Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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Cologne (Köln; Colonia Agrippina)

[Colen; Colleyn; Collen; Colon]

North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Coordinates: 50° 57' 0" N, 6° 58' 0" E

Cathedral city

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Fécamp (Fiscannum) [Fiscam]

Upper Normandy

Coordinates: 49° 45' 29.88" N, 0° 22' 48" E

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NGR: SK 975 715

A city and county of itself, locally in the county of Lincoln, of which it is the chief town. Seat of the Bishopric of Lincoln. 132 miles north by west from London. Lincoln formerly contained 52 parish churches, of which 34 were destroyed prior to the reign of Edward VI. It comprises the parishes of St Benedict, St Botolph, St John Newport, St Margaret in the Close, St Mark, St Martin, St Mary Wigford, St Mary Magdalene, St Michael on the Mount, St Nicholas Newport, St Paul in the Bail, St Peter at Arches, St Peter in eastgate, St Peter at Gowte, and St Swithin; all in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Lincoln. Of which St Mary Magdalene, St Paul in the Bail and St .Peter at Arches are discharged rectories; St Mary Wigford is a discharged vicarage; St John Newport is a vicarage not in charge; and the remainder are perpetual curacies.

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Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

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OS grid ref: SK 883 820

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OS grid ref: SP 022 283

207 [184]

Osmund. Bishop of Sarum. Will. Rufus. Lanfrancus dyeth.

A little aboue, mention was made of the Bishops sea of Shireborne, translated from thence to Salisbury. MarginaliaThe first byshop of Salisbury.The first bishop of Salisbury was Hermannus a Normand, who first began the new church and minster of Salisbury. After whom succeded MarginaliaOsmund Bishop of Sarum.Osmūdus, who finished the worke and replenished the house with great liuing, & much good singing. MarginaliaOrdinale ecclesiastici officij. Secundū vsum Sarum.This Osmundus first began the ordinarie, which was called Secundum vsum Sarum. an. 1076. The occasion wherof was this (as I find in an old story booke intituled Eulogium MarginaliaEx Eulogio historico. Lib. 3. The vse and ordinary of Sarum, how and when it was deuised.) a great contention chanced at Glastenbury betwene Thurstanus the Abbot, and his couent in the days of William Conqueror. Which Thurstanus the sayd William had brought out of Normandy, frō the Abbey of Cadonum, and placed him Abbot of Glastenbury. The cause of this cōtentious battaile, was for that Thurstanus contemning their Quier seruice, then called the vse of S. Gregory, cōpelled his monkes to the vse of one Williā a monk of Fiscam in Normandy. Wherupon, came strife & contentions amongst them: first, in wordes, then from words to blowes, after blowes then to armor. The Abbot with his gard of harnest men, fell vpon the monkes, & draue them to the steps of the high aulter: where ij. were slayne, viij. were wounded with shafts, swords & pikes. The monkes then driuen to such a straight & narow shift, were compelled to defend themselues with fourmes and candlestickes, wherwith they did wound certain of the souldiours. One monke there was (an aged man) who in stead of his shield tooke an Image of the Crucifixe in his armes, for hys defence, which image was woūded in the brest by one of the bowe men, wherby the Monke was saued. My story addeth more, that the striker incontinent vpon the same fell mad, which sauoreth of some monkish addition besides the text. This matter being brought before the king, the Abbot was sent agayne to Cadonius, and the monks by the commaundement of the king were scattered in farre countreys. Thus by the occasion hereof, Osmundus bishop of Salisbury, deuised that ordinary, which is called the vse of Sarum, and was afterward receiued in a maner through all England, Ireland and Wales. And thus much for this matter, done in the time of this king William.

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Which William after his death, by his wife Matildis or Maulde, left iij. sonnes, Robert Courtsey to whom he gaue the Duchie of Normandy: William Rufus his secōd sonne, to whom he gaue the kingdome of England: And Henry the third sonne, to whom he left and gaue treasor, and warned William to be to his people louing & liberall, Robert to be to his people sterne and sturdy.

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MarginaliaExample of Gods iust iudgment vpon a Byshop, who being unmercifull to the poore, was eaten with rattes and myse.In the history called Iornalensis, is reported of a certain great man, who about this tyme of kyng William, was compassed about with Mise and Rattes, and flying to the middest of a Riuer, yet when that would not serue, came to the land agayne, and was of them deuoured. The Germaines say, that this was a Byshop, who dwellyng betwene Colen and Mentz, in tyme of famine and dearth, hauyng store of corne and grayne, would not helpe the pouertie crying to hym for reliefe, but rather wyshed hys corne to be eaten of Myse and Rattes. Wherefore beyng compassed with Mise and Rattes (by the iust iudgement of God) to auoyd the annoiance of them, he builded a tower in middest of the Riuer of Rheine (which yet to this day the Dutchmen call Rattes tower) but all that would not helpe: for the Rattes and Myse swamme ouer to hym in as great aboundaunce as they did before. Of whome at length he was deuoured.

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William Rufus.


Anno. 1088.

William Rufus.

