Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Nicholas Hall45. Margery Polley46. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 47. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 48. John Aleworth 49. Martyrdom of James Abbes 50. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 51. Martyrdom of John Newman52. Richard Hooke 53. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 54. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 55. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 56. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 57. Martyrdom of William Haile 58. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 59. William Andrew 60. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 61. Samuel's Letters 62. William Allen 63. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 64. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 65. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 66. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 67. Cornelius Bungey 68. John and William Glover 69. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 70. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 71. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 72. Ridley's Letters 73. Life of Hugh Latimer 74. Latimer's Letters 75. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed76. More Letters of Ridley 77. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 78. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 79. William Wiseman 80. James Gore 81. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 82. Philpot's Letters 83. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 84. Letters of Thomas Wittle 85. Life of Bartlett Green 86. Letters of Bartlett Green 87. Thomas Browne 88. John Tudson 89. John Went 90. Isobel Foster 91. Joan Lashford 92. Five Canterbury Martyrs 93. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 94. Letters of Cranmer 95. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 96. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 97. William Tyms, et al 98. Letters of Tyms 99. The Norfolk Supplication 100. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 101. John Hullier 102. Hullier's Letters 103. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 104. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 105. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 106. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 107. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 108. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 109. Gregory Crow 110. William Slech 111. Avington Read, et al 112. Wood and Miles 113. Adherall and Clement 114. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 115. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow116. Persecution in Lichfield 117. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 118. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 119. Examinations of John Fortune120. John Careless 121. Letters of John Careless 122. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 123. Agnes Wardall 124. Peter Moone and his wife 125. Guernsey Martyrdoms 126. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 127. Martyrdom of Thomas More128. Examination of John Jackson129. Examination of John Newman 130. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 131. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 132. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 133. John Horne and a woman 134. William Dangerfield 135. Northampton Shoemaker 136. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 137. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Agnes George

(1530? - 1556)

Martyr. Of Great Barfield in Essex.

Agnes George was the wife [unlawful?] of Richard George. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1915.

She was committed to prison in Colchester by Maynard [an alderman of Colchester] for not attending church, and then on to Bonner. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. , 1583, p. 1915.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against her (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle). She answered the articles. 1563, pp. 1523-24, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, pp. 1914-16.

She signed a letter written with her fellow sufferers that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

She was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow on 27 June 1556. 1563, p. 1527, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1810, 1583, p. 1916.

Agnes George was burned at Stratford-le-Bow. 1563, p. 1658, 1570, p. 2234, 1576, p. 1929, 1583, p. 2037.

 
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Edmund Hurst

(at least 1506 - 1556)

Labourer. Martyr. Of St. James's parish, Colchester.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against Edmund Hurst (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle). He gave answers. 1563, pp. 1523-24, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1914-16.

Hurst signed a letter written with his fellow sufferers that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

He was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow 27 on June 1556. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

 
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Elizabeth Pepper

(1526? - 1556)

Wife of Thomas Pepper. Martyr. Of parish of St James', Colchester.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against Elizabeth Pepper (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle), to which she gave answers. 1563, pp. 1523-24, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, pp. 1914-16.

She signed a letter written with her fellow sufferers that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

She was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow on 27 June 1556. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

Elizabeth Pepper was eleven weeks pregnant when she was burned. Mrs Bosome asked why she had not said anything and Elizabeth said that her persecutors knew of her pregnancy. 1563, p. 1734, 1583, p. 2145.

 
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George Searles

(1535/6? - 1556)

Tailor. Martyr. Of White Notley.

George Searles was apprehended during Lent. He was sent to Colchester Castle for six weeks, then to Bonner's coal house, then Lollard's Tower, then to Newgate. He was sent to Bonner by Lord. 1563, p. 1524, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1915.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against him (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle), which he answered. 1563, pp. 1523-24, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, pp. 1914-16.

