Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
George Ambrose

(d.1556)

Fuller. Martyr. Of Essex.

George Ambrose was sent up to London by Lord Rich, Tyrrell and others for examination. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Ambrose was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 21 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

He remained in the Marshalsea for around one year, until the death of Gardiner. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

After Gardiner's death he and some of his fellow prisoners sent a petition on behalf of all of them to Heath after he replaced Gardiner as lord chancellor. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

On 16 January 1555 Read was sent to the Marshalsea to examine Richard Spurge, Thomas Spurge, George Ambrose and John Cavel. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Read was told during the examination of 16 January 1555 that the Spurges, Ambrose and Cavel had been complained of by the parson of the church in Bocking. The priest had complained to Lord Rich, who had taken the complaint further. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Ambrose was condemned by Bonner on 28 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Under examination by Read Spurge, Ambrose stated that he had not gone to church because they did not practice true doctrine there. He also stated that he had read Gardiner's De Vera Obedientia and Bonner's preface to it. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He was burned around 24 April 1556 at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Ambrose was one of the recipients of a letter by John Careless to his condemned brethren in Newgate. 1563, pp. 1449-50, 1570, pp. 2105-06, 1576, pp. 1817-18, 1583, pp. 1923-24.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Cavel

(d. 1556)

John Cavel was sent up to London by Lord Rich, Tyrrel and others for examination. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Cavel was examined by Richard Read, the Lord Chancellor, on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [note that 1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

On 28 March he was brought before Bonner to be condemned. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He remained in the Marshalsea for around one year, until the death of Gardiner. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

After Gardiner's death he and some of his fellow prisoners sent a petition to Heath, after he replaced Gardiner as lord chancellor, on behalf of them all. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Richard Read was told during his examination of 16 January 1555 that the Spurges, Ambrose and Cavel had been complained of by the parson of the church in Bocking. The priest had complained to Lord Rich, who had taken the complaint further. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Under examination by Read, Cavel claimed that he had not gone to church because the minister preached two different and contrary doctrines. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

Cavel was condemned by Bonner on 28 March 1556. 1563, p. 1506, 1570, p. 2077, 1576, p. 1791, 1583, p. 1898.

He was burned around 24 April 1556 at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1506, 1570, p. 2077, 1576, pp. 1791-92, 1583, p. 1898.

Cavel was one of the recipients of a letter by John Careless to his condemned brethren in Newgate. 1563, pp. 1449-50, 1570, pp. 2105-06, 1576, pp. 1817-18, 1583, pp. 1923-24.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Gye

John Gye was servant to Master Tyrrell. He was a herd at Tyrell's farm called Plumborough. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He was blamed by Tyrrell for allowing sermons in the woods near Hockley to take place. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Tyrrell tried unsucessfully to force John Gye to seek out Tyms, whom Tyrrell believed to be behind the sermons in the woods. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Gye had his coat taken from him by Tyrrell, who then gave it to John Trayfor; he was then sent to 'S. Tosies'. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Lord Richard Rich

(1496? - 1567)

1st Baron Rich (DNB)

Richard Rich was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 9 July 1553, from the Privy Council to Princess Mary, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Lady Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1658; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was present at Thomas Watson's Paul's cross sermon, 20 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey, 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Rich was one of the signatories to a letter, dated 27 November 1554, sent from the Privy Council to Bonner, informing the bishop that Mary was pregnant and ordering him to have prayers and Te Deums said throughout the diocese (1563, pp. 1014-15; 1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, pp. 1475-76).

 
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Nicholas Heath

(1501? - 1578)

Bishop of Worcester (1543 - 1551, 1553 - 1555). Archbishop of York (1555 - 1560). Lord Chancellor (1556 - 1559). Descended from the Heaths of Apsley, Tamworth. [DNB]

Heath was deprived as bishop of Worcester under Edward VI; he was reinstated by Mary. 1563, p. 1053; 1570, p. 1678; 1576, p. 1432; 1583, p. 1505.

He was one of the commissioners who interrogated Robert Ferrar on 4 February 1555. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, pp. 1553-54.

On 23 February 1555 the archbishop of York (Nicholas Heath) and the bishop of Chichester (George Day) went to the Counter to speak with Bradford. Heath was gentle towards Bradford when they met. Heath told Bradford that they had not been sent to him but that they had come out of love and charity. Heath knew Bradford better than Day did. 1563, pp. 1204-08, 1570, pp. 1794-97, 1576, pp. 1532-34, 1583, pp. 1615-17.

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A discussion about salvation and other things took place between Bradford and Heath and Day, which lasted three hours. 1563, pp. 1204-08.

Heath and Day left Bradford because the bishop of Durham was waiting at Master York's house. 1563, p. 1208.

Ridley was kind to Heath during Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Philpot's fourth examination was in John Harpsfield's house before Bonner, Bath, Worcester [Heath] and Gloucester. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

Philpot's twelfth examination on 4 December 1555 was before Bonner, Worcester and Bangor. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

During Philpot's twelfth examination, Worcester told Philpot that Durham and Chichester would be coming to speak with him. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

Philpot spoke with Worcester, Wright and Chadsey later the same day. 1570, pp. 1993-94, 1576, p. 1717, 1583, pp. 1823-24.

Philpot's thirteenth examination was before York [Heath], Chichester and others. 1570, p. 1996, 1576, pp. 1717-19, 1583, pp. 1824-26.

The last examination of Philpot was on 16 December 1555 before Bonner and other bishops, including York. 1563, p. 1441, 1570, pp. 1997-98, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

After Cromwell was apprehended, Bishops Heath and Skip forsook Cranmer and stood against him. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, pp. 1865-66.

Heath questioned Cranmer about his bill against the mass. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, pp. 1764-64, 1583, p. 1871.

Drakes, Tyms, Spurge, Cavell and Ambrose petitioned Heath over their long imprisonment. 1563, p. 1504, 1570, p. 2073, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

The receipt of a writ about Thomas Spicer, John Denny and Edmund Poole from Heath was delayed. 1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2093, 1576, p. 1793, 1583, p. 1912.

