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Albert Pighius (Pighe)

(c. 1490 - 1542)[Catholic Encyclopedia]

Dutch theologian, mathematician and astronomer. DTh Cologne 1517; defended the authority of the church against the reformers

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 2, 1576, p. 2, 1583, p. 2.

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Boniface VIII (Benedetto Gaetano)

(c. 1235 - 1303) [Kelly]

Studied at Bologna DCnCL. In 1265 he accompanied Cardinal Ottobuono Fieschi to England; advocate, notary at the Curia 276; cardinal 1281; papal legate. Pope (1294 - 1303)

Boniface VIII, upon election to the papacy, displayed himself in bishop's robes and in imperial robes.1570, p. 7, 1576, p. 6, 1583, p. 6.

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Clement V (Bertrand de Goth)

(c. 1260 - 1314) [Kelly]

Frenchman; studied canon and civil law at Toulouse, Orleans and Bologna. Papal chaplain; bishop of Comminges 1295; archbishop of Bordeaux 1299. Pope (1305 - 14); settled the papal court in Avignon

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 2, 1576, p. 2, 1583, p. 2.

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Cyprian of Carthage(St Cyprian)

(d. 258) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Teacher of rhetoric; bishop of Carthage (249 - 58); there was opposition and schism in his see. Early Christian writer; in conflict with Pope Stephen I over the efficacy of baptism by heretics; executed

Cyprian was born in Carthage, grew up a pagan and became a skilled rhetorician. He was converted by a priest and baptised. Not long after he became a priest, he was made bishop of Carthage. 1570, p. 98; 1576, p. 69; 1583, p. 69.

Cyprian was called 'papas' or 'father'. 1570, p. 11; 1576, p. 8; 1583, p. 8.

Cyprian favoured the rebaptism of those baptised by heretics; in this he disagreed with Pope Stephen. 1570, p. 101, 1576, p. 71, 1583, p. 71.

Cyprian complained that many of the faithful, without having been subjected to any torture, through cowardice voluntarily agreed to sacrifice to the gods. 1570, p. 92; 1576, p. 64; 1583, p. 64.

Novatian was a priest under Cyprian in Carthage, where he appointed Felicissimus deacon without Cyprian's knowledge and stirred up factions. Novatian opposed the reinstatement of lapsed Christians. 1570, p. 93; 1576, p. 65; 1583, p. 64.

Cyprian was banished from Carthage during the reign of Gallus due to sedition within the church there. 1570, p. 95; 1576, p. 66; 1583, p. 66.

Cyprian returned from exile in the reign of Valerian. 1570, p. 99; 1576, p. 70; 1583, p. 69.

Cyprian received visions warning him of the persecution of Valerian. He wrote an Apology in defence of the Christians. 1570, p. 97; 1576, p. 68; 1583, p. 68.

He was banished a second time. When he refused to sacrifice to the gods, he was beheaded. 1570, p. 99; 1576, p. 70; 1583, p. 69.

Foxe discusses his writings. 1570, pp. 99-101; 1576, pp. 70-71;1583, pp. 69-71.

Constantine fulfilled Cyprian's vision of a time of peace for the church. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.

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Irenæus (St Irenæus)

(d. 201/2) [Gams]

Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul (Lyons) (c. 177-201/2) Theologian, church father

Irenæus was a pupil of Polycarp of Smyrna, who sent him to Gaul. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 55; 1583, p. 55.

Shortly after Irenæus was made minister, he was commended by the martyrs in Lyons to Pope Eleutherius. 1570, p. 75; 1576, p. 50; 1583, p. 50.

Irenæus became bishop of Lyons. He worked to settle controversies and schisms in the church at large. He opposed the excommunications of Pope Victor I. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 55; 1583, p. 55.

Irenæus supported the position of Victor I in celebrating Easter on a Sunday. 1570, pp. 5, 80; 1576, pp. 4, 55; 1583, pp. 4, 55.

Victor I excommunicated the eastern churches for failing to comply with the Roman observation of Easter, but was persuaded to reinstate them by Irenæus. 1570, pp. 5, 80-82; 1576, pp. 4, 55-56; 1583, pp. 4, 55-53.

Irenæus wrote a letter to Florinus in which he related his memory of Polycarp of Smyrna. 1576, p. 56; 1583, p. 44.

