Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
James Brookes

(1512 - 1560).

DD (1546). Master of Balliol (1547). Vice chancellor of Oxford (1552). Bishop of Gloucester (1554 - 1559). Deprived of his see upon the accession of Elizabeth. Committed to prison where he died. (DNB)

James Brookes was made bishop of Gloucester, c. January 1554, (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

He was deprived under Elizabeth.

James Brookes was one of those holding a commission from Cardinal Pole to disinter Peter Martyr's wife and burn her bones. 1563, p. 1558, 1570, p. 2152, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

The examinations of John Hunt and Richard White before the bishops of Salisbury and Gloucester (Brookes and Capon), Dr. Geffre (chancellor) took place on 26 April 1557. 1570, p. 2254, 1576, p. 1947, 1583, p. 2054.

Foxe says that James Brookes died before Queen Mary, but he did not die until 1560. 1563, p. 1736, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Story

(1510? - 1571)

1st Regius Professor of Civil Law. Roman catholic martyr. (DNB)

John Story was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

In the 1563 edition, Foxe claims that Story urged that Elizabeth be executed, maintaining that it was pointless to cut the branches off a tree and not strike at its roots (1563, p. 1004). These passages were never reprinted.

In a letter to Augustine Bernher, Bradford asked him to discover what Master G. had said to Doctor Story and others. 1570, p. 1837, 1576, p. 1572, 1583, p. 1654.

Dr Story was said by Dr Martin to have been the chief procurer of the deaths of John Warren, his wife and daughter, although he was a relative of theirs. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

When John Denley sang a psalm at his burning, Story rebuked him for it. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1686.

John Story is described by Foxe as one who was occupied with dispatching the godly during Mary's reign. 1563, p. 1383, 1570, p. 1952, 1576, p. 1679, 1583, p. 1786.

The first examination of John Philpot was by Cholmley, Master Roper and John Story and one of the scribes of the Arches at Newgate Hall on 2 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89 , 1583, pp. 1795-96.

In Philpot's first examination, Story claimed that Philpot was guilty of heresy for speaking against the mass. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

Philpot's second examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story and Cook and the scribe on 24 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1390-92, 1570, pp. 1962-64, 1576, pp. 1689-91, 1583, pp. 1797-98.

During Philpot's second examination, Story demanded that Philpot be taken to Lollard's Tower, after which he was imprisoned in Bonner's coal house. 1563, pp. 1390-92, 1570, pp. 1962-64, 1576, pp. 1689-91, 1583, pp. 1797-98.

Philpot's fifth examination was before Bonner, Rochester, Coventry, St Asaph, as well as Story, Curtop, Saverson, Pendleton and others. 1563, pp. 1398-1405, 1570, pp. 1968-72, 1576, pp. 1695-98, 1583, pp. 1803-05.

Story was one of the commissioners who sent John Went, John Tudson, Thomas Brown and Joan Warren to be examined and imprisoned. 1563, p. 1453, 1570, p. 2016, 1576, p. 1737, 1583, p. 1845.

A complaint about John Tudson was sent to Story. 1563, p. 1467, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1749, 1583, p. 1857.

Cranmer was examined by Brookes, Martin and Story. 1563, pp. 1479-83, 1570, pp. 2046-47, 1576, pp. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

A new commission was sent to Rome for the restoration of the pope's authority to allow the condemnation of Cranmer. Those sent were: James Brookes, Martyn and Story . 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Story's oration against Cranmer. 1576, pp. 1769-70, 1583, pp. 1875-76.

Story said that they were true witnesses, as they swore allegience to the pope. Cranmer was was sent to Gloucester by Story. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1773, 1583, p. 1879.

Henry Adlington received a letter from John Careless, which referred to Story. 1570, pp. 2110-12, 1576, pp. 1833-34, 1583, pp. 1928-29.

Robert Farrer talked with Laurence Sheriff in the Rose tavern and suggested to Sheriff that Elizabeth had been involved in Wyatt's rebellion. Sheriff complained to Bonner about Farrer before Mordaunt, Sir John Baker, Darbyshire, Story, Harpsfield, and others. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 1980.

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Ralph Allerton was examined on 24 April 1557 before Bonner, Lord North, Dr Story and others. 1563, p. 1621, 1570, p. 2210-11, 1576, p. 1907-08, 1583, p. 2015-16.

A chaplain asked Thomas Green to repeat the articles of his faith before Story. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1953, 1583, p. 2061.