Robert Farrer was examined before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Robert Rochester, Sir Richard Southwell and Gilbert Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

On 15 December 1557 a letter was sent by the archbishop of York, the earl of Shrewsbury, Edward Hastings, Anthony Montague, John Bourne and Henry Jernegam (members of the privy council) to Bishop Bonner along with the examinations of John Rough. They sent Rough to Newgate. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, pp. 1921-22., 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

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Nicholas Heath was a participant in the Westminster disputation of 1559. 1563, p. 1717, 1583, p. 2119.

He was imprisoned in the Tower after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1993, 1583, p. 2101.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley

(d. 1555) (DNB)

Bishop of London (1550 - 1553). Martyr. [DNB]

Nicholas Ridley gave John Rogers a prebend in St Paul's (1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484).

He led the bishops who compelled John Hooper to wear vestments at his consecration. Ridley wrote a letter to Hooper apologising for this in Mary's reign (1563, pp. 1050-2; 1570, pp. 1676-7; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5).

He preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, at the behest of the privy council, supporting Jane Grey's claim to the throne. After Mary's accession Ridley visited the queen at Framlingham and was arrested (1563, p. 903; 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; and 1583, p. 1408).

He was engaged, over dinner with John Feckenham and Sir John Bourne, in a debate on the nature of the eucharist. An account of the debate, 'penned with his own hand,' is first printed in 1563, (1563, pp. 928-31; 1570, pp. 1589-91; 1576, pp. 1356-58; and 1583, pp. 1426-28). There is no earlier printed version or manuscript of the exchange.

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Ridley was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, p. 933 and 937-38; 1570, p. 1593; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; 1583, pp. 1429-30).

[NB: There is a summary of Ridley's disputation on Tuesday 17 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, pp 933-34].

Ridley disputed with Richard Smith and the other catholic doctors on 17 April 1554 (1563, p. 957-78; 1570, pp. 1606-22; 1576, pp. 1370-84; 1583, pp. 1441-54).

Ridley's preface to his account of the disputation is 1563, pp. 956-57 and (in a differently worded version) 1570, p. 1632; 1576, pp. 1392-93; 1583, p. 1463.

Ridley's conclusion to his account of the Oxford disputations is printed (only) in 1563, p. 978.

Ridley wrote to Weston protesting the conduct of the 1554 Oxford disputations and demanding that Ridley's written responses to the three propositions be shown to the higher house of convocation (1563, p. 977; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, pp. 1393-94; 1583, p. 1464).

The queen's letter ordering Ridley, together with Cranmer and Latimer, to be held in the custody of the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford during the disputation is printed in 1563, p. 999.

He was summoned, together with Cranmer and Latimer, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant what he had said during the disputations. He was condemned and taken to the sheriff's house (1563, pp. 935-38; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, pp. 1463-64).

On 21 April 1554, Ridley was compelled to observe, having been brought from the sheriff's house, a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried a canopy over Weston (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, p. 1464).

Ridley wrote a letter to Cranmer, which was sent together with copies of his account of the disputation and news of recent developments (1570, pp. 1633-34; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, pp. 1464).

Foxe mentions Ridley's condemnation and disputation in passing in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469.

In a letter of 10 October 1554, Heinrich Bullinger asked John Hooper to pass his commendations toRidley, Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer (1570, p. 1692; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Ridley was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ridley, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer from the Marshalsea(1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97).

Foxe describes Ridley's character. 1563, p. 1283, 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

John Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Ridley called Bradford to take the position of deacon and, at Bradford's willing, ordered him deacon. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He led the bishops who compelled John Hooper to wear vestments at his consecration. Ridley wrote a letter to Hooper apologising for this in Mary's reign. 1563, pp. 1050-2; 1570, pp. 1676-7; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5.

In a letter of 10 October 1554, Heinrich Bullinger asked John Hooper to pass his commendations to Ridley, Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer. 1570, p. 1692; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Ridley was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms. 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ridley, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer from the Marshalsea.1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Foxe recounts the life of Ridley. 1563, pp. 1283-96, 1570, pp. 1895-96, 1576, pp. 1623-24, 1583, pp. 1717-30.

Ridley was kind to Heath, archbishop of York during Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley was kind to Edmund Bonner's mother. She would dine at Ridley's manor in Fulham with Ridley and Mistress Mungey, Bonner's sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley's sister and her husband, George Shipside, were also kind to Bonner's mother and sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1717-18.

Ridley was converted through the reading of Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

After Mary's accession, Ridley was kept first in the Tower, then in the Bocardo in Oxford, and then held in custody at Master Irish's house until his death. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley was cast into Bocardo prison with Hugh Latimer. 1563, p. 1285, 1583, p. 1718.

A conference took place between Ridley and Latimer in prison on the objections of Antonian, in other words, those of a popish persecutor, such as Winchester. 1563, pp. 1285-94, 1583, pp. 1718-24.

Letters of Ridley. 1570, pp. 1896-1902, 1576, pp. 1624-30, 1583, pp. 1724-30.

A letter was sent by Ridley to West, in which Ridley asked West and also Dr Harvey to remember their promises to him. Foxe also includes West's letter and Ridley's response. 1570, pp. 1900-01, 1576, pp. 1627-28, 1583, pp. 1728-29.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. He mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. He had heard that West had relented, and Grimald been cast into the Marshalsea. He had also heard that Thomas Ridley, of the Bull-head in Cheapside, had died. He had heard that his brother-in-law, Shipside, had spent much time in prison but was now released. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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The examination of Ridley and Latimer by White (Lincoln) and Brookes (Gloucester) took place on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from Cardinal Poole. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

A communication took place between Ridley and Brookes in Irish's house on 15 October, on which day he was degraded, and at which Edridge ('reader then of the Greek lecture') was present.. 1563, pp. 1374-76, 1570, pp. 1934-35, 1576, pp. 1659-60, 1583, pp. 1768-69.

Ridley had a discussion with Brookes on 16 October, on which day he was degraded. 1563, pp. 1374-76.

Foxe recounts the behaviour of Ridley at supper the night before he was martyred. 1563, pp. 1376-79, 1570, pp. 1936-37, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Foxe recounts the behaviour of Ridley and Latimer at their martyrdom. 1563, pp. 1376-1379, 1570, pp. 1937-39, 1576, pp. 1661-62, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley gave his gown and tippet to Shipside. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley gave a new groat to Henry Lea. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley spoke with Lord Williams before his martyrdom. 1563, p. 1379, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1662, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley's friendly farewell. 1563, pp. 1379-81, 1570, pp. 1939-43, 1576, pp. 1622-28, 1583, pp. 1770-76.

Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Cranmer was confirmed in his reformist beliefs after conference with Ridley. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1556 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

In the third year of Edward's reign, Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Robert Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Letter to Augustine Bernher [BL, Harley 416, fo.16v. Printed in LM, p. 72 et seq. Also in 1570, p. 1902 et seq.].

Letter to Augustine Bernher [BL Harley 416, fos.17v and 32r. Not printed in Foxe or LM].

Letter to Bernher [BL Harley 416, fo.32r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letter to Bradford. [BL Harley 416, fo.32v. Printed in LM, pp. 62 et seq. and 1570, p. 1897 et seq.]

Foxe records Nicholas Ridley's writings against idolatry. 1583, pp. 2128-31.

Lord Dacre would have paid a ransom to Mary for his kinsman Nicholas Ridley's life if it were possible but she refused. 1563, p. 1733, 1583, p. 2131.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Richard Spurge

(d. 1556)

Shearman. Martyr. Of Essex. Probably related to Thomas Spurge [brother?]

Richard Spurge was sent up to London by Lord Rich, Tyrrell and others for examination. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

He remained in the Marshalsea for around one year, until the death of Gardiner. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

After Gardiner's death Spurge and some of his fellow prisoners sent a petition to Heath, after he replaced Gardiner as lord chancellor, on behalf of all of them. 1563, p. 1504, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, pp. 1788-89, 1583, p. 1895.

On 16 January 1555 Read was sent to the Marshalsea to examine Richard Spurge, Thomas Spurge, George Ambrose and John Cavel. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Read was told during his examination of 16 January 1555 that the Spurges, Ambrose and Cavel had been complained of by the parson of the church in Bocking. The priest had complained to Lord Rich, who had taken the complaint further. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Under examination by Read, Spurge stated that he had not gone to church because they did not practice true doctrine there. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Spurge was condemned by Bonner on 28 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He was burned around 24 April 1556 at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Richard Spurge was one of the recipients of a letter by John Careless to his condemned brethren in Newgate. 1563, pp. 1449-50, 1570, pp. 2105-06, 1576, pp. 1817-18, 1583, pp. 1923-24.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Robert Drakes

(d. 1556)

Priest. Martyr. Of Thundersley, Essex.

Robert Drakes was made a deacon by Rowland Taylor, at the commandment of Thomas Cranmer. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

In third year of Edward's reign, Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Drakes was presented to the benefice of Thundersley by Lord Rich, at the suit of Master Causton and Master Treheron. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He was sent up to London by Lord Rich, Tyrrell and others for examination. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He remained in either the Marshalsea or the King's Bench for around one year, until the death of Gardiner. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Drakes was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [note that 1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

After Gardiner's death some of Drakes' fellow prisoners sent a petition to Heath after he replaced Gardiner as lord chancellor on behalf of them all. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He was condemned by Bonner on 28 March 1556. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He was burned 24 April 1556 at Smithfield with William Tyms, Richard Spurge, Thomas Spurge, John Cavel, and George Ambrose. 1563, p. 1504, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Drakes was one of the recipients of a letter by John Careless to his condemned brethren in Newgate. 1563, pp. 1449-50, 1570, pp. 2105-06, 1576, pp. 1817-18, 1583, pp. 1923-24.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Rowland Taylor

(d. 1555)

Rector of Hadleigh. Martyr [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Rowland Taylor's life and early career. 1563, p. 1065; 1570, p. 1693; 1576, pp. 1445-6; 1583, pp. 1518-19.

[A letter from William Turner to John Foxe describing, among other things, Rowland's early life and background survives among Foxe's papers (BL, Harley 416, fols. 132r-133r). Foxe never printed this information].

Foxe recounts Taylor's conflict with catholics in Hadleigh; Taylor was summoned before Stephen Gardiner and refused to flee. 1563, pp. 1065-68; 1570, pp. 1693-95; 1576, pp. 1446-47; 1583, pp. 1519-20. [Note that this contradicts the next entry, in which the privy council orders Taylor's arrest in Hadleigh].

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The privy council ordered Sir Henry Doyle and one Foster to arrest Rowland Taylor and one Henry Alskewe (or Askew in Foxe) and bring them before the council on 26 March 1554 (1583, p. 1428, from APC 1554 - 1556, p. 3).

Taylor's first examination by Stephen Gardiner and deprivation of his livings: 1563, pp. 1068-71; 1570, pp. 1695-96; 1576, pp. 1447-48; 1583, pp. 1520-21.

On 6 May 1554, John Hooper wrote to Taylor and his fellow prisoners, Robert Ferrar, John Bradford and John Philpot,discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Taylor was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against a proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He wrote an account of his examination by Stephen Gardiner on 22 January 1555 and also wrote defending clerical marriage. 1563, pp. 1071-74; 1570, pp. 1696-99; 1576, pp. 1448-50; 1583, pp. 1520-21.

[An eyewitness account of Rowland Taylor's fourth and final examination, which Foxe did not print, is found in Foxe's papers: BL, Harley MS 590, fols. 64r-68r].

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Taylor and his fellow prisoners John Bradford, Robert Ferrar and John Philpot. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1428; 1583, pp. 1501-02.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Taylor was brought before Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

[An eyewitness account of Rowland Taylor's fourth and final examination, which Foxe did not print, is found in Foxe's papers: BL, Harley MS 590, fols. 64r-68r].

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His condemnation, degradation, last supper with his family and his will: 1563, pp. 1074-76; 1570, pp. 1699-1700; 1576, pp. 1450-51; 1583, pp. 1523-25.

His journey to Hadleigh and execution there on 9 February 1555: 1563, pp. 1076-80; 1570, pp. 1700-03; 1576, pp. 1451-54; 1583, pp. 1525-27.