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Johann Eck (Eckius)

(1486 - 1543) [C.Scott Dixon, M.Greengrass]

German theologian; MA Tuebingen 1501; DTh Freiburg 1510. Professor of theology at Ingolstadt; opponent of Luther.

Martin Luther suspected Johann Eck of writing Pope Leo X's bull condemning him. 1570, p. 1469, 1576, p. 1247, 1583, p. 1284.

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John Duns Scotus

(c. 1265 - 1308 [ODNB]

Scottish Franciscan friar; theologian. Studied and taught at Oxford, Cambridge and Paris; DTh Paris 1305. One of the friars who supported Philip IV against Boniface VIII over taxation of the French clergy.

John Dun Scotus wrote on transubstantiation. 1570, p. 1314, 1576, p. 1124, 1583, p. 1149.

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Peter Lombard

(c. 1100 - 1160x04) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Scholastic theologian; educated in Italy, Reims, Paris; taught at the cathedral school. Archbishop of Paris (1158/9 - 60); wrote Book of Sentences

Joachim of Fiore wrote against Peter Lombard. These writings of Joachim were especially condemned at the fourth Lateran Council. 1570, p. 1313, 1576, p. 1124, 1583, p. 1149.

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Silvester II (Gerbert d'Aurillac)

(c. 950 - 1003) [Kelly]

Scholar; monk. Studied mathematics in Spain; taught at Reims; tutor to Otto III. Abbot of Bobbio 983; opposed Lothair of France, supported Hugh Capet. Elected successor to the deposed archbishop of Reims in 991; the election was declared invalid in 995; archbishop of Ravenna 998. Pope (999 - 1003)

Silvester II was said to have been a sorcerer in league with the devil. He repented and confessed before his death. 1563, p. 11

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 2, 1576, p. 2, 1583, p. 2.

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Stanislaus Hosius

(1504 - 1579) [Shapers of Religious Traditions in Germany, Switzerland and Poland, 1560 - 1600, ed. Jill Raitt (New Haven, London; 1981)]

b. Cracow of German parents; BA Cracow 1520; studied law and theology at Padua and Bologna; DCnCL Bologna 1534. Royal secretary 1538; bishop of Culm 1549; bishop of Ermland (1551 - 79). Strong opponent of protestantism.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 2, 1576, p. 2, 1583, p. 2.

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Thomas Aquinas (St Thomas)

(c. 1225 - 1274) [Ralph McInerny, John O'Callaghan, 'Saint Thomas Aquinas', The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2005 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.) ]

Italian philosopher, theologian; developed scholastic tradition; doctor of the church; Dominican; lectured at the University of Paris, preached and wrote, including Summa theologica. Son of count of Aquino.

Foxe mentions him: 1570, pp. 2, 81576, pp. 2, 6-71583, pp. 2, 7.

25 [2]

The difference betwene the Church of Rome that now is, and the auncient Church of Rome that hath bene.

Secondly the iurisdiction of that Byshop was such, that chalenging to him selfe both the swordes, MarginaliaThe iurisdiction of the Pope. that is, both the keyes of the spiritualtie, and the scepter of the Laytie: not onely he subdued all Byshops vnder him, but also extended him selfe aboue Kynges and Emperours, causing some of them to lye vnder his feete, some to hold his sturrup, Kynges to leade his horse by the bridle, some to kisse his feete, placyng and displacyng Emperours, Kynges, Dukes and Earles, whom and whē he listed, takyng vpon him to translate the Empire at his pleasure. First from Grece to Fraunce, from Fraūce to Germany, preferryng and deposing whom he pleased, confirmyng them which were elected. Also beyng Emperour him selfe sede vacante, pretendyng authoritie or power to inuest Byshops, to geue benefices, to spoyle Churches, to geue authoritie to binde and lose, to call generall Councels to iudge ouer the same, to set vp religions, to canonize Saintes, to take appeales, to binde consciences, to make lawes, to dispence with the law and word of God, to deliuer from Purgatory, to commaunde Aungels. &c.

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Thirdly, what was the lyfe and conuersation of the court of Rome, MarginaliaThe properties of life in the Romish Clergy.hereafter in the proces of this history followeth to be sene and obserued

Fourthly, such was his doctrine MarginaliaThe doctrine of the Pope. in like maner, tedious to Students, pernicious to mens consciences, iniurious to Christ Iesus, & cōtrary to itselfe. In lawes more diuers, in volume more large, in diligēce & study more applied, in vauntage & preferment more gaynfull, then euer was the study and learning of the holy Scripture of God.