He signed a letter written with his fellow sufferers that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

Searles was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow on 27 June 1556. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

 
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Henry Adlington

(1526? - 1556)

Sawyer. Martyr. Of Grinstead, Sussex. [Machyn, Diary, p. 108]

Henry Adlington had gone to Newgate to visit a prisoner there called Gratwick, but was apprehended there and brought before John Story. 1563, p. 1524, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1915.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against him (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle) and he answered. 1563, p. 1523, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1914.

He signed a letter written with his fellow sufferers that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, p. 1527, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1809, 1583, p. 1916.

He was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow on 27 June 1556. 1563, p. 1527, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1809, 1583, p. 1916.

Henry Adlington received a letter from John Careless. 1570, pp. 2110-12, 1576, pp. 1833-34, 1583, pp. 1928-29.

 
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Henry Wye

(1524? - 1556)

Brewer; servant to Thomas Higbed. Martyr. Of Stanford-le-Hope.

Henry Wye was detained in Colchester together with Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed. 1563, p. 1104; 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against Henry Wye (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle) to which he gave answers. 1563, pp. 1523-24, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, pp. 1914-16.

Wye signed a letter written with his fellow sufferers that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

He was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow 27 on June 1556. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

 
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John Clement

(d. 1556)

Wheelwright. Of unknown origin.

John Clement died in the King's Bench and was buried in a dunghill on 25 June 1556. 1563, p. 1523, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

Fellow prisoner with John Careless in the King's Bench. Died in prison.

In a letter to John Careless, John Philpot expressed his appreciation for the comfort Clements' support had given him.1570, p. 2004; 1576, p. 1726; 1583, p. 1833

 
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John Derifall

(1506? - 1556)

Labourer. Martyr. Of Rettendon, Essex.

John Derifall was called before Lord Rich and Master Mildmay of Chelmsford, who sent him to Bonner to be examined. 1563, p. 1523, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1914.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against him (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle), which he answered. 1563, p. 1524, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1914.

He signed a letter written with his fellow sufferers that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

He was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow on 27 June 1556. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

 
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John Oswald

(d. 1556)

Husbandman. Martyr. Of Woodmancott, Sussex.

John Oswald was examined and condemned by Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 1522., 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

He refused to say anything when questioned, saying that he would only speak when he could see his accusers face-to-face. 1563, p. 1522., 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

He was burned at Lewes about 6 June 1556. 1563, p. 1522., 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

Henry Adlington received a letter from John Careless which mentioned the martyrdom of Oswald. 1570, pp. 2110-12, 1576, pp. 1833-34, 1583, pp. 1928-29.

 
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John Routh

(1530? - 1556)

Labourer. Martyr. Of Wickes, Essex.

John Routh was convented before the earl of Oxford. He was sent to Colchester castle by Lord Rich and then on to Bonner. 1563, p. 1526, 1570, p. 2096., 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against him (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle), which he answered. 1563, pp. 1523-24, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, pp. 1914-16.

Routh signed a letter written with his fellow sufferers that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

He was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow on 27 June 1556. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

 
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Lawrence Parnam

(1534? - 1556)

Smith. Martyr. Of Hoddesdon, within the parish of Amwell, Herts.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against Lawrence Parnam (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle), to which he gave answers. 1563, pp. 1523-24, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, pp. 1914-16.

Parnam signed a letter, written with his fellow sufferers, that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

He was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow 27 in June 1556. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

[He is also referred to as 'Pernam'.]

 
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Lyon Cawch

(1528? - 1556)

Merchant and broker. Martyr. Of Flanders, but lived in the City of London.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against Lyon Cawch (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle). He answered the articles. 1563, pp. 1523-25, 1570, pp. 2095-96, 1576, pp. 1808-09, 1583, pp. 1914-15.

He was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow on 27 June 1556. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1914.

Cawch signed a letter, written with his fellow sufferers, that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, p. 1526, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1915.

