Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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[Tholous; Tholouse; Theolouse; Tule]

Haute-Garonne, France

Coordinates: 43° 36' 19" N, 1° 26' 34" E

Historic capital of Languedoc

225 [202]

The decrees of Theolbald. Pope Lucius. Hadrianus. K. Henry 2. Fredericus Emperour.

Much about the same tyme came vp the order of the Gilbertines, MarginaliaThe order of the Gilbertines. by one Gilbert sonne to Iacoline a knight of Lincolnshire, &c.

Mention hath bene made before of certayne English Councels, holden in the tyme of this kyng, where it was (in one of them vnder Theolbald the Archbishop of Canterbury) decreed, that bishops should lyue more discretely, should teach their flocke more diligently, that readyng of scriptures should be frequented more vsually in Abbeys: that Priests should not be rulers of worldly matters, MarginaliaThe Lordes prayer and the Creede in Englishe.and that they should learne and teach the Lordes prayer, and Creede in English, Malmesb.

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MarginaliaMatthæus Pariensis. lib. Chron. 4. Steuen king of England.Matth. Parisiensis writeth, how Stephen king of England in these dayes reserued to himselfe, the right and authoritie of bestowyng of spirituall liuyngs, and inuestyng Prelates, an. 1133.

At which tyme also, Lotharius the Emperour began to do the lyke in recouering agayne the right & priuiledge taken away from Henricus his predecessor, had not Bernardus geuen him contrary counsaile.

MarginaliaCursing with booke, bell, and candle.Here came into the Church, the maner of cursing with booke, bell, and candle: deuised in the Councell of London holden by William bishop of Winchester vnder Pope Celestinus, which succeeded next after Innocentius, an. 1144.

MarginaliaAnno. 1138.Also Lotharius succeeded in the Imperiall crowne, Conradus the nephew of Henricus the v. afore mentioned, an. 1138. which only amongst many Emperors is not found to receiue the crowne at the Popes hand.

In the dayes of this Emperor (who raigned 15. yeres) were diuers Popes, as Celestinus 2. Lucius the 2. Eugenius the 3. at which time the Romaines went about to recouer agayne their former olde maner of chusing theyr Consuls and Senators. But the Popes thē being in their ruffe, in no case would abide it, wherupon rose many commotions, with much ciuile warre amongest them. MarginaliaPope Lucius, the ij. warring agaynst the Senators.In so much, that Pope Lucius (sending for ayde to the Emperour, and he otherwise letted at that tyme could not come) armed his souldiours, thinking to inuade them or els to destroy them in their Senate house. But this comming to their knowledge before, the people was all in aray, and so much ado was amongst them. Pope Lucius beyng also amongst thē in the fight (wel pelted with stones & blowes) liued not long after. Likewise Pope Eugenius after him, an. 1145 (pursuing the Romaines for the same matter) first did curse them with excommunicatiō. MarginaliaSpirituall excommunication abused in temporall causes. After, when he saw that would not serue, he came with his host: and so compelled them at length to seeke his peace, and to take his cōditions which were these: That they should abolish theyr Consuls, and take such Senators, as he by his Papall authoritie should assigne them.

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Then followed Anastacius the 4. & after him MarginaliaHadrianus a Pope an Englishman.Hadrianus 4. an Englishman, by his name (called Breakespere) belonging once to S. Albōs. This Hadrianus kept great stirre in like sort with the citizens of Rome for abolishyng their consuls and Senate, cursing, excommunicating, and warring agaynst them with all power he could make: to the tyme he remooued the Consuls out of their office, and brought them all vnder his subiection. The lyke businesse and rage he also styrred vp against Apulia, and especially against the Empire, blustering and thundering agaynst Fridericus the Emperour, as (the Lord graunting) you shall heare anone after we haue prosecuted such matter, as necessarily appertayneth first to the continuation of our English story.

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King Henry the second.

MarginaliaAnno. 1154. King Henry the second.HEnry the secōd of that name, the sonne of Ieffrey Plantagenet, and of Maude the Empresse and daughter of king Henry the first, beganne his raigne after king Stephen, and continued 35. yeares. The first yeare of his raign he subdued Ireland, and not long after, MarginaliaThomas Becket chauncellor of England.Thomas Becket was made by him Lord Chauncellour of England. This king cast downe diuers Castles, which were erected in the time of king Stephen. He went into the North partes, where he subdued William king of Scotland, who at that tyme held a great part of Northumberland vnto new Castell vpon Tyne, and ioyned Scotland to his owne kingdome from the South Ocean to the North Iles of Orchades. Also he put vnder his dominion the kingdome of Wales, and there let to fall downe many great woodes, and made the wayes playne. So that by his great manhood and policie, the seignorie of England was much augmēted with the addition of Scotland, Ireland, the Iles Orchades, Britaine, Poytow, and Guyan. Also he had in hys rule,Normandy, Gascoyne, Angeow, and Chinon: also Aluerne and the Citie of Tholous he wan, and were to hym subiect. Ouer and besides (by the title of his wife Elenore daughter to the Erle of Poytow) he obtained the mounts Pyraine in Spayne: so that we read of none of hys progenitours, which had so many countreys vnder hys dominion.