Story questioned Green on the mass and the church fathers. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1954, 1583, p. 2061.

Green appeared again before Story. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1954, 1583, p. 2061.

Story commanded Green be whipped 100 times, although this was objected to, at which point Story said he would have Green's tongue cut out if he could. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1954, 1583, p. 2062.

Elizabeth Young's eighth examination was before Bonner, the dean of St Paul's and Story. 1570, pp. 2273-74, 1576, pp. 1962-63, 1583, pp. 2069-70.

Alexander Wimshurst was carried before Story and Cook who asked him where his whore was. Wimshurst defended his wife's honour and her whereabouts. 1570, p. 2276, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2072.

Edward Benet asked Story to help him out of prison, which he did, only to deliver him to Cluney who put him in stocks in the coalhouse for a week. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Richard Waterson was examined by Story, when he was told that £40 would release him from punishment. This was reduced to £10 but eventually a warrant was made to Richard Grafton who was forced to watch the beating of Gye upon a cross at Bridewell. 1563, p. 1730 [incorrectly numbered 1703], 1583, p. 2144.

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John Story had accused Angel's wife of murdering a woman and her child who resided with her in her house. He sent her to Newgate. Sir Roger Cholmley dismissed the charges against her. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

At Elizabeth's accession Story was committed to ward but he managed to escape overseas, where he met with the duke of Alva in Antwerp. 1583, p. 2153.

Parker, a merchant, was sent to apprehend Story and return him to England. 1583, p. 2153.

Parker told Story that a ship had come from England and that he might like to peruse the merchandise on board. Story suspected nothing, was caught and returned to England. 1583, p. 2153.

In prison, Story refused to agree to the act of supremacy and was subsequently hung, drawn and quartered as a traitor. 1583, p. 2153.

Foxe refers to his death. 1563, p. 1706.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Cranmer

(1489 - 1556)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1533 - 1553) [Fasti; DNB; MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer, 1996]. Martyr

Foxe records the life, condemnation and death of Cranmer. 1563, pp. 1470-1503, 1570, pp. 2032-71, 1576, pp. 1752-82, 1583, pp. 1859-90.

Foxe records Cranmer's formative years and early career. His mother was Agnes Hatfield. Cranmer read the works of Faber, Erasmus and Luther. 1563, pp. 1470-71, 1570, pp. 2032-33, 1576, pp. 1752-53, 1583, pp. 1859-60.

Cranmer was asked by Dr Capon to be a founding fellow of Wolsey's college. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

Alexander Seton and Edward Foxe lodged with Cressey while Thomas Cranmer was there and dined with him. The following day Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

Cranmer was sent as Henry VIII's ambassador to the emperor. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

He was made archbishop of Canterbury. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

Cranmer was asked by Henry VIII to search the scriptures for a case for his divorce from Catherine of Arragon. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1860.

Henry VIII asked the earl of Wiltshire to allow Cranmer to stay at his house in Durham. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1861.

Cranmer went to Mr Cressey's house at Waltham Abbey during the summer plague season. Cranmer's wife was a relative of Cressey. 1570, p. 2033 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1860.

Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

The pope's authority was discussed at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, where it was concluded that Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Arragon was not legal, and the pope's authority was denounced. Cranmer, the earl of Wiltshire, Stokesley, Carne and Benet were then sent before the pope to deliver these conclusions. 1563, p. 1472, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1861. [1563 has the commission as consisting of: Bonner, Winchester, Sampson, Repps, Goodricke, Latimer, Shaxton, and Barlow.]

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Cranmer met with Cornelius Agrippa. 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1861.

Cromwell was sent with Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer at Lambeth. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1862.

Chersey, a grocer in the city of London, had a kinsman who was a priest and who spent more time in the alehouse than his church. This priest spoke against Cranmer in the alehouse one day. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1863.

The priest was sent to the Fleet. Cromwell forgot about him and eventually sent him to Cranmer. Cranmer in time spoke to the priest and set him free. 1570, pp. 2036-38, 1576, pp. 1756-57, 1583, pp. 1863-64.

Cranmer investigated the case of a woman accused of committing adultery. 1563, pp. 1477-78, 1576, pp. 1570-71.

Cranmer sent a token via W. P. [William Porrege] to a woman falsely accused of adultery, asking for forgiveness for the treatment she received while in custody. 1563, p. 1478, 1576, p. 1751.

