Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Hooper

(d. 1555)

Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester. Martyr. (DNB)

Foxe recounts Hooper's life and career before becoming a bishop (1563, pp. 1049-50; 1570, pp. 1674-76; 1576, pp. 1429-1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, pp. 1502-3).

Hooper refused to wear vestments at his consecration and was consequently imprisoned. Ultimately he made a qualified submission (1563, pp. 1050-52; 1570, pp. 1676-77; 1576, pp. 1403 [recte 1430]-31; 1583, pp. 1503-5).

Foxe relates his conduct as bishop (1563, pp. 1052-53; 1570, pp. 1677-78; 1576, pp 1431-32; 1583, p. 1505).

Hooper was summoned to London on Mary's accession and imprisoned (1563, pp. 1053-54; 1570, p. 1678; 1576, p. 1432; 1583, p. 1505).

He was ordered to attend the privy council on 22 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 31 August, Hooper appeared before the council and he was committed by them to the Fleet on the next day (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]). (APC IV, p. 337, has Hooper appearing on 1 September and committed to the Fleet the same day).

Foxe gives accounts of Hooper's imprisonment and examinations. 1563, pp. 1055-57; 1570, pp. 1678-80; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, pp. 1506-7.

He was deprived of his bishopric, but he defended the validity of clerical marriage at his deprivation (1563, pp. 1054-55; 1570, pp. 1678-79; 1576, pp. 1432-33; 1583, p. 1403 [recte 1430]).

Hooper was rumored to have recanted after he was condemned; he wrote denying this. 1563, p. 1057; 1570, pp. 1680-81; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, pp. 1507-8.

Foxe records his degradation, journey to Gloucester and execution. 1563, pp. 1057-62 and 1064; 1570, pp. 1681-86; 1576, pp. 1434-39; 1583, pp. 1508-12.

Hooper was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His letters: 1563, pp. 1062-63; 1570, pp. 1686-93; 1576, pp. 1439-45; 1583, pp. 1512-18.

Hooper was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

On 3 January 1555, a letter was sent to Hooper informing him of the arrest of Thomas Rose's congregation at the churchyard of St. Mary-le-Bow on 1 January 1555 (1563, p. 1020).

Hooper wrote an answer to this letter (1563, p. 1020; 1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1482).

Hooper also sent a letter of encouragement to the members of Rose's congregation imprisoned in the Counter in Bread Street (1563, pp. 1021-22; 1570, pp. 1654-55; 1576, pp. 1411-12; 1583, pp. 1482-83).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St. Mary Overy's on 28 January 1554 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley speaks of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, p. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

During his examination, John Hallingdale said that Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley and Hooper were not heretics. 1563, p. 1638, 1570, p. 2222, 1576, p. 1919, 1583, p. 2026.

Hooper's Latin epistle touching matters of religion was sent to Convocation House. 1583, pp. 2135-36.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Taylor

Registrar of Gloucester.

Foxe received testimony of Thomas Dowry's death from John Taylor. 1583, p. 1911.

[Alias Barker.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Williams of Thame

(1500? - 1559)

1st Baron Williams of Thame (1554 - 1559) (DNB)

Sir John Williams was ordered by the privy council to convey Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer from the Tower of London to Oxford, 10 March 1555 (1583, p. 1428).

[NB: APC IV (1552 - 1554), p. 406, has an order to the lieutenant of the Tower to deliver Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer to him (dated 8 March 1553 [1554]), but it has no order to Williams dated 10 March. Foxe's source for this, however, must have been privy council records; this particular entry must have been lost].

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Williams conveyed Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer to Oxford in his capacity as sheriff of Oxfordshire.Elizabeth was released from the Tower into his custody; he treated her gently and courteously (1563, p. 1004; 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471).

Williams greeted Philip, the son of Charles V, on his arrival at Southampton on 20 July 1554 (1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471).

Ridley spoke with Lord Williams before his martyrdom. 1563, p. 1379, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1662, 1583, p. 1769.