He wrote a letter to Margaret Taylor. 1570, pp. 1703-05; 1576, pp. 1454-56; 1583, pp. 1527-29.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Stephen Knight and William Pygot claimed that they were taught their religious beliefs by Rowland Taylor. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

Rowland Taylor's martyrdom is referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

In a letter to Laurence Saunders, John Bradford stated that he should refer to the answers of both Taylor and Philpot when considering the plight of Saunder's friend, mentioned in Saunder's letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1195, 1570, p. 1815, 1576, p. 1550-51, 1583, p. 1633.

Rowland Taylor was mentioned in a letter by John Bradford to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Ridley, in a letter to John Bradford and others, expressed his joy at hearing the report of Dr Taylor and his godly confession. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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Taylor made Robert Drakes a deacon, at the commandment of Thomas Cranmer. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Joan Waste said that the doctrine taught and sermons given by Dr Taylor were believed by Taylor and others to be a true doctrine. 1570, p. 2138, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1952.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Richard Read

Officer of the Court of Chancery. Alderman of London; JP Essex and Middlesex (1555) [SP11/5, no. 6]

Sir Richard Read was ordered by the privy council to examine Sir Thomas Benger, Cary, John Dee and John Field on 5 and 7 May 1555. 1583, p. 1581.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries. It was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

George Ambrose was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 21 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

Drakes was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

Richard Read was told during his examinations of 16 January 1555 that the Spurges, Ambrose and Cavel had been complained of by the parson of the church in Bocking. The priest had complained to Lord Rich who had taken the complaint further. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Cavel was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

Richard and Thomas Spurge were examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

Tyms was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

Commemorations were given to Read at King's College shortly after the exhumation of Bucer, at the commission's command. 1576, p. 1866, 1583, p. 1960.

Read was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Causton

(d. 1555)

Gentleman. Of Hornden on the Hill, Essex. Martyr.

Robert Drakes was presented to the benefice of Thundersley by Lord Rich, at the suit of Master Causton and Master Treheron. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Causton was denounced to Bishop Bonner and detained with Thomas Higbed. Bonner and John Feckenham came to Colchester to try to convert them. When these efforts failed Causton and Higbed were transported to London. 1563, pp. 1103-4; 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

He was examined by Bonner on 17 February 1555. 1563, p. 1104; 1570, pp. 1716-17; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

He was examined by Bonner on 18 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1104 and 1108-9; 1570, p. 1717; 1576, pp. 1465-66; 1583, pp. 1539-40 [The 1563 edition gives the date as 'xxviii Feb.', this was probably a misprint].

He was examined by Bonner on 1 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1104-5; 1570, pp. 1717-18; 1576, pp. 1465-66; 1583, p. 1540.

He was examined by Bonner on 8 March 1555. 1563, p. 1105; 1570, p. 1718; 1576, p. 1466; 1583, p. 1540.

He was examined and condemned by Bonner on 9 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1105-7; 1570, pp. 1718-19; 1576, pp. 1476-78; 1583, pp. 1541-42.

Causton was sent to Newgate and then taken to Raylegh, Essex, for execution on 26 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1107-8; 1570, pp. 1719-20; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1542.

[Foxe sometimes refers to him as 'Causon' or 'Cawson'.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Cranmer

(1489 - 1556)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1533 - 1553) [Fasti; DNB; MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer, 1996]. Martyr

Foxe records the life, condemnation and death of Cranmer. 1563, pp. 1470-1503, 1570, pp. 2032-71, 1576, pp. 1752-82, 1583, pp. 1859-90.

Foxe records Cranmer's formative years and early career. His mother was Agnes Hatfield. Cranmer read the works of Faber, Erasmus and Luther. 1563, pp. 1470-71, 1570, pp. 2032-33, 1576, pp. 1752-53, 1583, pp. 1859-60.

Cranmer was asked by Dr Capon to be a founding fellow of Wolsey's college. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

Alexander Seton and Edward Foxe lodged with Cressey while Thomas Cranmer was there and dined with him. The following day Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

Cranmer was sent as Henry VIII's ambassador to the emperor. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

He was made archbishop of Canterbury. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

Cranmer was asked by Henry VIII to search the scriptures for a case for his divorce from Catherine of Arragon. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1860.

Henry VIII asked the earl of Wiltshire to allow Cranmer to stay at his house in Durham. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1861.

Cranmer went to Mr Cressey's house at Waltham Abbey during the summer plague season. Cranmer's wife was a relative of Cressey. 1570, p. 2033 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1860.

Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

The pope's authority was discussed at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, where it was concluded that Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Arragon was not legal, and the pope's authority was denounced. Cranmer, the earl of Wiltshire, Stokesley, Carne and Benet were then sent before the pope to deliver these conclusions. 1563, p. 1472, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1861. [1563 has the commission as consisting of: Bonner, Winchester, Sampson, Repps, Goodricke, Latimer, Shaxton, and Barlow.]

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Cranmer met with Cornelius Agrippa. 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1861.

Cromwell was sent with Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer at Lambeth. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1862.

Chersey, a grocer in the city of London, had a kinsman who was a priest and who spent more time in the alehouse than his church. This priest spoke against Cranmer in the alehouse one day. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1863.

The priest was sent to the Fleet. Cromwell forgot about him and eventually sent him to Cranmer. Cranmer in time spoke to the priest and set him free. 1570, pp. 2036-38, 1576, pp. 1756-57, 1583, pp. 1863-64.

Cranmer investigated the case of a woman accused of committing adultery. 1563, pp. 1477-78, 1576, pp. 1570-71.

Cranmer sent a token via W. P. [William Porrege] to a woman falsely accused of adultery, asking for forgiveness for the treatment she received while in custody. 1563, p. 1478, 1576, p. 1751.

Lord Wryosley wept at the bedside of King Henry VIII and saved the life of Mary, Henry and Catherine's daughter. 1563, p. 1478.

Thomas Seymour spoke against Cranmer to the king, which he later regretted. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

Richard Neville, noting that Sir Thomas Seymour was hoping to see Cranmer, brought him to the archbishop at dinner. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

After Cromwell was apprehended, bishops Heath and Skip forsook Cranmer and stood against him. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, pp. 1865-66.

Winchester and others tried to take Cranmer out of the king's favour. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

The king sent Sir Anthony Denny to commit Cranmer to the Tower. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

Cranmer spoke with the king. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

Buttes, the king's physician, spoke to the king about the fact that Cranmer was being forced to wait like a lackey to come into council. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1866.