Lord Wryosley wept at the bedside of King Henry VIII and saved the life of Mary, Henry and Catherine's daughter. 1563, p. 1478.

Thomas Seymour spoke against Cranmer to the king, which he later regretted. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

Richard Neville, noting that Sir Thomas Seymour was hoping to see Cranmer, brought him to the archbishop at dinner. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

After Cromwell was apprehended, bishops Heath and Skip forsook Cranmer and stood against him. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, pp. 1865-66.

Winchester and others tried to take Cranmer out of the king's favour. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

The king sent Sir Anthony Denny to commit Cranmer to the Tower. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

Cranmer spoke with the king. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

Buttes, the king's physician, spoke to the king about the fact that Cranmer was being forced to wait like a lackey to come into council. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1866.

The king and the council made their peace with Cranmer. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Sir John Gostwicke accused Cranmer of heresy before parliament, citing his sermons at Sandwich and his lectures at Canterbury as evidence. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Prebendaries and justices of Kent accused Cranmer of heresy. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Articles were put to Henry VIII against Cranmer. Henry VIII told Cranmer what these articles were. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

A commission was sent to Kent to find out the truth about Cranmer's beliefs and the charges of heresy against him. The commission members were Dr Belhouse, Chauncellor Cox and Hussey the registrar. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1867.

Cranmer's secretary wrote to Buttes and Denny asking for Dr Lee to join the commission, lest nothing be learned by the commission. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

A conspiracy against Cranmer was discovered through some letters that were found, including one by the suffragen of Dover and one by Barbar, a civilian maintained in Cranmer's household as a counsellor in matters of law. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer spoke with Dover and Barber. Barber said that hanging was too good for villains. They asked for Cranmer's forgiveness. 1570, pp. 2042-43, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer was confirmed in his reformist beliefs after a conference with Ridley. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer's wife is mentioned as a niece to the wife of Osiander. Cranmer was married while acting as the king's ambassador to Charles the emperor. 1563, p. 1478, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer was opposed to the writings of Gardiner. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Rowland Taylor left Cranmer's household to become rector of Hadleigh (1563, p. 1065; 1570, p. 1693; 1576, p. 1495; 1583, p. 1519). [Actually Taylor was Cranmer's chaplain.]

Cranmer commanded Rowland Taylor to make Robert Drakes a deacon. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

In the third year of Edward's reign Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Robert Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Foxe states that at his death Edward VI bequeathed the throne to Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer refused to swear allegience to Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, pp. 2045-46, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

The dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk were executed for their support of Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Lady Jane and her husband were beheaded. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe states that those who were blinded with ignorance or malice thought Peter Martyr not a learned man. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472].

A mass was said at Canterbury by Thornden after the death of Edward VI. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Scory, bishop of Rochester, visited Cranmer. He took a copy of Cranmer's writings about the rumour that he had said the mass (when Thornden had in fact said it) and had it published. Cranmer was commanded to appear before the council and bring an inventory of his goods. 1563, p. 1479, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

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Heath questioned Cranmer about his bill against the mass. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, pp. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

Cranmer was examined by Brookes, Martyn and Story. 1563, pp. 1479-83, 1570, pp. 2046-47, 1576, p. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

Cranmer was accused of conspiring with John Dudley, duke of Northumberland. 1563, p. 1483, 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Thomas Cranmer met with Peter Martyr, about 5 September 1553, in London, to discuss a projected disputation where they would defend the Book of Common Prayer. Cranmer was then arrested (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 13 September Cranmer was ordered to appear before the privy council. On 14 September he was charged by the privy council with treason and spreading seditious libels and was committed to the Tower (1583, p. 1410).

He was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was cited to appear before the queen's commissioners on 27 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1465).

Rumoured to have celebrated a mass at Canterbury, Cranmer issued a denial or 'purgation' of the rumours on 7 September 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1465).

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1553 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

He was committed to the Tower on 14 September 1553 (1570, p. 1466; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1466).

A rumor spread that Cranmer had recanted his protestant conviction and allowed a mass to be celebrated at Canterbury; he issued a printed denial of this. In the denial, he offered to defend his religious beliefs in open debate together with Peter Martyr. Cranmer was imprisoned and arraigned for treason but ultimately pardoned. He was still charged with heresy (1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418).

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He was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, pp. 932 and 937; 1570, pp. 1592-93; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; and 1583, p. 1429).

[NB: There is a summary of Cranmer's disputation on Monday 16 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, p. 933.]