 
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Ralph Jackson

(1542? - 1556)

Servingman. Martyr. Of Chipping Ongar.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against him (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle). He gave answers. 1563, pp. 1523-24, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, pp. 1914-16.

He was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow 27 on June 1556. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

He signed a letter written with his fellow sufferers that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

 
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Thomas Avington

(d. 1556)

Turner. Martyr. Of Ardingley, Sussex. [Fines references: Laurence, p. 69; Bryce, p. 167.]

One of the signatories to the articles of the freewillers in King's Bench, 30 January 1555.

In January 1555 John Trew and Thomas Avington began to emerge as the leading freewillers in the King's Bench. On 1 January 1555 Bradford wrote to freewiller prisoners in the King's Bench (Letters of the Martyrs, pp. 682 [recte 650]-652]. According to Henry Bull, they took offence at this letter and so Bradford wrote a letter to Trew and Avington to try to conciliate them (ibid., pp. 475-76).

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Around the time of his condemnation on 30 January 1555, Bradford wrote another letter to Trew and Avington, attempting a reconciliation between himself and them (ECL Ms. 262, fo.101r; Letters of the Martyrs, p. 475).

Avington signed John Trew's confession on 30 January 1555 (Bodley MS. 53, fo.125r; printed in Richard Laurence, ed., Authentic Documents Relative to the Predestinarian Controversy [Oxford, 1819], p. 69 and C. J. Clement, Religious Radicalism in England, 1535-65 [Carlisle, 1997], p. 370).

Thomas Avington was examined and condemned by Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 1522., 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

He was burned at Lewes about 6 June 1556. 1563, p. 1522, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

[See Thomas S. Freeman, 'Dissenters from a Dissenting Church: The Challenge of the Freewillers, 1550-1558' in The Beginnings of English Protestantism, ed. P. Marshall and A. Ryrie (Cambridge, 2002), pp. 129-156.]

 
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Thomas Bowyer

(1530? - 1556)

Weaver. Martyr. Of Great Dunmow, Essex. [Fines]

Thomas Bowyer was brought before Wiseman of Felstead, who sent him to Colchester Castle and then to Bonner. 1563, p. 1524, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1809, 1583, p. 1916.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against him (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle). He answered. 1563, pp. 1523-24, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, pp. 1914-16.

Bowyer signed a letter, written with his fellow sufferers, that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, p. 1526, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1809, 1583, p. 1916.

He was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow on 27 June 1556. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1809, 1583, p. 1916.

 
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Thomas Darbyshire

(1518 - 1604)

Nephew of Edmund Bonner. Jesuit. DCL (1556). Prebend of Totenhall (1543), Hackney (1554). Rector of Fulham (1558) and St Magnus, near London Bridge (1558). Principal of Broadgates College, archdeacon of Essex (1558). Chancellor of London. Deprived of all preferments under Elizabeth. (DNB; Foster)

Darbyshire told Thomas Hawkes that the Bible was sufficient for salvation, but not instruction. 1563, p. 1149; 1570, p. 1759; 1576, p. 1551 [recte 1503]; 1583, p. 1586

On 6 June 1556, Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against Henry Adlington, Thomas Bowyer, Lyon Cawch, John Derifall, Agnes George, William Halliwell, Edmund Hurst, Ralph Jackson, Lawrence Parnam, Elizabeth Pepper, John Routh, George Searles, and Henry Wye. 1563, p. 1524, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1914.

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Robert Farrer talked with Laurence Sheriff in the Rose tavern and suggested to Sheriff that Elizabeth had been involved in Wyatt's rebellion. Sheriff complained to Bonner about Farrer before Mordaunt, Sir John Baker, Darbyshire, Story, Harpsfield, and others. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2097.

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Five who were martyred at Smithfield on April 12 1557 were first examined by Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor. 1563, pp. 1567-70, 1570, pp. 2159-61, 1576, pp. 1865-67, 1583, pp. 1974-76.

