Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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Antioch (Antioch on the Orontes, Great Antioch, Syrian Antioch) (Antakya)

[Antiochia apud Orontem]


Coordinates: 36° 12' 0" N, 36° 9' 0" E

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Aosta (Aoste) [Oste; Augusta]

Valle d'Aosta, Italy

Cathedral city

Coordinates: 45° 44' 0" N, 7° 19' 0" E

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Civita di Bagnoregio [Citie Bonauenture]

Lazio, Italy

Coordinates: 42° 37' 0" N, 12° 5' 0" E

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(Byzantium, Istanbul) [Bizance]


Coordinates: 41° 0' 44" N, 28° 58' 34" E

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Heraclea [Eraclea]

nr Bitola, Macedonia

Coordinates: 41° 1' 55" N, 21° 20' 5" E

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Nicea (Iznik)



Coordinates: 40° 25' 44" N, 29° 43' 10" E

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Sherborne Abbey [Shirborne]


OS grid ref: ST 635 165

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(Tarsos; Juliopolis) [Iuliopolis; Tharsus]

Cilicia Prima (Mersin Province), Turkey

Coordinates: 36° 55' 0" N, 34° 54' 0" E

208 [185]

P. Victor poysoned. The originall of Monkes. Hierusalem conquered. Decrees of Popes.

Ye heard a little before of the death of Pope Hildebrād, after the tyme of which Hildebrand, the Germain Emperors began to loose their authoritie and right in the Popes electiō, and in geuing of benefices. For next after this Hildebrand, came MarginaliaPope victor the 3.Pope Victor by the setting vp of Matilda, and the Duke of Normandy, with the faction and retinue of Hildebrand, who likewise shewed himelfe stout against þe emperor. But God gaue the shrewd Cow short hornes: MarginaliaPope victor poysoned in his chalice.For Victor beyng poysoned (as some say in his chalice) sate but one yeare and a halfe. Notwithstanding the same imitation and example of Hildebrand continued still in thē that followed after. MarginaliaA comparisō betwene Hildebrand Pope of Rome: and Ieroboam king of Israell.And like as the kings of Israel folowed most part the steps of Ieroboam, till the tyme of theyr desolation: so for the greatest sort all Popes followed the steps and proceedings, of this Hildebrand their spirituall Ieroboam, in maintaining fals worship, and chiefly in vpholding the dignitie of the sea, against all rightfull authoritie, and the lawful kingdom of Sion. MarginaliaThe order of Charter monkes began.In the time of this Victor, began the order of the Monkes of Charterhouse, through the meanes of one Hugo bishop of Gracionople, and of Bruno bishop of Colen.

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Next to Victor sate MarginaliaPope Vrbanus 2.Vrbanus the ij. by whom the acts of Hildebrand were confirmed, & also new decrees enacted against Henricus the Emperour. In this time were two Popes at Rome, MarginaliaTwo Popes in Rome.Vrbanus and Clemens iij. whome the Emperor set vp. Vnder Pope Vrbane came in the white Monkes of Cistercian order, by one Stephen Harding a monke of Shireborne (an Englishman) by whom this order had his beginning in the wildernes of Cistery, within the prouince of Burgoyne, as witnesseth Cestrensis. MarginaliaThe order of Cisterican or whyte monkes beganne. Other write that this Harding was the ij. Abbot of that place, & that it was first founded by the meanes of one Robert Abbot of Molisine in Cistercium, a Forest in Burgundy, an. 1098. (perswaded perchance by Harding) and afterward in the yere of our Lord, 1135. it was brought into England by a certaine man called Espek, which builded an Abbey of the same order called Meriuale. In this order þe monks did liue by the labour of their hands. They paid no tithes, nor offrings: they weare no furre nor lyning: they weare red shoes, their coules white, and coate blacke, all shorne saue a little circle: they eate no flesh but only in their iourney. Of this order was Bernardus, &c.

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MarginaliaSynodus Romana vel Placentina.This Vrbanus held diuers Councels: one at Rome, where he excommunicated all such lay persons as gaue inuestiture of any Ecclesiasticall benefice. Also all such of the Clergy as abiected themselues to be vnderlings or seruants to lay persons for Ecclesiasticall benefices, &c.

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MarginaliaSynodus Claromantana.An other Councell he held at Cleremount in France. Where among other things the bishop made an Oration to the Lords, being there present concerning the voiage & recouering of the holy land from the Turkes and Sarazens. The cause of which voiage first sprang by one Peter a monke or Hermite, who being in Ierusalem, & seing the great misery of the Christians vnder the Paganes, made therof declaration to Pope Vrbane, & was therin a great sollicitor to all christian Princes. By reason whereof, after the foresaid Oration of pope Vrbane MarginaliaThe viage vnto the holy land. The number that went.30000. men (takyng on them the signe of the crosse for their cognisaunce) made preparation for that voiage, MarginaliaThe captaynes of thē whiche went to the holy land.whose Captains were Godfrey duke of Loraine with his two brethren, Eustace, and Baldwine, the bishop of Pody, Bohemund duke of Puell and his nephew Tancredus, Raymund Erle of S. Egidius, Robert Erle of Flaunders, and Hugh le Graund, brother of Phillip the French king. To whome also was ioyned Robert Courthoyse duke of Normandy, with diuers other noble men, with the foresayd Peter the Heremite, who was the chiefe causer of that voiage.