WIlliam Rufus the second sonne of William Cōquerour beganne his raigue, an. 1088. 
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William Rufus

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

And raigned 13. yeares, beyng crowned at Westminster by Lanfrancus, who after his coronation released out of prison, by the request of his father, diuers of the English Lords, which before had bene in custody. It chaunced that at the death of William Conquerour, Robert Courtsey his eldest sonne was absent in Almany. Who hearing of the death of hys father, and how William his yonger brother had taken vpon him the kingdome, was therwith greatly amoued, in so much that he laid his dukedome to pledge vnto his brother Henry, and with that good, gathered vnto him an army, and so landed at Hampton, to the intent to haue expulsed his brother from the kyngdom. But William Rufus hearing thereof, sent to him fayre and gentle wordes, promising him deditiō and subiection as to the more worthy and elder brother, this thing onely requiring, that seeyng he was now in place and possession, he might enioy it during his life, paying to him yerely iij. thousand markes, with condition, that which of them ouerlyued the other,should enioy the kingdome. The occasion of this variance betwene these brethren, wrought a great dissentiō among the Normaine Lordes and Bishops, both in England & in Normandy. In so much that all the Normain bishops within the realm almost rebelled against the king (takyng part with Duke Robert) except onely Lanfrancus, and MarginaliaWolstane Byshop of Worcester.Wolstane Bishop of Worcester, aboue mentioned an English man: who for his vertue and constancie was so wel liked and fauoured of his citizens, that (emboldned wyth his presence & prayer) they stoutly maintained the City of Worcester agaynst the siege of their enemies, & at last vanquished them wyth vtter ruine. But Duke Robert at length by the aduise of his counsaile (hearing the wordes sent vnto him, and wagging his head thereat, as one conceiuing some matter of doubt or doublenes) was yet content to assent to all that was desired, & so returned shortly after into Normandy, leauing the bishops and such other, in the briers, which were in England taking his part against the kyng.

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This Rufus was so ill liked of the Normaines, that betwene him and his Lords was oft dissention. Wherfore (well nere) all the Normains tooke part agaynst him: so that he was forced of necessitie to drawe to hym the Englishe men. Agayne, so couetous he was, and so immeasurable in his taskes and takings, in selling benefices, Abbeys, and Bishoprickes, that he was hated of all English men.

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Anno. 1091.

The death of Lanfrancus Archb. of Canterb.

In the third yere of this king, died Lancfrancus Archbishop of Cant. from whose commendation and worthines as I list not to detract any thing (being so greatly magnified of Polidorus his countreyman) so neyther doe I see any great cause, why to adde any thing therunto. This I thinke, vnlesse that man had brought with him lesse superstition, and more sincere science into Christes Church, he might haue kept him in his countrey still, & haue confuted Berengarius at home. After þe decease of Lanfranke, the sea of Cant. stoode emptie iiij. yeares.

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After the counsaile of Lancfrancus aboue mentioned: wherin was concluded for translating of Bishops seas, from villages into head cities: MarginaliaRemigius Byshop of Lincolne.Remigius bishop of Dorchester, who (as ye heard, accompanied Lancfrancus vnto Rome) remooued his Bishops sea from Dorchester vnto Lincolne, MarginaliaLincolne minster builded.where he builded the minster there situate vpon an hill within the sayd citie of Lincoln. The dedication of which church, Robert Archbishop of Yorke did resist, saying that it was builded within the ground of his precinct. But after, it had his Romish dedication by Robert Blocet, next bishop that followed. MarginaliaStow Abbey builded.By the same Remigius also was founded the cloister or monastery of Stow, &c.

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MarginaliaAnno. 1092.In the iiij. yeare of this king, great tempest fell in sondry places of England, specially at Winchcombe, MarginaliaWynchecombe steeple brent with lightning.where the steeple was burned with lightning, the Church walle brast through, the head and right leg of the Crucifixe, with the Image of our Lady, on the right side of the Crucifixe throwen downe, and such a stench left in the Church, that none might abide it. At London the force of the weather & tempest ouerturned vj. hundreth houses. MarginaliaVi. hundreth houses blowne down with wynde. In which tempest the roofe of Bowe church was whurled vp in þe wind, and by the vehemence thereof was pitched downe a great deepenes into the ground. MarginaliaThe roofe of Bowe Church ouerthrown.

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King William (as ye heard an exceding piller or rauener rather of Church goods) after he had geuen the Bishoprike of Lincolne to his Chauncellor Robert Bleuet (aboue minded) began to cauil, auouching the sea of Lincoln to belong to the sea of Yorke, till the Bishop of Lincolne had pleased him with a great summe of money of v. thousand markes, &c. MarginaliaRobert Bleuet payd v. thousand markes for hys Bishopricke.

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And as nothing could come in those dayes without mony from the king, so MarginaliaHerbert Losinga Byshop of Norwiche. Losinga. I. adulator.Herbert Losinga paying to the kyng a peece of money, was made bishop of Thetford, as he had payd a little before to be Abbot of Ramesey. Who likewise the same time, remouing his sea from Thetford to the Citie of Norwich, there erected the Cathedrall Church with the cloister in the said citie of Norwich, MarginaliaNorwiche mynster builded by Herbert. where he furnished the Monkes with sufficient liuing and rentes of his owne charges, besides the Bishops landes. Afterward repentyng of his open and manifest simonie, he went to Rome: where he resigned vnto the Popes hands his bishoprike: but so, that incontinēt he receiued it againe. This Herbert was the sonne of an Abbot called Robert, for whō he purchased of the king to be bishop of Winchester, wherof runneth these verses.

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Filius est præsul, pater Abba, Simon vterq̀;,
Quid non speremus si nummos possideamus:
Omnia nummus habet quod vult facit, addit & aufert
Res nimis iniusta, nummus fit præsul & Abba, &c.

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Verses about Abbot Robert, son of Herbert
Foxe text Latin

Filius est præsul ... & Abba. &c.


John Wade, University of Sheffield

The son is a bishop, the father is an abbot and each is a Simon:
What would we not hope for if we were to possess money?
Money has everything because it wants, it makes, it adds and it takes away.
It is all too unjust a thing, a bishop and an abbot made by money.

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