The king and the council made their peace with Cranmer. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Sir John Gostwicke accused Cranmer of heresy before parliament, citing his sermons at Sandwich and his lectures at Canterbury as evidence. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Prebendaries and justices of Kent accused Cranmer of heresy. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Articles were put to Henry VIII against Cranmer. Henry VIII told Cranmer what these articles were. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

A commission was sent to Kent to find out the truth about Cranmer's beliefs and the charges of heresy against him. The commission members were Dr Belhouse, Chauncellor Cox and Hussey the registrar. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1867.

Cranmer's secretary wrote to Buttes and Denny asking for Dr Lee to join the commission, lest nothing be learned by the commission. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

A conspiracy against Cranmer was discovered through some letters that were found, including one by the suffragen of Dover and one by Barbar, a civilian maintained in Cranmer's household as a counsellor in matters of law. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer spoke with Dover and Barber. Barber said that hanging was too good for villains. They asked for Cranmer's forgiveness. 1570, pp. 2042-43, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer was confirmed in his reformist beliefs after a conference with Ridley. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer's wife is mentioned as a niece to the wife of Osiander. Cranmer was married while acting as the king's ambassador to Charles the emperor. 1563, p. 1478, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer was opposed to the writings of Gardiner. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Rowland Taylor left Cranmer's household to become rector of Hadleigh (1563, p. 1065; 1570, p. 1693; 1576, p. 1495; 1583, p. 1519). [Actually Taylor was Cranmer's chaplain.]

Cranmer commanded Rowland Taylor to make Robert Drakes a deacon. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

In the third year of Edward's reign Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Robert Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Foxe states that at his death Edward VI bequeathed the throne to Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer refused to swear allegience to Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, pp. 2045-46, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

The dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk were executed for their support of Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Lady Jane and her husband were beheaded. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe states that those who were blinded with ignorance or malice thought Peter Martyr not a learned man. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472].

A mass was said at Canterbury by Thornden after the death of Edward VI. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Scory, bishop of Rochester, visited Cranmer. He took a copy of Cranmer's writings about the rumour that he had said the mass (when Thornden had in fact said it) and had it published. Cranmer was commanded to appear before the council and bring an inventory of his goods. 1563, p. 1479, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

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Heath questioned Cranmer about his bill against the mass. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, pp. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

Cranmer was examined by Brookes, Martyn and Story. 1563, pp. 1479-83, 1570, pp. 2046-47, 1576, p. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

Cranmer was accused of conspiring with John Dudley, duke of Northumberland. 1563, p. 1483, 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Thomas Cranmer met with Peter Martyr, about 5 September 1553, in London, to discuss a projected disputation where they would defend the Book of Common Prayer. Cranmer was then arrested (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 13 September Cranmer was ordered to appear before the privy council. On 14 September he was charged by the privy council with treason and spreading seditious libels and was committed to the Tower (1583, p. 1410).

He was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was cited to appear before the queen's commissioners on 27 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1465).

Rumoured to have celebrated a mass at Canterbury, Cranmer issued a denial or 'purgation' of the rumours on 7 September 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1465).

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1553 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

He was committed to the Tower on 14 September 1553 (1570, p. 1466; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1466).

A rumor spread that Cranmer had recanted his protestant conviction and allowed a mass to be celebrated at Canterbury; he issued a printed denial of this. In the denial, he offered to defend his religious beliefs in open debate together with Peter Martyr. Cranmer was imprisoned and arraigned for treason but ultimately pardoned. He was still charged with heresy (1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418).

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He was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, pp. 932 and 937; 1570, pp. 1592-93; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; and 1583, p. 1429).

[NB: There is a summary of Cranmer's disputation on Monday 16 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, p. 933.]

Cranmer disputed with the catholic doctors on 16 April 1554 (1563, pp. 938-56; 1570, pp. 1593-1606; 1576, pp. 1360-70; and 1583, pp. 1430-41).

He disputed with John Harpsfield on the nature of the eucharist as part of Harpsfield's obtaining his D.D. on 19 April 1554 (1563, pp 987-90; 1570, pp. 1629-31; 1576, pp. 1390-91; and 1583, pp. 1460-62).

Cranmer wrote to the privy council on 23 April 1554, protesting at the way in which the Oxford disputations were conducted. Weston opened the letter and refused to deliver it (1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, p. 1464).

The queen's letter ordering Cranmer to be held in the custody of the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford during the disputation is printed in 1563, p. 999.

A new commission was sent to Rome for the restoration of the pope's authority to allow the condemnation of Cranmer. Those sent were: James Brookes, Martyn and Story . 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

He was summoned, together with Ridley and Latimer, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant his opinions and denied Weston's claim that he had been defeated in the disputation, claiming that the questions and challenges flew at him without order or giving him time to answer. He was condemned and taken to Bocardo (1563, pp. 935-36; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; and 1583, pp. 1463-64).

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Bullinger sent commendations to Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554. 1570, pp. 1692-93; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer. 1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Ridley was converted through reading Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1895 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, p. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe records Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he made reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Ridley hoped to see Cranmer before his death, but Cranmer was with Friar Soto. 1570, p. 1936, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Cranmer was condemned by Weston and others of the university. He was committed to the mayor and sheriffs of Oxford. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

On 21 April 1554, Cranmer was compelled to observe, from Bocardo, a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried the canopy over Weston (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; and 1583, pp. 1463-64).

A ten-foot high scaffold was set up in St Mary's church at the east end for Brookes to represent the pope, from which Cranmer was condemned. 1563, p. , 1570, p. 2047 , 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe records Martyn's oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2049-50, 1576, pp. 1767-68, 1583, p. 1874.

Cranmer's profession of his faith was spoken in St Mary's church before those who condemned him. 1570, pp. 2050-52, 1576, pp. 1768-69, 1583, pp. 1874-75.

Foxe records Story's oration against Cranmer. 1576, pp. 1769-70, 1583, pp. 1875-76.

Foxe records Brookes' oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2054-56, 1576, pp. 1772-73, 1583, pp. 1878-79.

There was a talk between Martyn and Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2052-53, 1576, pp. 1770-72, 1583, pp. 1876-77.