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MarginaliaAnno. 1157.In England were seene in the firmament two sunnes, or as it is in Chronica Chronicorum, in Italy appeared thre sunnes by the space of iij. houres in the West, and the yere following, appeared iij. moones, wherof the middle moone had a red crosse ouertwart the face. Whereby was tokened (by the iudgement of some) the great schisme, that after fell among the Cardinals for the election of the Bishop of Rome: or els rather the businesse betwene Fridericus the Emperour and the Popes, wherof partly now incidently occasiō geueth vs to discourse. After that I haue first written of MarginaliaGerhardus. Dulcinus. Preachers agaynst Antichrist of Rome.Gerhardus and Dulcinus Nauarēsis, who in their tyme according to their gift, did earnestly labour & preach against the church of Rome, defending and maintainyng, that prayer was not more holy in one place then in an other, that the Pope was Antichrist, that the Clergy & prelates of Rome were reiect, and the very whore of Babilon prefigured in the Apocalips, &c. Peraduenture these had receiued some light of knowledge of the Waldenses. Who at length with a great number of their folowers were oppressed and slaine by the Pope. MarginaliaEx historia Gisburnensi. And although some inconuenient points of doctrine and dishonesty in their assemblies be agaynst them alledged of some, yet these tymes of ours do teach sufficiently, what credite is to bee geuen to such popish slanders, forged rather vpon hatred of true religion, then vpon any iudgement of truth. Illyricus in his booke De testibus referreth the tyme of these two, to the yere of our Lord, 1280. but as I find in þe story of Robert Guisburn: these ij. about þe yeare of our Lord, 1158. MarginaliaAnno. 1158. brought 30. with them into England, who by the king and the Prelates, were all burnt in the forehead, and so driuen out of the Realme, and after (as Illyricus writeth) were slayne by the Pope.

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And now according to my promise premised, the tyme requireth to proceede to the history of MarginaliaFredericus Barbarossa Emperour.Fredericus the first, (called Barbarossa) successor vnto Conradus in the Empire, who marched vp to Italy, to subdue there certaine rebels. 

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Frederick Barbarossa

The legend that Pope Alexander III trod on the neck of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa has no basis in fact. It was first circulated by partisans of Alexander III and it was widely repeated throughout the Middle Ages. It was seized upon by the Protestants and joined the humiliation of Emperor Henry IV at Canossa as a classic example of the overweening pretensions of of the papacy to secular jurisdiction. Foxe's account of Barbarossa first appeared in the 1563 edition and was reprinted without change in subsequent editions. Apart from Barbarossa's letter to his subjects, proclaiming his authority to be superior to that of Pope Hadrian IV - and which comes from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Strausbourg, 1562), pp. 247-9 - this entire account is taken from John Bale, Catalogus, pp. 178-80 and 200-2.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

The Pope hearing that, came with his Clergy to meete him by the way, in a towne called Sutrium, thinking by him to find ayd against his enemies. The Emperor seyng the Bishop, lighteth of his horse to receiue hym, holdyng the stirrup to the Prelate on the left side, when he should haue held it on the right, MarginaliaThe pope displeased that the Emperour did not hold his right stirrup.whereat the Pope shewed himselfe somwhat agrieued. The Emperor smiling, excused himselfe that he was neuer accustomed to holde stirrops. And seying it was done onely of good will, and of no duety, the lesse matter was, what side of the horse he held. MarginaliaThe Emperour holdeth the Popes stirrup.The next day to make amends agayne to the Bishop, the Emperor sending for him, receiued him, holding the right stirrup to the prelate, & so all the matter was made whole and he the Popes owne white sonne agayne.

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MarginaliaThe Popes old practise in setting Princes together by the eares.After this, as they were come in and sate together, Hadrianus the Pope beginneth to declare vnto him, how his auncestors before him (such as sought to the sea of Rome for the crowne) were woont alwayes to leaue behind them some speciall token or monument of their beneuolence, for the obtaining thereof, as Carolus Magnus in subduing the Lombards, Ottho the Berengarians, Lotharius the Normands, &c. Wherfore, he required some benefit to proceed likewise from him to the church of Rome, in restoring agayne the countrey of Apulia, to the Church of Rome. Which thing if he would do, he for his part againe would do that which appertained to him to do: (meaning in geuing him the crowne) for at þt tyme the popes had brought the Emperors, to fetch their crowne at their hands.

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Frederike with his princes perceiuing, that vnlesse he would of his owne proper costes & charges fetch in agayn Apulia out of duke Williams hands, he could not speed of the crowne, was fayne to promise to all that the Pope required, and so the next day after was crowned.

This done, the Emperor returneth into Germany, to refresh his army and his other furnitures, for the subduing Apulia. In the meane while, Hadrianus not thinking to be idle, first geueth forth censures of excommunication against William duke of Apulia. Besides (not contēt with this) sendeth also to Emanuel Emperor of Constantinople, incensing him to warre against the foresayd William. The duke perceiuing this, sendeth to the Pope for peace, promising to restore to him whatsoeuer he would.

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But the Pope through the malignant counsaile of his Cardinals, would grant to no peace, MarginaliaWar more gaynefull to the Pope then peace. Warre stirred vp by the Pope.thinking to get more

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