Lord Williams, Lord Chandos, Sir Thomas Bridges and Sir John Browne arrived in Oxford, prior to Cranmer's martyrdom. 1563, p. 1498, 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

After Wyatt's rebellion, Lord Williams of Thame went to see Elizabeth at Ashridge and found her to be unwell. 1563, p. 1711, 1570, p. 2288, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2091.

Benifield was not happy at the treatment Elizabeth received when she was at the house of Lord Williams of Thame. 1563, p. 1713, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

Foxe recounts Benifield's behaviour towards Elizabeth when she stayed at the house of Lord Williams of Thame. 1563, p. 1713, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2090.

[The fact that Williams summoned John Jewel to his deathbed in 1569 may indicate that Williams had protestant sympathies (DNB)].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Croker

(d. 1556)

Bricklayer. Martyr. Of Gloucester.

Thomas Croker was burned at the stake with Thomas Drowry on 15 May 1556. 1563, p. 1521 [note that Foxe does not know his name in 1563], 1570, p. 2092, 1576, p. 1793, 1583, p. 1911.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Drury

(d. 1556)

A blind boy. Martyr. Of Gloucester.

Thomas Drowry was imprisoned for 'confessing of the truth'; Drowry received permission to visit John Hooper on the eve of the bishop's execution. Hooper questioned him about his religious beliefs and praised him for his faith. 1563, p. 1059; 1570, p. 1682; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1509.

[NB: Foxe does not name Drowry in these passages; he merely describes him as a blind boy of Gloucester.]

Drowry was confirmed in his faith by Hooper. 1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2092, 1576, p. 1793, 1583, p. 1911.

Thomas Drowry was brought before Dr Williams, chancellor of Gloucester. 1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2092, 1576, p. 1793, 1583, p. 1911.

He was burned around 15 May 1556. 1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2092, 1576, p. 1793, 1583, p. 1911.

Foxe received testimony of Thomas Dowry's death from the registrar of Gloucester, John Taylor (alias Barker). 1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2092, 1576, p. 1793, 1583, p. 1911.

1935 [1911]

Queene Mary. Katherine Hut, Ioane Hornes, Elizabeth Thacknell, Martyrs.

MarginaliaAnno 1556. Maye.6 In aunswearing the sixt article, they did all generally refuse to be reconciled or vnited to the church of Rome: or anye other Churche contrary to that wherein they nowe stoode and did professe.

7 To the seuenth article they aunsweared likewyse that they had so done & sayd in all things, as is in thys article contained: Katherine Hutte adding moreouer the reason why: for that (sayd she) neither the seruice in Latin, Masse, Mattens, and Euensong, nor the Sacraments were vsed and ministred according to gods word: And furthermore, that the Masse is an idoll, neither is the true body & bloud of Christ in the Sacrament of the aultare, as they make men beleeue.

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8 Their aunswere to the eight Article, declared that they were all and euery one sent vppe to Boner by MarginaliaSyr Iohn Mordant Promoter.syr Iohn Mordant knight, and iustice of peace in Essex (the Lord of his mercy send vs better Iustices I beseeche him) for that they coulde not affirme the presence of Christes bodye and bloude to be truely and really in the Sacramente, and for that they came not to theyr popish parish Church.

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9 To the ninth article, they aunswered and confessed the premisses thereof to be true, and denied not the same: saue that Katherin Hut sayd, that she was of Bocking in Essex of the peculiare iurisdiction of Canterbury, and not of the diocesse and iurisdiction of London.

After these their answeres receiued, they were produced againe about the 13. of Aprill to further examination, and so at length to their finall iudgement, where MarginaliaKatherin Hutte.Katherin Hut widowe standing before the bishop boldly & constantly stoode to that which shee hadde sayde before, neither yeelding to his faire promises, nor ouerthrowne with his terrour. Who being required of the Sacrament to say her minde, and to reuoke her selfe vnto the fellowshyp of the Catholicke faith, openly protested, saying: MarginaliaThe wordes of Katherin Hutte, of the Sacramēt.I deny it to be God, because it is a dumme God and made wyth mans handes. Wherein the good and faithfull Martyr of Christe firmely persisting, so receiued her sentence, being condemned of Boner to the fire: which shee wyth great constancie sustained by the grace and strength of the Lorde, and dyd abide for the cause and loue of Christ.