Ralph Allerton was examined on 7 July by Darbyshire. 1563, p. 1626, 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.

Articles against six martyred at Brentford were administered by Thomas Darbyshire on 20 June 1558. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2042.

Darbyshire examined William Living and his wife. 1563, p. 1673.

Sentence against them was read by Darbyshire in the presence of Edward Hastings and Thomas Cornwallis. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2241, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2039.

 
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Thomas Harland

(d. 1556)

Carpenter. Martyr. Of Woodmancott.

Thomas Harland refused to attend church because the service was in Latin and he did not understand it. 1563, p. 1522, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

He was examined and condemned by Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 1522, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

He was burned at Lewes about 6 June 1556. 1563, p. 1522, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

Henry Adlington received a letter from John Careless which referred to the martyrdom of Harland. 1570, pp. 2110-12, 1576, pp. 1833-34, 1583, pp. 1928-29.

 
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Thomas Milles

(d. 1556)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation and origin.

Thomas Milles was burned at Lewes about 20 June 1556. 1563, p. 1522, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

 
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Thomas Moore

(1532? - 1556)

Husbandman. Martyr. Of Leicester.

Thomas Moore denied transubstantiation when examined by Dr Cook and so was condemned. 1563, p. 1611 [recte 1623], 1570, p. 2134, 1576, pp. 1855-56, 1583, p. 1949.

He was burned around 26 June 1556 at Leicester. 1563, p. 1611 [recte 1623], 1570, p. 2134, 1576, p. 1855, 1583, p. 1949.

[This is the merchant's servant burned at Leicester. See 1563, p. 1523, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1914 ]

 
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Thomas Read

(d. 1556)

Martyr. Freewiller. Of unknown occupation and origin.

Thomas Read was examined and condemned by Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 1522., 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

Thomas Read had a vision the night before his martyrdom instructing him not to attend mass. 1570, p. 2197, 1576, p. 1896, 1583, p. 2004.

He was burned at Lewes about 6 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1522, 1602, 1570, pp. 2095, 2196, 1576, pp. 1807, 1895, 1583, p. 1914, 2003.

[Read signed John Trew's confession of 20 January 1555 (new style 1556). See Bodley Ms 53, fo.125r; printed in Richard Laurence, ed. Authentic Documents Relative to the Predestinarian Controversy (Oxford, 1819), p. 70, and L. J. Clement, Religious Radicalism in England, 1535-1565 (Carlisle, 1997), p. 370. Note that Read's signature on the document is 'Thomas Arede'.

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Note that the privy council sent a letter on 3 May 1555 ordering that Thomas Rede, presently held in the King's Bench, be examined 'for being chief mover of a leude tumulte at Wallronde in Sussex' (APC V, p. 120). See also Thomas S. Freeman, 'Notes on a Source for John Foxe's Account of the Marian Persecution in Kent and Sussex', Historical Research 67 (1994), pp. 203-211.]

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Thomas Whittle

(d. 1556)

Priest. Martyr. From Essex.

Thomas Whittle was imprisoned in the coal house with Philpot. Bonner was so violent with Whittle's beard that he plucked much of it away and made his face black and blue. 1563, p. 1392, 1570, p. 1964, 1576, p. 1689, 1583, p. 1798.

He was apprehended by Edmond Alabaster. 1563, p. 1454, 1570, p. 2016, 1576, p. 1737, 1583, p. 1846.

Foxe records the bill of submission. 1563, p. 1454, 1570, p. 2017, 1576, pp. 1737-38, 1583, p. 1846.

Foxe includes Whittle's own account of his recantation and his withdrawal. 1563, pp. 1454-55, 1570, p. 2017, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, p. 1846-47.

John Harpsfield wrote a letter to Bonner about Whittle's subscription. 1563, pp. 1455-56, 1570, pp. 2017-18, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, pp. 1846-47.