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All which foure pointes well cōsidered and aduised in this present history set forth, I trust it may minister to the indifferent Christiā Reader, sufficient instructiō to iudge, what is of this sea and Church of Rome to be esteemed.

But here by the way is to be noted, that all these deformities aboue touched of vayne title, of pretensed iurisdiction, of hereticall doctrine, of schismaticall lyfe, came not into the Church of Rome all at one tyme, nor sprang with the begynnyng of the same Church; but with long workyng, and continuaunce of tyme by litle and litle crept vp, through occasion, & came not to full perfectiō, till the tyme partly of Pope Siluester, MarginaliaPope siluester the second.partly of pope Gregory the vij. Marginalia Pope Gregory, vij. called Hildebrand.[illegible text]an. 1170. partly of Innocentius the thyrd, and finally of Pope Boniface the viij. an. 1300. Of the which foure Popes, the first brought in the title. an. 670. which was neuer in such ample wise before publickely exacted & receiued publikely in the sayd Church of Rome. The second brought in iurisdiction. The thyrd, which was Pope Innocent MarginaliaPope innocentius the third.[illegible text]with his rable of Monkes and Friers, (as Thomas Aquine, Petrus Lombardus, Iohannes Scotus,) and with such other Bishops as succeeded in the same sea after hym, corrputed and obscured the sinceritie of Christes doctrine and maners also. And lastly, Pope Bonifacius the viij, MarginaliaPope Bonifacius the eight.[illegible text]and after him Pope Clement the fift, ouer and besides the iurisdiction, sufficiētly aduaunced before by Pope Hildebrand, added moreouer the temporal sword to be caryed before them. And that no Emperour (were he neuer so well elected) should bee sufficient and lawfull, without the Popes admission. an. 1300. whereby the Popes power was brought now to his full pride and perfection. And thus came vp the corruption of the Romish Church in continuaunce of yeares by degrees, and not all together, nor at one tyme, as is declared, and hereafter more particularly (Christ willyng) shalbe expressed.

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Wherfore, whosoeuer shall haue hereafter to do with any aduersaries, about the antiquitie or authoritie of the Church of Rome; let him here well consider when, & how the title, iurisdiction, & corruption of doctrine first begā in the Popes sea. And so shal he see, that the church of Rome, as it is now gouerned with this maner of title, iurisdictiō, & institution of doctrine, neuer descended frō the primitiue age of the Apostles, or frō their succession, nisi tātum æquiuocè, MarginaliaEquiuocé. That is in name onely and not in very deede.& non vniuocè: Marginalia Vniuocè. That is both in name and also in definition and effect agreeing with the name.[illegible text]Like as Sancta Maria picta, non est sancta Maria, & homo pictus est non homo, as the scholes do say: that is as the picture of the holy virgine, is not the holy virgine, and as a man painted on the wall, is not a man: so it is to be sayd of the Church of Rome, (the institution and doctrine of the Church of Rome I meane) that although it haue the name of the Church Apostolicall, & doth bring forth a long Genealogie of outward succession from the Apostles, as the Phariseis did in Christes tyme bryng their descent frō Abraham their father: yet all this is (as I sayd) but onely æquiuocè, MarginaliaThe Church of Rome as now it is, is not Apostolicall but onely æquiocè.[illegible text]that is , in name onely, and not in effect or matter, which maketh the Apostolical Church in deede; for as much as the definition of the Apostolicall Church, neither agreeth now with this present Church of Rome, nor yet the maner, forme, & institution of the sayd Romish Church, as it now standeth with this title, iurisdictiō, anddoctrine, had euer any succession or offspring from the primitiue Church of the Apostles. But as Christ sayd by the Phariseis, that they were the childrē not of Abraham, but of the deuill: in semblable wise may be aūswered, that this Church of Rome now present, with this title, iurisdictiō, and doctrine now vsed, can not be fathered vpon the Apostles, neither Petrus, nor Linus, but of an other author, whō here I will not name.

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And here now commeth in the Argument of Pighius, Hosius, and Eccius, MarginaliaThe argument of Pighius, Hosius, and Eckius for the aucthoritie of the Church of be aunswered vnto, who arguyng for the antiquitie and authoritie of the Church of Rome, reason on this maner.