Cranmer disputed with the catholic doctors on 16 April 1554 (1563, pp. 938-56; 1570, pp. 1593-1606; 1576, pp. 1360-70; and 1583, pp. 1430-41).

He disputed with John Harpsfield on the nature of the eucharist as part of Harpsfield's obtaining his D.D. on 19 April 1554 (1563, pp 987-90; 1570, pp. 1629-31; 1576, pp. 1390-91; and 1583, pp. 1460-62).

Cranmer wrote to the privy council on 23 April 1554, protesting at the way in which the Oxford disputations were conducted. Weston opened the letter and refused to deliver it (1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, p. 1464).

The queen's letter ordering Cranmer to be held in the custody of the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford during the disputation is printed in 1563, p. 999.

A new commission was sent to Rome for the restoration of the pope's authority to allow the condemnation of Cranmer. Those sent were: James Brookes, Martyn and Story . 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

He was summoned, together with Ridley and Latimer, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant his opinions and denied Weston's claim that he had been defeated in the disputation, claiming that the questions and challenges flew at him without order or giving him time to answer. He was condemned and taken to Bocardo (1563, pp. 935-36; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; and 1583, pp. 1463-64).

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Bullinger sent commendations to Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554. 1570, pp. 1692-93; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer. 1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Ridley was converted through reading Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1895 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, p. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe records Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he made reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Ridley hoped to see Cranmer before his death, but Cranmer was with Friar Soto. 1570, p. 1936, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Cranmer was condemned by Weston and others of the university. He was committed to the mayor and sheriffs of Oxford. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

On 21 April 1554, Cranmer was compelled to observe, from Bocardo, a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried the canopy over Weston (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; and 1583, pp. 1463-64).

A ten-foot high scaffold was set up in St Mary's church at the east end for Brookes to represent the pope, from which Cranmer was condemned. 1563, p. , 1570, p. 2047 , 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe records Martyn's oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2049-50, 1576, pp. 1767-68, 1583, p. 1874.

Cranmer's profession of his faith was spoken in St Mary's church before those who condemned him. 1570, pp. 2050-52, 1576, pp. 1768-69, 1583, pp. 1874-75.

Foxe records Story's oration against Cranmer. 1576, pp. 1769-70, 1583, pp. 1875-76.

Foxe records Brookes' oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2054-56, 1576, pp. 1772-73, 1583, pp. 1878-79.

There was a talk between Martyn and Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2052-53, 1576, pp. 1770-72, 1583, pp. 1876-77.

Foxe records interrogatories and answers. 1570, p. 2054, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, pp. 1877-78.

The witnesses against Cranmer were Dr Marshall, commissary and dean of Christ's Church; Dr Smith, under commissary; Dr Tresham; Dr Crooke, London; Mr Curtop; Mr Warde; Mr Serles. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, p. 1879.

Story said that they were true witnesses, as they swore allegience to the pope. Cranmer was sent to Gloucester by Story. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1773, 1583, p. 1879.

Foxe records Cranmer's full answer to Brookes' oration against him. 1570, pp. 2057-58., 1576, pp. 1774-75, 1583, pp. 1880-81.

Cranmer stated that he was ambassador in Germany when Warham died. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1774, 1583, p. 1880.

Cranmer met with Dr Oliver and other civil lawyers to discuss the pope's authority. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

Martyn had demanded to know who Cranmer thought was supreme head of the church of England. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

A commission was sent from the pope regarding the sentencing of Cranmer. 1563, pp. 1490-91.

Thirlby and Bonner came to Cranmer with a new commission on 14 February 1556. 1570, pp. 2058-59, 1576, pp. 177576, 1583, pp. 1881-82.

Cranmer appealed. 1570, pp. 2059-61, 1576, pp. 1776-77, 1583, pp. 1882-83.

Cranmer's appeal was put to the bishop of Ely. 1570, p. 2062, 1576, p. 1777, 1583, p. 1883.

Bullinger sent commendations to Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554 (1570, pp. 1692-93; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Cranmer received a letter from Ridley, together with copies of Ridley's account of the disputation, and news about recent developments (1570, pp. 1633-34; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, pp. 1464-65; not in LM).

Foxe mentions Cranmer's condemnation and disputation in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer (1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97).

Cranmer was degraded. 1563, p. 1493.

Cranmer recanted. 1563, pp. 1497-98, 1570, p. 2062, 1576, pp. 1778-80, 1583, p. 1884.