Foxe records interrogatories and answers. 1570, p. 2054, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, pp. 1877-78.

The witnesses against Cranmer were Dr Marshall, commissary and dean of Christ's Church; Dr Smith, under commissary; Dr Tresham; Dr Crooke, London; Mr Curtop; Mr Warde; Mr Serles. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, p. 1879.

Story said that they were true witnesses, as they swore allegience to the pope. Cranmer was sent to Gloucester by Story. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1773, 1583, p. 1879.

Foxe records Cranmer's full answer to Brookes' oration against him. 1570, pp. 2057-58., 1576, pp. 1774-75, 1583, pp. 1880-81.

Cranmer stated that he was ambassador in Germany when Warham died. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1774, 1583, p. 1880.

Cranmer met with Dr Oliver and other civil lawyers to discuss the pope's authority. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

Martyn had demanded to know who Cranmer thought was supreme head of the church of England. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

A commission was sent from the pope regarding the sentencing of Cranmer. 1563, pp. 1490-91.

Thirlby and Bonner came to Cranmer with a new commission on 14 February 1556. 1570, pp. 2058-59, 1576, pp. 177576, 1583, pp. 1881-82.

Cranmer appealed. 1570, pp. 2059-61, 1576, pp. 1776-77, 1583, pp. 1882-83.

Cranmer's appeal was put to the bishop of Ely. 1570, p. 2062, 1576, p. 1777, 1583, p. 1883.

Bullinger sent commendations to Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554 (1570, pp. 1692-93; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Cranmer received a letter from Ridley, together with copies of Ridley's account of the disputation, and news about recent developments (1570, pp. 1633-34; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, pp. 1464-65; not in LM).

Foxe mentions Cranmer's condemnation and disputation in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer (1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97).

Cranmer was degraded. 1563, p. 1493.

Cranmer recanted. 1563, pp. 1497-98, 1570, p. 2062, 1576, pp. 1778-80, 1583, p. 1884.

Witnesses to Cranmer's recantation were Henry Sydall and Friar John de villa Garcina. 1570, pp. 2062-63, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1884.

Lord Williams, Thomas Bridges and Sir John Bourne arrived in Oxford, prior to Cranmer's martyrdom. 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

Cole was secretly asked to prepare a funeral sermon. 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

The deaths of Northumberland and Thomas More are referred to in the description of the death of Cranmer. 1570, p. 2064, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1885.

Foxe records Cranmer's prayer. 1570, pp. 2064-65, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1886.

Cranmer was pulled from the pulpit. 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1887.

Cole preached a sermon prior to the martyrdom of Cranmer. 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, pp. 1885-86.

Thomas Cranmer was burned. 1570, p. 2066, 1576, p. 1782, 1583, pp. 1887-88.

Cranmer's letters. 1563, pp. 1483-84, 1489, 1492-93, 1570, pp. 2067-72, 1576, pp. 1782-86, 1583, pp. 1889-93.

Henry VIII directed Cranmer and Cromwell (and others, including Stokesly) to examine John Frith. 1583, pp. 2126-27.

Buswell, a priest, spoke to Edward Benet whilst they were imprisoned together and gave him a copy of Cranmer's recantation. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Foxe includes a copy of the Pope's commission to proceed against Cranmer. 1583, p. 2132.

During his examination Weston and Smith challenged Cranmer over his book of the sacrament. 1583, p. 2135.

William Holcroft was charged with treason by Cole and Geffre for supporting Cranmer. 1583, p. 2135.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Spurge

Fuller. Martyr. Of Essex. Probably related to Richard Spurge (brother?)

Thomas Spurge was sent up to London by Lord Rich, Tyrrell and others for examination. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Spurge was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

He remained in the Marshalsea for around one year, until the death of Gardiner. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

After Gardiner's death he and some of his fellow prisoners sent a petition to Heath, after he replaced Gardiner as lord chancellor, on behalf of them all. 1563, p. 1504, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, pp. 1788-89, 1583, p. 1895.

On 16 January 1555 Read was sent to the Marshalsea to examine Richard Spurge, Thomas Spurge, George Ambrose and John Cavel. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Read was told during his examination of 16 January 1555 that the Spurges, Ambrose and Cavel had been complained of by the parson of the church in Bocking. The priest had complained to Lord Rich who had taken the complaint further. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Spurge was condemned by Bonner on 28 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He was burned around 24 April 1556 at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Thomas Spurge was one of the recipients of a letter by John Careless to his condemned brethren in Newgate. 1563, pp. 1449-50, 1570, pp. 2105-06, 1576, pp. 1817-18, 1583, pp. 1923-24.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Treheron

Robert Drakes was presented to the benefice of Thundersley by Lord Rich, at the suit of Master Causton and Master Treheron. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

[This is probably Barhtolomew Traheron (1510 - 1558), the protestant writer who (although a layman) was dean of Chichester under Edward VI. He was in exile under Mary, and died abroad. (Bindoff, Commons; Garrett, Marian Exiles; DNB)]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Tyms

(d. 1556)

Deacon and curate of Hockley in Essex. Martyr.

William Tyms was sent up to London by Lord Rich, Tyrrell and others for examination. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

When Tyms was brought before Tyrrell, he spoke to him for over three hours without witness, although his words were overheard and so reported to Foxe. 1570, p. 2075, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1896.

Tyms was sent before Bonner, who sent him to Gardiner for examination. 1570, p. 2075, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1896.

He remained in the King's Bench for around one year, until the death of Gardiner. 1563, p. 1504, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

In a letter Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

After Gardiner's death some of his fellow prisoners sent a petition to Heath, after he replaced Gardiner as lord chancellor, on behalf of all of them. 1563, p. 1504, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, pp. 1788-9, 1583, p. 1895.

Tyms was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [note that 1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

On 23 March he appeared with Drakes before Bonner. 1570, p. 2076, 1570, p. 1790, 1583, p. 1896.

Articles against him were read in the consistory of St Paul's and he was then condemned by Bonner. 1570, p. 2077, 1576, p. 1791, 1583, pp. 1896-97.

Tyms was burned around 24 April 1556 at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1506, 1570, p. 2077, 1576, pp. 1791-92, 1583, p. 1604.

John Careless told Thomas Martyn that he had sent articles to Tyms, his bedfellow in the King's Bench, who had been burned the day before. 1563, p. 1532.