Robert Johnson wrote a letter to Bonner about Whittle, confirming Cluney's and Harpsfield's reports. He mentions that Sir Thomas More's submission was read to him twice to no good effect. 1563, p. 1456, 1570, p. 2018, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, pp. 1846-47.

Foxe records Bonner's charges and Whittle's answers to the charges. 1563, p. 1453, 1570, p. 2018, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, pp. 1846-47.

Bonner plucked at Whittle's beard so hard that it made his face black and blue. 1570, p. 1964 [marginal note].

Whittle repented after his recantation and took his subscription. 1570, p. 1964 [marginal note], pp. 2017-18, 1576, p. 1738.

His last examination and condemnation took place on 14 January 1556. 1563, p. 1456, 1570, p. 2018, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, p. 1846.

He was burned at Smithfield with Joan Warren on 14 January 1556. 1563, pp. 1451, 1456, 1570, p. 2018, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, p. 1846.

John Careless wrote a letter to Bartlett Green, Thomas Whittle, Joan Warren, Isabel Foster and certain other prisoners in Newgate. 1570, p. 2107, 1576, p. 1818, 1583, pp. 1924-25.

Thomas Whittle wrote letters to John Careless, John Went and others. 1563, pp. 1457-58, 1570, pp. 2018-22, 1576, pp. 1739-43, 1583, pp. 1847-50.

 
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Thomas Whood

(d. 1556)

Minister. Martyr.

Thomas Whood was burned at Lewes about 20 June 1556. 1563, p. 1522., 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

 
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William Adherall

(d.1556)

Minister, of unknown living.

William Adherall died in the King's Bench on 23 June 1556 and was buried at the backside of the prison. 1570, p. 2025, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

 
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William Halliwel

(1542? - 1556)

Smith. Martyr. Of Waltham Holy Cross.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against William Halliwel (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle). He answered the articles. 1563, pp. 1523-24, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, pp. 1914-16.

Halliwel signed a letter, written with his fellow sufferers, that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1526-27, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, pp. 1809-10, 1583, p. 1916.

He was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow on 27 June 1556. 1563, p. 1526, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1809, 1583, p. 1916.

 
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William Slech

(d. 1556)

William Slech died in the King's Bench on 31 May 1556 and was denied Christian burial. 1563, p. 1522, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

 
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Bricklesey [Brightlingsea]
NGR: TM 085 175

A parish in the hundred of Tendring, county of Essex. Nine miles south-east from Colchester. The living is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Colchester, Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Leicester
Lecester, Leycester
NGR: SK 590 045

A borough, having separate jurisdiction, in the county of Leicester, of which it is the capital. 97 miles north-north-west from London. The borough comprises the parishes of All Saints, St Leonard, St Martin, St Nicholas, and parts of St Margaret and St Mary. St Margaret is within the peculiar jurisdiction of the prebend of that stall in Lincoln cathedral. The rest are in the Archdeaconry of Leicester, Diocese of Lincoln

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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North Foreland
NGR: TR 402 696

A headland, 8 miles east of Margate.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Stratford Bowe, Stratford the Bow, Stratford the Bowe, [Stratford]
NGR: TQ 373 830

A parish in the Tower division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex. 4.5 miles east-north-east from London. The living is a rectory (separated in 1730 from the parish of Stepney, of which it was a chapelry) in the Archdeaconry of Middlesex and Diocese of London.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Tennet

Not identified.

"within x. myle of the North Foreland, otherwyse called Tennet,"

North Foreland NGR: TR 402 696

1938 [1914]

Queene Mary. Three men preserued vpon the seas. Other godly Martyrs in diuers places.

in all hys wonderous works. The story is thus declared, with happened, an. 1565. about Michaelmas.

¶ Another like story of Gods prouidence, vpon three men deliuered vpon the Sea.