Witnesses to Cranmer's recantation were Henry Sydall and Friar John de villa Garcina. 1570, pp. 2062-63, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1884.

Lord Williams, Thomas Bridges and Sir John Bourne arrived in Oxford, prior to Cranmer's martyrdom. 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

Cole was secretly asked to prepare a funeral sermon. 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

The deaths of Northumberland and Thomas More are referred to in the description of the death of Cranmer. 1570, p. 2064, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1885.

Foxe records Cranmer's prayer. 1570, pp. 2064-65, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1886.

Cranmer was pulled from the pulpit. 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1887.

Cole preached a sermon prior to the martyrdom of Cranmer. 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, pp. 1885-86.

Thomas Cranmer was burned. 1570, p. 2066, 1576, p. 1782, 1583, pp. 1887-88.

Cranmer's letters. 1563, pp. 1483-84, 1489, 1492-93, 1570, pp. 2067-72, 1576, pp. 1782-86, 1583, pp. 1889-93.

Henry VIII directed Cranmer and Cromwell (and others, including Stokesly) to examine John Frith. 1583, pp. 2126-27.

Buswell, a priest, spoke to Edward Benet whilst they were imprisoned together and gave him a copy of Cranmer's recantation. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Foxe includes a copy of the Pope's commission to proceed against Cranmer. 1583, p. 2132.

During his examination Weston and Smith challenged Cranmer over his book of the sacrament. 1583, p. 2135.

William Holcroft was charged with treason by Cole and Geffre for supporting Cranmer. 1583, p. 2135.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Martin

(d. 1597?)

Of Winterbourne St Martin, Dorset; Steeple Morden, Cambridge and London. DCL (1555), LLD (1587). MP Saltash (1553), Hindon (1554 and 1555), Ludgershall (1558). Chancellor to Stephen Gardiner by 1554. Commr. Visit Oxford University (1555), collect surveys and acct. religious houses (1556), heresy (1557), heretical books (1557). [Bindoff]

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Thomas Martin was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Thomas Martin searched John Hooper's room in the Fleet. 1563, p. 1056; 1570, pp. 1679-80; 1576, p. 1433; 1583, p. 1507.

George Tankerfield was sent into Newgate by Roger Cholmey and Dr Martin. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

Cranmer was examined by Brookes, Martin and Story. 1563, pp. 1479-83, 1570, pp. 2046-47, 1576, p. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

A new commission was sent to Rome for the restoration of the pope's authority to allow the condemnation of Cranmer. Those sent were: James Brookes, Martyn and Story . 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe records Martyn's oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2049-50, 1576, pp. 1767-68, 1583, p. 1874.

A talk took place between Cranmer and Martyn while Cranmer was in prison. 1576, pp. 1770-71, 1583, pp. 1876-77.

Martyn had demanded to know who Cranmer thought was supreme head of the church of England. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

John Careless' first examination was before Dr Martin, marshall of the King's Bench [Sir William Fitzwilliam - DNB + Hasler / Bindoff], Dr Martin's scribe and an unspecified priest in the lord chancellor's house. 1563, pp. 1529-35, 1570, pp. 2101-02, 1576, pp. 1813-14, 1583, pp. 1919-20.

Elizabeth Young's second examination was before Dr Martin. 1570, p. 2269, 1576, p. 1959, 1583, p. 2066.

Her third examination took place before Martin. 1570, pp. 2269-70, 1576, p. 1959, 1583, p. 2066.

Her fourth examination was before Bonner, Roger Cholmley, Cooke, Dr Roper of Kent, and Dr Martin. 1570, pp. 2270-71, 1576, pp. 1959-60, 1583, pp. 2066-67.

When Alexander Wimshurst arrived at St Paul's, he saw Chedsey, his old acquaintance at Oxford, and said to him that he would rather be examined by Martin than by anyone else. 1570, p. 2276, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2072.

Robert Horneby was delivered from condemnation by Dr Martin. 1570, p. 2288, 1576, p. 1975, 1583, p. 2082.

1913 [1889]

Queene Mary. A letter of D. Cranmer Archb. to Queene Mary.
MarginaliaAnno 1556. March. Letters of Doctor Tho. Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Commentary  *  Close
Cranmer's Letters

Given Cranmer's status and pre-eminence among Marian protestants, the amount of epistolary communication he had with his co-religionists was surprisingly small. Apart from his letters to his friend and supporter Joan Wilkinson and to his former protègè Rowland Taylor, his surviving letters dealt with his own legal situation. This was probably partly due to the vigilance with which Cranmer was guarded and probably partly due to the internal struggles Cranmer underwentafter the Oxford disputations in April 1554.