Letters. 1563, p. 1513, 1570, pp. 2077-82, 1576, pp. 1792-96, 1583, pp. 1898-1900.

Tyms was one of the recipients of a letter by John Careless to his condemned brethren in Newgate. 1563, pp. 1449-50, 1570, pp. 2105-06, 1576, pp. 1817-18, 1583, pp. 1923-24.

John Careless wrote a letter to William Tyms. 1570, pp. 2107-08, 1576, pp. 1818-19, 1583, pp. 1925-26.

William Tyms wrote a letter to unnamed recipients. 1583, p. 2142.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Hadley [Hadleigh]
NGR: TM 025 425

A parish in the hundred of Cosford, county of Suffolk. 10.5 miles west by south from Ipswich. The living is a rectory within the exempt Deanery of Bocking, in the peculiar jurisdiction and patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Hockley
NGR: TQ 840 928

A parish in the hundred of Rochford, county of Essex. 2.25 miles north-east by east from Rayleigh. The living is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Essex and Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thunderest, Thunderli [Thundersley]
NGR: TQ 783 886

A parish partly in the hundred of Rochford, but chiefly in the hundred of Barnstaple, county of Essex. 2.25 miles south-west by west from Rayleigh. The living is a discharged rectory in the Archdeaconry of Essex, Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1919 [1895]

Queene Mary. Tyms, Drakes, Spurge, Cauell, Ambrose, Martyrs.

MarginaliaAnno 1556. Aprill.being somewhat starckned knocked vpon his brest softly, the bloud and matter issuing out of his mouth. Afterward when all they thought he had bene deade, sodenly he rose right vp with his body agayne. And thus muche concernying these three Salisbury Martyrs.

¶ A discourse of the death and Martyrdome of sixe other Martyrs suffering at London whose names here folow. 
Commentary  *  Close
William Tyms et al.

The arrest of these six martyrs, the petition four of them made to the lord chancellor and their answers to the articles charged against them all first appeared in the 1563 edition. The condemnation of Tyms and the other martyrs also first appeared in this edition. This material came entirely from Bishop Bonner's official records; probably from a now lost court book.

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In the 1570 edition, Foxe added the narrative of Tyms's life and arrest, which came from a personal informant and an expanded account of the examination of Tyms on 23 March 1556. This last came from William Aylesbury an eyewitness to the examination. Foxe also added Tyms' articles and answers to this edition. There were no changes to this account in the 1576 and 1583 editions.

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MarginaliaAprill. 14. Marginalia6. Martyrs burnt in Smithfield at one stake.ABout the xxiij. day of Aprill.  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, Appendix: ref page 105, line 16

The first three Editions read "xxiiij," which is afterwards corrupted into "xxiij." That the former is correct, is incidentally proved by Careless saying on the 25th of April, that Tyms suffered the day before; also {later in the text} "April xiij." is the reading in all the old Editions, where an x has dropped out, as an i has in this place.

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Anno Dom. 1556. were burned in Smithfielde at one fire, these sixe constaunt Martyrs of Christ, suffering for the profession of the Gospell. viz.


Robert Drakes Minister.
William Tyms Curate.
Richard Spurge Shereman.
Thomas Spurge Fuller.
Iohn Cauell Weauer.
George Ambrose Fuller.

MarginaliaThese Martyrs were sent vp by the Lord Rich, by M. Tyrrell, and others.They were al of Essex, and so of the dioces of London, and were sent vp: some by the Lord Rich, and some by others at sūdry times, vnto Stephen Gardiner B. of Winchester, then Lord Chauncellor of England, about the 22. day of March, an. 1555. Who upon small examination, sent them, some vnto the kinges Benche, 

Commentary  *  Close

More accurately, Gardiner sent Tyms back to the King's Bench as Tyms must have been in the King's Bench before 12 March 1555.

and others vnto the Marshalsea, where they remained almost all þe whole yere (vntill the death of the sayd Bishop of Winchester, and had during that time nothing said vnto them. Wherupon, after that Doctor Heath Archbishop of Yorke was chosē to the office of Lord Chauncellorshippe, foure of these persecuted brethren, being now wery of this theyr long imprisonmēt, made theyr supplication vnto the said D. Heath, requiring his fauour and ayd for their deliueraunce: the copy whereof ensueth.

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To the right reuerend father Tho. Archb. of Yorke, Lorde Chauncellour of England. 
Commentary  *  Close

In a passage excised from the 1570 edition, Foxe states that this petition was taken from Bishop Bonner's official records.

MarginaliaA supplication to the Lord Chauncellour.MAy it please your honorable good Lordship, for the loue of God, to tender the humble sute of your lordships poore Orators, whose names are subscribed, whiche haue lien in great misery in the Marshalsea, by the space of x. monethes and more, at the commaundement of the late Lord Chauncellour, to their vtter vndoing, with theyr wiues & children. In consideration wher of, your Lordships sayd Oratours do most humbly pray and beseeche your good Lordship to suffer them to be brought before your honour, and there, if any man of good conscience can lay any thing vnto our charge, we trust either to declare our innocency agaynst theyr accusations, or if otherwise theyr accusations can be proued true and we faulty, we are ready (God helping vs) with our condigne punishments to satisfy the law according to your wise Iudgement, as we hope ful of fatherly mercy towardes vs and all men, according to your Godly office, in the which we pray for your Godly successe to the good pleasure of GOD. Amen.

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This Supplication was sent (as is sayd) and subscribed with the names of these 4. vnder folowing. MarginaliaNames subscribed to the supplication.


Richard Spurge.
Thomas Spurge.

George Ambrose.
Iohn Cauell.

Richard Spurge.

MarginaliaRichard Spurge examined.VPon the receipt and sight hereof, it was not long after but Syr Richard Read Knight, then one of the Officers of the Court of the Chauncery. 16. day of Ianuary, was sent vnto the Marshalsea, to examine the sayd foure prisoners: & therefore beginning first wt Richard Spurge vpon certaine demaundes, receiued his answeres therunto: the effect whereof was, MarginaliaThe Parson of Bocking accuser.that he with others were complayned vpon by the Parson of Bocking, vnto the Lorde Rich, 

Commentary  *  Close

One thing that this account reveals in a clear, albeit desultory way, is that Lord Rich was, in Edward VI's reign, a patron of evangelical clergy in southern Essex. For a discussion of this, see Brett Usher's article in the forthcoming John Foxe at Home and Abroad, ed. David Loades.

for that they came not vnto theyr Parish Church of Bocking, where they inhabited: and therupon was by the sayd Lord Rich, sent vnto the late Lord Chauncellour, about the xxij. day of March last past, videl. an. 1555.