MarginaliaAnother lyke story of three men that feared God by God's prouidence preserued on the seas.THere was a ship (saith the sayd Tho. Morse) whereof I had a part, goyng toward the Bay for salt, with two ships of Bricklesey, which were altogether goyng for salt, as before is sayd. At what tyme they were within x. myle of the North Foreland, otherwyse called Tennet, þe wynd did come so contrary to our ship, that they were forced to go cleane out of the way, and the other two shippes kept their course still, vntill our ship was almost out of sight of them. And then they sawe a thing driuyng vpon the sea, & hoysed out their boat and went vnto it: MarginaliaThree sitting vpon a peece of their shippe two dayes and two nightes in the sea.and it was three men sittyng vpon a piece of their ship, which had sitten so two dayes and two nights.

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There had bene in their shippe eight men more, which were drowned, beyng all Frenchmen, dwelling in a place in France called Olloronne. They had bene at Danswike and lost their ship about Orford Nas, as might be learned by their words. They were men that feared God, the one of them was owner of the ship. Their exercise, while they wer in our ship, was, that after the comming in, they gaue thankes for their deliueraunce: both mornyng and euenyng they exercised praier, and also before & after meat, and when they came into Fraunce, our ships went to the same place, where these men dwelled and one of them dyd sell vnto our men their ships lading of salt, and did vse thē very curteously and friendly, and not at that tyme onely, but alwayes whensoeuer that ship commeth thether (as she hath bene there twise since) he alwayes doth for them, so that they can lacke nothing. I should haue noted that after our ship had taken vp those iij. men out of the Sea, they had the wynd fayre presently, and came and ouertooke the other two ships agayne, and so they proceeded in their voiage together.

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¶ For the more credite of this story aboue recited, to satisfie eyther the doubtfull, or to preuent the quareller, I haue not only alledged the name of the partie which was the doer thereof, but also expressed the matter in his owne wordes as I of him receiued it: the partie & reporter hymself beyng yet alyue, & dwellyng at Lee, a man so wel known amongst the Merchants of London, that who so heareth the name of Thomas Morse, will neuer doubt thereof. And agayne, the matter it selfe beyng so notoriously knowen to Merchaunts as well here as at Andwerpe, that though hys name were not expressed, the story can lacke no witnesses.

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¶ The death of William Slech in the Kinges Bench.

MarginaliaMay 31. MarginaliaW. Slech dead in the Kinges Bench & Buryed in the fieldes.THe 

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William Slech

This account first appeared in the 1563 edition and was never changed in subsequent editions.

last day of the sayd moneth of May, in the yeare aforesayde, Wil. Slech beyng in prison for the sayd doctrine of the Lordes Gospel, and the confession of his truth died in the kyngs Bench, and was buried on the backside of the sayd prison, for that the Romish catholike spiritualtie thought hym not worthy to come within their Popeholy churchyards, neither in any other christian burial, as they call it.

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¶ The story of foure men condemned at Lewys the 6. day of Iune.

June 6. Marginalia4. Martyrs burnt at Lewes.IN Iune 

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Harland, Oswald, Avington and Read

In the 1563 edition, Foxe gave a brief account of these four martyrs, simply stating their names and the date and place of their deaths. In the 1570 edition, Foxe added the replies of Harland and Oswald to their articles; he derived this from Bishop Bonner's official records.

It is interesting that Foxe did not mention the answers of Avington and Read to their articles. Avington and Read were prominent freewillers and opponents of John Philpot and John Careless (see Thomas S. Freeman, 'Dissenters from a Dissenting Church: The Challenge of the Freewillers' in The Beginings of English Protestantism, eds. Peter Marshall and Alec Ryrie [Cambridge: 2002], pp. 136, 141, 146 and 153-54). Harland, on the other hand, signed a confessionby Richard Woodman, which explicitly denounced the freewillers and other radical protestants (see Gonville and Caius MS 218, p. 30). Foxe was anxious to play down and minimize the martyrdom of freewillers (see Freeman, 'Dissenters,' pp. 153-54 for a discussion of this point).