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None of Cranmer's letters are printed in the Rerum. His letters to Mary and to Thomas Martin and John Story were first printed in the 1563 edition as was his letter to a lawyer, written in Latin, about his appeal to a general council. In the 1570 edition, his letter to his lawyer was replaced with a translation of it. Cranmer's letters to Joan Wilkinson and Rowland Taylor were reprinted from the Letters of the Martyrs, where they first appeared, in the 1570 edition. No changes were made to the letters in subsequent editions.

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¶ The Archbishop of Canterburies letter to the Queenes highnesse. 
Commentary  *  Close

This letter was first printed during Mary's reign in The copy of certain letterssent to the quene (Emden: 1556?), STC 5999. This letter was reprinted in every edition of the Acts and Monuments and in Letters of the Martyrs, pp. 3-15. BL, Lansdowne 389, fos. 213v-222r; BL, Harley 417, fos. 69r-78v and ECL 260, fos.261r-265r are copies of this letter.

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MarginaliaA writing or letter of the Archb. sent to Queene Mary.IT may please your Maiestie to pardone my presumption, that I dare be so bold to write to your highnes. But very necessitie constraineth me, that your Maiestie may know my mynde rather by myne owne writyng, then by other mens reports. So it is that vppon Wednesday beyng the 12. day of this moneth.  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 91, fn 1

{Cattley/Pratt alters 'the 12. day' to 'the 7th day' in the text.} "Saturday being the seventh," is the reading in Coverdale's "Letters of the Martyrs" and in the First Edition of Foxe, p. 1485, and is undoubtedly the true one. In some later editions of Foxe it has been altered to "Wednesday, being the twelfth;" but the 12th of September, 1555, fell on a Thursday, and was the day on which Cranmer, as he says just below, was brought before Brooks at St. Mary's. See "Processus contra Cranmerum, in Strype;" Cranm. addend. p. 1073, Oxf. 1812; Wordsworth, Eccles. Biogr. vol. iii. p. 570. Jenkyns, in Cranmer's Works, vol. i. p. 369. - ED.

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I was citied to appeare at Rome, the 80. day after, there to make answer to such matters as should be obiected agaynst me vpon the behalfe of the K. & your most excellēt maiestie, which matters þe thursday following were obiected against me by D. Martin, and D.Story, your Maiesties Proctors, before the B. of Glocester, sitting in iudgement by commissiō from Rome. But (alas) it cannot but grieue the heart of a naturall subiect, to be accused of the King and Queene of his owne realm: and specially before an outward Iudge, or by authoritie commyng from any person out of this realme? MarginaliaThe king and Queene make themselues no better then subiectes complayning of their owne subiect vnto the Pope.where the king and Queene as they were subiects within their own Realme, shall complaine, and require Iustice at a straungers hands agaynst their owne subiectes, beyng alreadye condemned to death by their owne lawes: As though the king and Queene could not do or haue iustice within their owne Realmes agaynst their own subiects, but they must seeke it at a strangers hands in a straunge land: the lyke whereof (I thinke) was neuer seene. I would haue wished to haue had some meaner aduersaries: and I thinke that death shal not grieue me much more, then to haue my most dread and most gracious soueraigne Lord and Lady, to whome vnder God I do owe all obedience, to bee myne accusers in iudgement within their owne Realme, before any stranger and outward power. But forasmuch, as in the tyme of the prince of most famous memory kyng Henry the 8. your graces father, MarginaliaThe first cause why the Archb. would not make aunswere to the Popes delegate, is to auoyd periury.I was sworne neuer to consent, that the B. of Rome should haue or exercise any authoritie or iurisdiction in this realme of England, therfore least I should allow hys authoritie contrary to myne othe, I refused to make answer to the B. of Glocester sittyng here in iudgement by the Popes authoritie, least I should run into periurie.

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MarginaliaThe second cause is that the Popes lawes are contrary to the Crowne and lawes of England.An other cause why I refused the Popes authoritie, is this, that his authoritie as he claimeth it, repugneth to the crowne imperiall of this Realme, and to the lawes of the same: which euery true subiect is bound to defend. First, so that the Pope sayeth, that all manner of power, as well temporall as spirituall, is geuen first to hym of God, and that the temporall power hee geueth vnto Emperors and kyngs, to vse it vnder hym, but so as it be alwayes at hys commandement and becke.