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MarginaliaIoane Hornes mayde.Ioane Hornes maid, producted likewise to her iudgement and condemnation, wyth like firmnesse and Christian fortitude, declared her selfe a true Martyr and folower of Christes Testament, geuing no place to the aduersary: but being charged that she did not beleeue the Sacrament of Christes body and bloude to be Christe himselfe, of the which Sacrament (contrary to þe nature of a Sacrament) the aduersaries are woont to make an idoll seruice: to this shee protesting openly her minde, sayde as followeth: MarginaliaThe wordes and profession of Ioane Hornes touching the Sacrament.If you can make your God to shed bloud, or to shew any cōdition of a true liuely body, then will I beleeue you: but it is but bread (as touching the substaunce therof) meaning the matter whereof the Sacrament cōsisteth: and that you call heresie, I trust to serue my Lord God in. &c.

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And as concerning the Romish sea, she said: my Lord (speaking to Boner) I forsake all his abhominatiōs, and from them good lord deliuer vs. From this her stable and constant assertion, when the Bishop was too weake to remooue her, and too ignorant to conuince her, he knockt her downe wyth the butcherly axe of hys sentence. MarginaliaThe Butcherly axe of Boner.And so the holy Virgine and Martyr committed to the shambles of the secular sword, was offered vp with her other felowes a burnt sacrifice to the Lord, In odorem bonæ fragrantiæ, 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Foxe text narrative, possibly citing Ephesians, 5. 2.
Foxe text Latin

In odorem bonae fragrantiae.

Foxe text translation

in the sauour of a sweete and pleasaunt smell.

Actual text of Ephesians, 5. 2. (Vulgate)

et hostiam Deo in odorem suavitatis.

[Especially in view of the context of ahostiam(sacrificial victim), it would seem that Foxe is thinking of this passage in Ephesians.]

in the sauour of a sweete and pleasant smell.

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MarginaliaMargaret Ellys dyed in NewgateAs touching Margaret Ellis, shee likwise perseuering in her foresayde confession, and resisting the false Catholicke errours and heresies of the Papistes, was by the sayd Boner adiudged and condemned: but before the time of her burning came, preuented by death in Newgate prison, departed and slept in the Lord.

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MarginaliaElizabeth Thackuell, Mayde and Martyr.No less strength in the grace of the Lorde appeared in the other maide Elizabeth Thackuell, whose hearte and minde the Lorde had so confirmed in hys truth, so armed with patience, that as her aduersaries could by no sufficient knowledge of Scripture conuicte her affirmation, so by no forceable attempts, they could remooue her confession. Whereuppon shee standing to the death, being in lyke sorte condemned, by the sayd vnbyshoplyke Marginalia* i. A persecutor.πλὴκτοσ, gaue her life willingly and mildely for the confirmation & sealing vp of the sincere truth of Gods woord.

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These iij. innocent and godly women, thus falsly and wrongfully by men condemned for the iust quarel & cause of Gods Gospell, were had to Smithfield, and there cruelly bounde to the stake, gaue their bodies to the tormentours, their spirites they commended to God. For whose glorye they were willing and ready to suffer what soeuer the cruel handes of theyr enemies should woorke agaynst them, dying more ioyfully in the flaming fire, then some of

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The Martyrdome of three women. MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Katherine Hutte, Ioane Hornes, Elizabeth Thackuell, in Smithfield. Anno. 1556. May. 16.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
The woodcut (Type 1) seems to portray the description of the three young women dying 'joyfully in the flaming fire'. The image was not reused.

them that burned them, did peraduenture in theyr beds. Suthe a Lorde is God, glorious and woonderfull in all hys Saintes. The Martyrdome of these Saints of God, was the 16. of May.