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next followyng, about the sixt day of the same moneth,  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 151, fn 1

This date, June 6th, confirms and is confirmed by a letter of John Careless to H. Adlington. It appears ... that Careless expected Adlington and his companions to be condemned the following Friday, and we find, at p. {1916}, that they were actually condemned on Saturday, June 13th. The same letter ... says: "Our sweet brethren, Thomas Harland and John Oswald died at Lewes in Sussex, to the great rejoicing of the children of God that were in those parts. And I hear say, that they were dissolved from this earthly tabernacle at Lewes on Saturday last, and were condemned but the Wednesday before." That Saturday would be June 6th, and so confirms the accuracy of Foxe's text in this place. We may add, that Nicolas's Tables prove June 6th to have fallen on a Saturday in 1556. The beginning of September following twenty-two confessors were marched up from Colchester to London, and were met at Stratford-le-bow by companies of good men, who came to comfort and strengthen them, and attended them all the way to Fulham, where the crowd numbered above a thousand.

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4. Martyrs suffered together at Lewys, whose names were these.


Thomas Harland of Woodmancote,
Carpenter.
Iohn Oswald of Woodmancote,
Husbandman.
Thomas Auington of Ardingly,
Turner.
Thomas Read.

Marginalia
Ex Regist.
Aunswere of Thomas Harland.
To Thomas Harland I finde in the bishop of Londons registers, to be obiected for not comming to church. Whereunto he answered, that after the Masse was restored, he neuer had will to heare the same, because (sayd he) it was in Latine whiche he dyd not vnderstande: and therefore as good (quoth he) neuer a whit, as neuer the better.

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Ioh. Oswalde denyed to aunswere any thyng, vntill hys accusers should bee brought face to face before hym: and neuerthelesse sayd, that fire and Fagottes coulde not

make hym afraid: but as the good Preachers which were in Kyng Edwardes tyme haue suffered and gone before: so was he ready to suffer and come after, and woulde bee glad thereof. MarginaliaAunswere of Iohn Oswald.

These foure after long imprisonment in the Kynges Bench, were burned together at Lewys in Sussex, in one fire, the day of the moneth aforesayd.

¶ The Martyrdome of Thomas Whood, and Thomas Milles. 
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Whood and Milles

This account first appeared in the 1563 edition and was unchanged in subsequent editions.

IN the same towne of Lewys, and in the same moneth likewyse, were burned Thomas Whoode Minister, and Thomas Milles, about the xx. day of the same moneth, for resisting the erroneous and hereticall doctrine of the pretensed catholike church of Rome.

¶ Two dead in the Kyngs Bench. 
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Adherall and Clement

This account first appeared in the 1563 edition and was unchanged in subsequent editions.

MarginaliaIune 23. 2. Martyrs burnt at Lewes. MarginaliaIune 23. MarginaliaWilliam Adherall. MarginaliaIune. 25. MarginaliaIohn Clement.IN the which moneth likewyse, William Adherall 

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William Adherall had signed the confession of faith written by Richard Woodman in 1555, which means that Adherall was in prison since that date (Gonville and Caius MS 218, p. 30).

Minister, imprisoned in the Kyngs Bench, there dyed the xxiiij. day of the same moneth, & was buried out the backside: Also Iohn Clement  
Commentary  *  Close

John Clement wrote a confession of faith to a clandestine congregation which he led in the area of Redhill, Surrey (John Strype, Ecclesiastical Memorials, III, 2, pp. 434-67).

Wheelewright, who dying in the sayd pryson, in lyke sort vpon the dunghill was buried in the backeside two dayes after, videlicet, the xxv. day of Iune.