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But contrary to this claime, the Imperiall crowne and iurisdiction temporal of this Realme, is taken immediately from God, to be vsed vnder hym onely, and is subiect vnto none, but to God alone.

MarginaliaThe othe of the King & Iustices, and the duety of Subiectes.Moreouer, to the Imperiall lawes & customes of this realme, the kyng in his Coronation, & all Iustices when they receiue their offices, be sworne, & all the whole realm is bound to defend and maintayne. But contrary hereunto, the Pope by his authoritie maketh voyde, & commandeth to blot out of our bookes, all lawes and customes beyng repugnant to his lawes, and declareth accursed al rulers and gouernours, all the makers, writers, & executors of such lawes or customes: as it appeareth by many of the Popes lawes, whereof one or two I shall reherse. In the decrees MarginaliaDist. 10. Constitutiones.Distinct. 10. is written thus: Constitutiones contra Canones & decreta præsulum Romanorū vel bonos mores, nullius sunt momenti. 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Decreti pars 1. dist. 10. § 4.
Foxe text Latin

Constitutiones contra Canones & decreta praesulum Romanorum vel bonos mores, nullius sunt momenti.

Foxe text translation

the constitutions or statutes enacted agaynst the Canons & decrees of the Byshops of Rome or their good customes, are of none effect.

Actual text of Decreti pars 1. dist. 10. §§ 4. Constitutiones

That is, The constitutiōs or statutes enacted agaynst the Canons and decrees of the Bishops of Rome or their good customes, are of none effect. MarginaliaExtrau, De Sententi et reiudic. Nouerit.Also, Extra, de sententia excommunicationis, nouerit: Excommunicamus omnes hæreticos vtriusque sexus, quocunque nomine censeantur, & fautores, & receptores, & defensores eorum: nec nō & qui de cætero feruari fecerint statuta edita & consuetudines, contra Ecclesiæ libertatem, nisi ea de capitularibus suis intra duos menses post huiusmodi publicationem sententiæ fecerint amoueri. Item excommunicamus statutarios, & scriptores statutorum ipsorum, nec non potestates, consules, rectores, & consiliarios locorum, vbi de cætero huiusmodi statuta & consuetudines editæ fuerint vel seruatæ: nec non & illos secundum ea præsumpserint iudicare, vel in publicam formam scribere iudicata. 
Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Gregory ix
Foxe text Latin

Extra, de sententia excommunicationis, nouerit: Excommunicamus omnes haereticos vtriusque sexus, quocunque nomine censeantur, & fautores, & receptores, & defensores eorum: nec non & qui de caetero seruari fecerint statuta edita & consuetudines, contra Ecclesiae libertatem, nisi ea de capitularibus suis intra duos menses, post huiusmodi publicationem sententiae fecerint amoueri. Item excommunicamus statutarios, & scriptores statutorum ipsorum, nec non potestates, consules, rectores, & consiliarios locorum, vbi de caetero huiusmodi statuta & consuetudines editae fuerint vel seruatae: nec non & illos qui secundum ea praesumpserint iudicare, vel in publicam formam scribere iudicata.

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Foxe text translation

We excommunicate all heretikes of both sexes, what name so euer they be called by, and their fautors and receptors and defenders: and also them that shall hereafter cause to be obserued the statutes & customs made agaynst the libertie of the Church, except they cause the same to be put out of their recordes and chapters with in two moneths after the publication hereof. Also we excommunicate the statute makers and writers of those statutes, and all the potestates, consuls, gouernours and counsellors of places, where such statutes and customes shall be made or kept: and also those that shall presume to geue iudgement accordyng to them, or shall notifie in publike forme the matters so iudged.

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Actual text of Decreta Gregorii ix. lib. 5, tit. 39. cap. 49. p. 276

 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 92, fn 2

[In the "Decret. Gregorii ix.," lib. v. tit. 39. cap. 49. p. 276., Corpus Juris Canon. Edit. Paris. 1687, this excommunication will be found. - ED.]