Da-That for somuch as an ordinary & a knowen Church visible must here be knowen cōtinually on earth, during frō the time of the Apostles, to the which church all other Churches must haue recourse.
ri-And seeyng then there is no other Church visible, orderly known to haue indured from the Apostles time, but onely the Church of Rome.
j.They conclude therfore that the Church of Rome, is that Church wherunto all other Churches must haue their recourse. &c.

To the which Paralogisme I aūswere thus: that this word Durans Ecclesia, the during Church in the Minor, hath fallaciá æquiuoci. 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Difference between early Church and Roman Church
Foxe text Latin

fallaciá œquiuoci.

Foxe text translation

Not translated


John Wade, University of Sheffield

a fallacy in name and not in deed

MarginaliaAunswere. Fallacia æquiuoci.For although the name of the Church and outward successiō of Byshops haue had their durance frō tyme of the Apostles, yet the definition and matter which maketh a true Apostolicall church in deede, and vniuocè, neither is now in the church of Rome, nor yet the forme & institution of the church now vsed in Rome was euer frō the Apostles, whiche Apostles were neuer Authors or fathers of this title, iurisdictiō, and doctrine now taught in Rome, but rather were enemies euer to the same.

[Back to Top] MarginaliaThe minor examined.

Agayne to the Maior MarginaliaThe maior examined.which standeth vpon two partes, I aunswere, first although the necessitie of the churche duryng from the Apostles, may and must be graūted, yet the same necessitie was not boūd to any certaine place, or persō, but onely to fayth, so that wheresoeuer, that is to say, in whatsoeuer congregation true fayth was, there was the church of Christ: And because the true fayth of Christ must needes euer remaine in earth, therfore þe Church also must needes remaine in earth. And God forbid that the said true faith of Christ should only remaine in one citie in þe world, and not in other as well. And therfore to the secōd part of the Maior is to be sayd, that as this true and sincere fayth of Christ is not so geuen, to remaine fixely in one place or citie alone: so neither is there any one church in the world so ordained & appointed of God, that al other Churches should haue their recourse vnto it, for determination of their causes and cōtrouersies incident. &c. And thus much to the Argument of Pighius and Hosius, &c.

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Now as touchyng the authorities & allegations of the auncient Doctours, and holy fathers in the commēdation of the Church of Rome, here commeth in also to be noted, that whosoeuer will vnderstand rightly their authorities and aūswere to the same, must first learne to make a difference and distinction of the sayd Church of Rome, MarginaliaA distinction.frō that it was, to that it is, for as much as the Church of Rome is not the same Church now, which it was then, MarginaliaThe church of Rome distincted into a double consideration of tymes. but onely æquivocè: otherwise as touching the very propertie and definition of a Church, it is an other Church, and nothing agreing to that was then, saue only in outward name and place, therefore by this distinction made, I aunswere the place of Irenæus, Cyprianus, and other famous Doctours, commendyng the Church of Rome as Catholicke and Apostolicall, and say that these Doctours speakyng of the Church of Rome which then was, MarginaliaThe church of Rome, how it was commended of the olde Doctours.sayd not vntrue, calling it Catholicke & Apostolicall, for that the same Church tooke their ordinary succession of Byshops, ioyned with the ordinary doctrine and institution frō the Apostles: but speakyng of the Church of Rome, whiche now is, we say the sayd places of the Doctours are not true, neither doe appertaine to the same, all which Doctours neither knew the Churche of Rome that now is, neither if they had, would euer haue iudged any thyng therein worthy such commendation.

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Ouer and besides, our aduersaries yet more obiect agaynst vs, MarginaliaThe principall obiection of the Papistes, agaynst the Protestants.who heauing and shouyng for the antiquitie of the Romish Churche for lacke of other sufficient reason to proue, are driuen to fall in scannyng the tymes and yeares. What, say they, where was this Church of yours, before these fiftie yeares? To whom briefly to aunswere, MarginaliaAunswere to the obiection.first we demaund what they meane by this, which they call our Church? If they meane the ordinaunce and institution of doctrine and Sacramentes, now receaued of vs, and differing from the Church of Rome, we affirme and say, that our church was, when this church of theirs was not yet

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