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MarginaliaFor not cōming to the Popish Church.And farther he sayd, that he came not to the Church sithens the first alteration of the English seruice into Latin (Christmasse day then a tweluemoneth only except) & that, because he misliked both the same and the Masse also, as not consonant and agreing with Gods holy word.

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Moreouer, he required that he might not be any more examined vpō the matter, vnles it pleased the Lord Chaūcellour that then was, to know his fayth therein, which to him he would willingly vtter.

Thomas Spurge.

MarginaliaThomas Spurge examined.THomas Spurge being then next examined, made the same aunswere in effect that the other had done: confessing that he absented himselfe from the church, MarginaliaNot comming to the Church & why.because the word of God was not there truely taught, nor the Sacramentes of Christ duely ministred in such sort as was prescribed by þe same word. And being farther examined of his beliefe concerning the MarginaliaSacrament of the Aultar.sacrament of the aultar, he said: that if any could accuse him thereof, he would then make aunswere as God had geuen him knowledge therein.

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¶ George Ambrose.

MarginaliaGeorge Ambrose examined.THe like answere made George Ambrose, adding moreouer, that after he had read the late Byshop of Winchesters booke, intituled De vera obedientia, with Boners preface thereunto annexed, inueying (both) against the authority of the Bishop of Rome, he did much lesse set by theyr doinges then before.

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¶ Iohn Cauell.

MarginaliaIohn Cauel examined.IOhn Cauell agreyng in other matters with them, aunswered that the cause why hee did forebeare the comming to the Churche, was, MarginaliaThe cause why Iohn Cauell came not to Church.that the Parson there had preached two contrary doctrines. MarginaliaThe Parson of Bocking false and contrary to his owne doctrine.For firste in a Sermon that hee made at the Queenes first entrye to the crowne, he did exhort the people to beleue the Gospell: for it was the truth, and if they did not beleue it, they shoulde be damned. But in a second Sermon, he preached that the Testament was false in forty places, which contrariety in him was a cause amongest other, of his absenting from the Church.

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¶ Robert Drakes.

MarginaliaRobert Drakes Parson of Thundersley examined.ABout the fourth day of Marche next after, Robert Drakes also was examined, who was Parsō of Thūdersley in Essex, and had there remayned the space of three yeares. He was first made Deacon by Doctour Taylour of Hadley, at the commaundement of Doctour Cranmer, 

Commentary  *  Close

It is striking that someone at such a humble level of the church would have come to the archbishop's attention; Tyms must have been recommended to Cranmer, possibly by Rowland Taylor, possibly by Lord Rich.

late Archbyshop of Caūterbury. And within one yeare after (which was the thyrd of the reigne of kyng Edward) he was by the sayd Archbyshop and Doctour Ridley Bishop of London,  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, Appendix: ref page 107, line 3

i. e. afterward bishop of London, and best known as such, but at the time of Drake's ordination bishop of Rochester; for he was not translated to London till the fourth year of Edward VI.: nor does Drake's ordination appear at all in the Ridley London Register (Ridley's first ordination took place 24th June, 1550), but his institution to Thundersley is given fol. 320, dated January 29th 1550-1. He is there stated to have been presented by the king, "verum et indubitatum ipsius ecclesiæ patronum." Lord Riche may, however, have used his influence with the king for him.

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admitted Minister of Gods holy word & Sacramentes, not after the order then in force, but after such order as was after established, MarginaliaDrakes placed in the benefice of Thundersley by the Lord Rich.& was presented vnto the sayd benefice of Thundersley by the Lord Rich, at the sute of Maister Causton and Maister Treheron: 
Commentary  *  Close

Bartholomew Traheron's sponsorship of Tyms is noteworthy. Traheron was a leading evangelical but he was based in Oxford. Someone must have recommended Tyms to him. The sponsorship of Thomas Causton, a gentleman from Essex, executed for heresy in 1555 is also striking.

and now notwithstanding was sent vp by the sayde Lord Riche, with the others before mentioned: and at his comming to the Bishop of Winchester, was by him demaunded whether he would conforme him self like a subiect to the lawes of this realme then in force. To þe which he sayd he would abyde all lawes that stode with the lawes of GOD: and thereupon was committed to prison, where he and the rest aboue named did remaine euer sithens.

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¶ William Tyms.

NOw remaineth likwise to declare the examinatiō of William Tyms, Deacō & Curate of Hocley in Essex. But before I come to his examination, first here is to be opened and set forth the order & maner of his trouble, how and by whome he was first apprehended in Essex, and frō thence sent vp to London: the story whereof followeth in this maner.

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The Story of William Tyms Deacon, and Curate of Hockeley, with the maner of his taking. 
Commentary  *  Close

This account of Tym's arrest and his being brought before Gardiner was added in 1570, and came to Foxe from personal informants.

MarginaliaThe first occasion of taking W. Tyms.THere was at Hocley in Queene Maries dayes two Sermons preached in the Woodes, the which woodes weare appertayning to Maister Tyrrell, and the name of the one wood was called Plumbrow wood, and the other Becheswood, and there was at the same Sermons an honest man and his wife with him, whose name was Iohn Gye, the which Gye was Maister Tyrrels seruaunt, and did dwell vnder him, being his Herd at a farm of his called Plomborow. MarginaliaM. Tyrrell offended with Sermons preached in his woodes.Shortly after it was knowē to Maister Tyrrell, how that his woods were poluted with Sermons, the which he did take very euill, and much matter did rise about it, as an vnlawfull assembly: the which was laid to Iohn Gyes charge, because he did not disclose that vnlawfull acte to his Maister, being then in the cōmission of the peace, appointed at that tyme to keepe down the Gospell, þe which he did to the vttermost, as it may ap-

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peare
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