That is to say: We excommunicate all heretikes of both sexes, what name so euer they be called by, and theyr fautors and receptors and defenders: and also them that

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shall hereafter cause to be obserued the statutes & customs made agaynst the libertie of the Church, except they cause the same to be put out of their recordes and chapters with in two moneths after the publication hereof. Also we excommunicate the statute makers and writers of those statutes, and all the potestates, consuls, gouernours & counsellors of places, where such statutes and customes shall be made or kept: and also those that shall presume to geue iudgement accordyng to them, or shall notifie in publike forme the matters so iudged.

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MarginaliaThe Popes lawes and the lawes of England do vary how and wherein.Now by these lawes, if the Bish. of Romes authoritie which he claymeth by God, be lawfull: all your Graces lawes and customes of your Realme, being contrary to the Popes lawes be naught, and as well your Maiestie, as your Iudges, Iustices, and all other executors of the same, stand accursed amongest heretikes, which God forbid. And yet this curse can neuer be auoyded (if the Pope haue such power as he claimeth) vntill such tyme as the lawes and customes of this Realme (beyng contrary to his lawes) be taken away & blotted out of the law books. And although there be many lawes of this Realme contrary to the lawes of Rome, yet I named but a fewe: as to conuict a Clarke before any temporall Iudge of this Realme for debt, fellony, murther, or for any other crime: which Clarkes by the Popes lawes bee so exempt frō the Kyngs lawes, that they can be no where sued, but before their ordinary.

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MarginaliaCases wher in the popes lawes repugne agaynst our lawes.Also the Pope by his lawes may geue all bishoprikes and benefices spiritual, which by the lawes of this realm, can be geuen but onely by the kyng and other patrones of the same, except they fall into the lapse.

By the Popes lawes Ius patronatus, shall be sued only before the Ecclesiasticall Iudge: but by the lawes of the Realme, it shall be sued before the temporall Iudge.

MarginaliaProuision agaynst the popes lawes by Premunire.And to be short, the lawes of this realme do agree with the Popes lawes like fire and water. And yet the Kings of this realm haue prouided for their lawes by the premunire: so that if any man haue let the execution of þe lawes of this realme by any authority from the Sea of Rome, he falleth into the premunire.

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MarginaliaThe prouision of the Pope agaynst our Premunire.But to meete with this, the Popes haue prouided for their lawes by cursing. For whosoeuer letteth the Popes lawes to haue ful course within this realm, by the Popes power standeth accursed. So that the Popes power treadeth all the lawes and customs of this Realme vnder his feete, cursing all that execute them, vntil such tyme as they geue place vnto his lawes.

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MarginaliaMarke this well.But it may be sayd, that notwithstanding all þe Popes decrees, yet we do execute still the lawes and customes of this realme. Nay, not all quietly without interruption of the Pope. And where we do execute them, yet we do it vniustly, if the Popes power be of force, and for the same we stand excommunicate, and shall do, vntill we leaue the execution of our owne lawes and customes. Thus we bee wel reconciled to Rome, allowyng such authority, wherby the Realme standeth accursed before God, if the Pope haue any such authority.

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These thynges (as I suppose) were not fully opened in the Parliament house, when the Popes authority was receiued agayne within this realme: for if they had, I doe not beleeue that either the kyng or Queenes Maiesty, or the noblest of this Realme, or the Commons of the same would euer haue consented to receiue agayne such a forraine authority, so iniurious, hurtfull, and preiudiciall as well to the crowne as to the lawes and customs and state of this Realme, as whereby they must needes acknowledge themselues to be accursed. * MarginaliaThe Clergyes duety in the Parlament. But none coulde open this matter well but the Clergy, and such of them as had red the Popes lawes, whereby the Pope had made hymselfe as it were a God. These seeke to maintaine þe Pope, whom they desired to haue their chiefe head, to the intent they might haue as it were a kyngdome and lawes within themselues, distinct from the lawes of the crowne, and wherewith the crowne may not meddle: and so being exempted from the lawes of the Realme, might liue in this Realme lyke lordes and kings, without damage or feare of any man, so that they please their high and supreme hed at Rome. MarginaliaThe Clergy of England more addicted to the Pope then to their true alleageance to their Countrey.For this consideration (I weene) some þt knew the truth, held their peace in the Parliament, whereas if they had done their duties to the crowne & whole realme, they should haue opened their mouths, declared the truth, and shewed the perils and daungers that might ensue to the crowne and realme.

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And if I should agree to allow such authoritie within this Realme, whereby I must needes confesse, that your most gracious highnes, and also your realme should euer continue accursed, vntill ye shall cease from the execution of your own lawes and customs of your realme: I could

not
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