Thomas Drowry a blinde boy, and Thomas Croker 
Commentary  *  Close
Thomas Drowry and Thomas Croker

In the 1563 edition these two martyrs were unnamed; their names were only added in the 1570 edition. And Thomas Croker's name may be incorrect; the writ authorizing his execution gives his first name as John (PRO C/85/203/2).

Bricklayer, Martyrs.  
Commentary  *  Close

All Foxe had on these two martyrs in the 1563 edition, was that a bricklayer and a blind boy were burned at Gloucester around 1556 and that the blind boy was the one who had been mentioned in the narrative of John Hooper's execution. In the 1570 edition, Foxe added the names of these two martyrs. In the 1583 edition, Foxe added an account of Thomas Drowry's final examination and condemnation which Foxe obtained from John Louth, who had been chancellor of Gloucester.

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MarginaliaMay 5. MarginaliaT. Drowry a blind boy, and Tho. Croker, Martyrs.YEe heard a litle before, of two men, the one blinde, the other lame, which suffered about the 15. of Maye. And heere is not to be forgotten an other as Godly a couple, whiche suffered the like passion and Martyrdome for the same cause of Religion at Glocester, MarginaliaPersecution at Glocester.of the which two, the one was the blind boy, named MarginaliaOf this blynd boy, read before, pag. 1509.Tho. Drowrie, mentioned before in the hystorie of B. Hooper, whom the sayd vertuous Byshop confirmed then in the Lorde, and in the doctrine of hys woorde.

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With him also was burned an other in the same place, and at the same fire in Glocester, about the fifth of Maye, whose name was Thomas Croker Bricklayer.

Concerning the which blinde boy, 

Commentary  *  Close

The account of Thomas Drowry's examination and condemnation came to Foxe from John Louth, the former chancellor of Gloucester. Louth's report, which survives in Foxe's papers, was sent to the martyrologist in 1579. (The report is BL, Harley 425, fos. 135v-136r; it is printed in Narratives of Days of the Reformation, ed. J. G. Nichols, Camden Society, original series, 77 [London: 1859], pp. 18-20). It will be seen that Foxe reprinted Louth's report word-for-word.

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howe long he was in prison, and in what yere he suffered, I am not certaine. Of this credible intelligence I haue receiued by the testimonie of þe Register then of Glocester, named Ihon Tailer, aliàs Barker, that the sayde blinde boy at his last examination and finall condemnation, was brought (by the Officers, vnder whose custodie he had remained) before doctour Williams then Chauncellour of Glocester, sittinge Iudicially wyth the sayd Register in the consistorie, neare vnto the Southe doore, in the neather ende of the Churche of Glocester. Where the sayde Chauncellour then ministred vnto the sayde Boye such vsuall articles, as they are accustomed in such cases, and are sondry times mentioned in thys booke. Amongest which, he chiefly urged the article of Transubstantiation, saying in effect as followeth.

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Chauncellor. Doest thou not beleue, that after the words of consecration spoken by the Priest, there remayneth the very reall body of Christ in the Sacrament of the altare?

Tho. To whome the blinde Boy answeared: No, that I doe not.

Chauncel. Then thou art an hereticke, and shalt be burned: But who hath taught thee thys heresie?

Thom. You, M. Chancellor.

Chancel. Where I pray thee?

Thom. Euen in yonder place: Poynting with his hande, and tourning towardes the Pulpet, standinge vppon the North side of the Church.

Chancel. When did I teache thee so.

Tho. When you preached there (namyng the day) a Sermon to all men, as well as to me, vppon the Sacrament. You sayd, the Sacrament was to bee receiued spiritually by fayth, and not carnally and really, as the papistes haue heretofore taught.

Chanc. Then do as I haue done, and thou shalt lyue as I do, and escape burnyng.

Thom
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