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¶ A Merchauntes seruaunt burnt at Leycester. 
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A Servant Burned at Leicester

This account was first printed in the 1563 edition and was unchanged in subsequent editions. This servant is actually Thomas Moore, whose martyrdom is described later on 1563, p. 1611; 1570, p. 2134; 1576, p. ; 1583, p. 1949. Foxe never realized that Moore and this servant were one and the same person.

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MarginaliaIune. 26. A marchauntes seruaunt.THe next day followyng of the sayd month of Iune, we read of a certaine yong man a merchants seruant, who for the lyke godlynes suffred cruell persecution of the Papists, and was burnt at Leicester, the 26. of the moneth of Iune aboue named.

Thirteene Martyrs burned at Stratford the Bowe. 
Commentary  *  Close
Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow

All of this account first appeared in the 1563 edition, although one section, on Elizabeth Pepper, was first printed in the appendix and therefore reached Foxe as the edition was being printed. This information was integrated into the account in the 1570 edition; beyond that no changes were made. (Although, confusingly, the note on Pepper in the appendix was also reprinted in the appendix to the 1583 edition (on p. 2145). Much of this account is drawn from official documents, although there is some information from personal sources, notably on Elizabeth Pepper and on the execution of these martyrs. And the apology of these martyrs was a manuscript which had been circulating among the Marian protestants.

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MarginaliaIune 27. 13. Martyrs suffering at Stratford the Bowe.NOt long after the death of the Merchaunts seruaunt before mentioned, there followed in this happye and blessed order of Martyrs burned in one fire at Stratford the Bowe by London, a xj. men and two women, whose dwellings were in sundry places in Essex, & whose names hereafter followeth.

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Henry Adlington.  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 152, fn 1

The letter ... addressed to this faithful confessor by John Careless, must have been written within the next two or three days after this examination. Careless states that he had that same day received a letter from Adlington. - ED.


Laurence Pernam.
Henry Wye.
William Hallywell.
Thomas Bowyer.
George Searles.
Edmund Hurst.

Lyon Cawch. 
Commentary  *  Close

Lion à Coise, a Flemish broker living in London.


Rafe Iackson.
Iohn Deryfall.
Iohn Routh.
Elizabeth Pepper.
Agnes George.

Vnto whom the 6. of Iune, an. 1556. D. Darbyshiere Boners Chancellour, in forme of law ministred the same Articles that were propounded vnto Tho. Whittle & hys company, mentioned before, to the which they made their seuerall answers, in simplicitie, and in good conscience. The summe and effect whereof ensueth.

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MarginaliaAunswere to their articles.To the first, they all answered affirmatiuely: but Lyon Cawch added further, that he beleued that þe true fayth and religion of Christ is, wheresoeuer the word of God is truly preached.

MarginaliaAunswere to the 2. article.To the second Article, they all answered in effect, deniyng that there be 7. sacraments: some affirmyng that in the Church of Christ, there be but two sacraments, that is to say, Baptisme, and the Lordes Supper. Others referryng themselues to beleeue as the scripture teacheth them. And other some refused to make aunswer because of theyr simplicitie.

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MarginaliaAunswere to the 3 article.To the third article they all answered affirmatiuely.

MarginaliaAunswere to the 4. article.To the fourth Article, they all aunswered affirmatiuely: sauing Iohn Routh, who sayd he would make no answer thereunto. But Lyon Cawch added, that he beleued the article to be true: but it was because he had no better knowledge. And Agnes George added, that in king Edward the 6. his tyme, she went from her old fayth and religion, and beleued in the faith and religion that was then taught and set forth.

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MarginaliaAunswere to the 5. article.To the fift they all aunswered in effect affirmatiuely: sauing Iohn Routh, whose aunswer was, that the Masse is such a thyng, which cannot nor will not enter into hys conscience. And Henry Adlington answered, that for 9. or 10. yeres before, he misliked the Masse, and also the Sacrament of the aultar, because they cannot bee prooued by the scriptures. And as touching the authoritie of the Sea of

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