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At that tyme many of the sayd Noble men layed theyr lands & lordships to morgage, for to prouide for the forenamed voiage: as Godfrey duke of Lorayne, who sold the Dukedome of Boloine to the Bishop of Eburone for a great summe of money. Also Robert Courthoyse Duke of Normandy layd his Dukedome to pledge to his brother William king of England for x. thousand pounds, &c. MarginaliaAnno. 1096.Thus the Christians which passed first ouer Bosphorus, hauing to their captaine Peter the Heremite (a man perchance more deuout then expert to guide an army) beyng trapped of their enemies, were slaine & murthered in great number among the Bulgars, and nere to the towne called Ciuitus.

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MarginaliaThe actes of the Christians in their viage to win Hierusalem.When the nobles and the whole army met together at Constantinople (where Alexius was Emperour) passing ouer by Hellespontus goyng to Ierusalem, they tooke the cities of Nicea, Eraclea, Tarsis, and subdued the country of Cicilia, appointing the possession thereof to certayne of their Captaines.

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Antioch was besieged, and in the ix. month of the siegeit was yelded to the Christians by one Pyrrhus: Marginalia

Antioch taken of the Christians.

Anno. 1098.

about which season were fought many strong battayles to the great slaughter and desolation of the Sarazens, and not without losse of many Christian men. The gouernance of this Citie was committed to Boamund Duke of Puell, whose martiall knighthood was often prooued in tyme of the siege thereof.

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And not long after, Corbona, maister of the Persians Chiualry, was vanquished and slayne, with an hundreth thousand Infidels. MarginaliaThe slaughter of the Persian infidels. In which discomfiture were taken 15000. camels.

Ierusalem the 39. day of the siege was conquered by the Christians. MarginaliaHierusalem conquered by the Christians. Robert Duke of Normandy was elect to be king therof. But he refused, hearing of the death of king William of Eng. wherfore he neuer sped in all his affaires well after the same. Then Godfrey captaine of the christian army was proclaimed the first king of Ierusalem. MarginaliaEx Henric. li. 7.At the taking of the City was such a murder of men, that bloud was congeled in the streete the thicknes of a foote. Then after Godfrey raigned Baldwine his brother. After hym Baldwine the second nephew. Then Gaufridus duke of Gaunt, and after him Gaufridus his sonne, by whom many great battails there were fought against the Sarazens and all the countrey thereabout subdued saue Ascalon, &c. And thus much hetherto touching the voyage to the holy land. Now to our owne land agayne.

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About this tyme (as Matthæus Parisiensis writeth) MarginaliaThe king of Englands iudgement agaynst the Pope. Ex Math. pari.the kinge of England fauoured not much the sea of Rome, because of their impudent and vnsatiable exactiōs, which they required, neither would he suffer any of his subiectes to go to Rome, alleaging these wordes in the author thus expressed: Quòd Petri non inhærent vesti ijs, præmijs inhiantes, non eius potestatem retinent, cuius sanctitatem probantur non imitari: that is, because they follow not the steppes of Peter, hunting for rewardes, neither haue they the power and authoritie of him, whose holinesse they declare themselues not to follow, &c.

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MarginaliaDecrees of pope Vrbanus.By the same Vrbanus, the seuen Houres whiche we call septem horas Canonicas, were first instituted in the Church.

Item, by this pope was decreed, no bishop to be made but vnder the name and title of some certaine place. MarginaliaIoan Stella.

Item, that Mattins and Houres of the day, should euery day be sayd.

MarginaliaNauclerus.Also euery Saterday, to be sayd the Masse of our Lady, and all the Iewes Sabboth to be turned to the seruice of our Lady, as in the Councell of Turon, to the which seruice was appointed the Antheme, Ora pro populo, interueni pro clero, intercede pro deuoto fœmineo sexu.

MarginaliaDist. 31. Eos qui 15. q. 6. Iuratos.Item, all such of the clergy as had wyues to be depriued of their order.

Item, to be lawfull for subiectes to breake theyr othe of allegeaunce, with all such as were by the Pope excommunicate.

Marginalia30. q. 8. quod autem.Item, not to be lawfull both for husband and wyfe to christen one child both together, with matters many moe.

By the same Pope thus many chapters stand written in the Canon law. Dist. 7. Sanctorum, dist. 31. Eos qui 1. q. 1. Si qui dist. 56 præsbyterorum, 11. q. 3. quibus 15. q. 6. Iuratos, 16. q. 7 congregatio, 19 q 2. Statuimus, 23. q. 8 Tributum. 30. q. 4. quod autem &c.

In the 6. yere of this kings raigne, Malcoline king of Scots which foure times before had made great slaughter of old & yong in the North partes, as is before shewed, braste into Northumberland with all the power he could make, MarginaliaExample of Gods rightfull iudgement in punishing cruel murther.and there by the right iudgement of God was slain with his sonne Edward, and also Margaret his wife, sister to Edgar Adeling aboue mynded, a vertuous and deuout Lady, within 3. dayes after.

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MarginaliaAnselmus made Archbishop of Cant.The same yeare he gaue the Archbishoprike of Caunterbury (after that he had detayned the same in hys owne handes 4. yeares) to Anselmus Abbot of Becke in Normandie

This Anselme was an Italian in the Citie of Augusta borne, and brought vp in the Abbey of Becke in Normandy: where, he was so straight a folower of vertue, that (as the story recordeth) he wished rather to bee without sinne in hell, then in heauen with sinne. MarginaliaThe saying of Anselme pondered.Which saying and wish of his (if it were his) may seeme to proceede out of a mynde neither speaking orderly according after the phrase and vnderstanding of the scripture, nor yet sufficiently acquainted with the iustification of a christen man. Further, they report him to be so farre from singularitie: that hee should say it was MarginaliaThe vice of singularitie.the vice which thrust the angels first out of heauen, and man out of paradise.

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Of this Anselme it is moreouer reported, that he was so ilwilling to take the Archbishoprike, that the kyng had

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