr opinion, he could haue no other answer of hym but this: No, I say as I haue sayd &c. MarginaliaIohn Went withstandeth the Bishops perswasiōs. Iohn Went condemned.Whereuupon being condemned by the Bishops sentence, he was committed vnto the Sheriffes (whom that shameles shaueling at þt time abused for hys seruile Butchers) and so brought to hys martyrdome, which he with no lesse constancie suffered to the ende with the rest of that blessed societie of Martyrs aboue named.

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6. Isabell Foster Martyr. 
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Isabel Foster

Foster's death was merely listed in the Rerum (p. 634). This accountwas first printed in the 1563 edition and it remained substantially unchanged through subsequent editions. It was based entirely on official accounts, now lost, of Foster's trial.

MarginaliaIsabel Foster, martyr. Ianuary. 27.WIth these fiue persons aboue recited and condemned, were also two women in the foresayd company condemned the same tyme, and likewise burned for the same cause, the one a wife called Isabell Foster, the other a mayde named Ioane Warne, or otherwise Lashford.

This foresayd Isabell was borne in Grafestocke in the Dioces of Carlill, and afterward maried to one Iohn Foster Cutler, of the Parish of S. Brides in Fleetstreete, beyng of the age of Lv. yeares. MarginaliaIsabell Foster constāt in confessing Christes Gospell.She likewise for not commyng vnto the Churche, beyng sent vnto Boner, and so imprisoned, was sundry tymes examined by the sayd Byshop, but neuer ouercome, nor remoued from the constant confession of Christes Gospell.

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At length commyng vnto her finall examination before the Byshop in the Consistory the xv. day of the sayd moneth of Ianuary, she was moued agayne, whether she would yet goe from her former aunsweres. Whereunto she gaue a resolute aunswere in few wordes: I will not (sayth she) goe from them by Gods grace: and thereunto did adhere, neither beyng cast downe by the manacyng threates of the Byshop, nor yet yeldyng thorough his alluryng enticementes, promising both lyfe and libertie if she would associate her selfe in the vnitie of the Catholicke Churche. Whereunto she sayd agayne in this wise, MarginaliaThe wordes of Isabell Foster of her last examination.that she trusted she was neuer out of the Catholicke Church. &c. and so persisting in the same, continued constaunt, MarginaliaIsabell Foster condemned.till the sentence diffinitiue was pronounced, and thē she was committed by commaundemēt of the Byshop to the secular power, and so brought a fewe dayes after to the stake, the 27. day of the foresayd moneth: 

Commentary  *  Close

The date of the execution of Whittle, Green and the others has been disputed. The normally reliable London diarist Henry Machyn states that it took place on 22 January (The Diary of Henry Machyn, ed. J. G. Nichols, Camden Society, original 42 [1848], p. 99). The chronicler Charles Wriothesley supports Foxe in stating that Whittle and the others were executed on 27 January. The dates of two of Green's letters further confirm the date of 27 January as that of his execution.

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where she like a faythfull witnesse of the Lordes truth (with the other fiue aforesayd) ended her troubles here, to finde a better rest in the kyngdome of Christ our Sauiour.

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7. Ioane Lashford, alias Ioane Warne, Martyr. 
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Joan Lashford

Lashford's death was merely listed in the Rerum (p. 634). This account was first printed in the 1563 edition and it remained substantially unchanged through subsequent editions. It was based on official records, now lost, and oral testimony about Lashford's family.

MarginaliaIoane Lashford alias, Ioane Warne, Martyr. Ianuary. 27.IN a certaine place of these Actes and Monumentes heretofore, mētion was made of one Elizabeth Warne, pag. 1608. col. 2. who with her husband Iohn Warne (as is aforesayd) in the begynnyng of Queene Maries Reigne was apprehended in Bowe Churchyard for beyng there at a Cōmunion: and both suffered for the same, first the man in the moneth of May, then the wife in Iuly after: and now the daughter in the moneth of Ianuary

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