Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Berkhamsted [Barchamsted]

Hertfordshire

OS grid ref: SP 995 082

 
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Bristol
Bristoll, Brystoll, Bristow, Bristowe
NGR: ST 590 730

A city and county of itself, between the counties of Gloucester and Somerset. 34 miles south-west by south from Gloucester, 12 miles north-west from Bath. Bristol is the seat of a diocese, established in 1542. The city comprises the parishes of All Saints, St. Augustine, Christ Church, St. Owen, St. John Baptist, St. Leonard, St. Mary le Port, St. Mary Redcliffe, St. Michael, St. Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Werburgh, St. Stephen and St. Thomas. Also the Temple parish, and parts of St. James, St. Paul, St. Philip and St. Jacob. All are within the peculiar jurisdiction of the bishop. Christ Church, St. John Baptist, St. Mary le Port, St. Michael, St. Peter, St. Stephen and St. Werburgh are discharged rectories. St. Leonard, St. Mary Redcliffe, St. Nicholas, The Temple, St. Philip and St. Jacob are discharged vicarages. St. James and St. Thomas are perpetual curacies, the latter annexed to the vicarage of Bedminster, Archdeaconry of Bath, Diocese of Bath and Wells.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Gloucester
Gloucester
NGR: SO 830 187

A city and county of itself, locally in the hundred of Dudstone and Kings Barton, county of Gloucester. 34 miles north-north-east from Bristol. The city comprises the parishes of St. Aldate, St. John Baptist, St. Mary de Crypt, St. Mary de Grace, St. Nicholas, St. Owen and Holy Trinity; also parts of St. Catherine, St. Mary de Lode and St. Michael, all in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Gloucester, of which it is the seat. St. John Baptist, St. Mary de Crypt and St. Michael are discharged rectories; St. Mary de Lode and Holy Trinity are discharged vicarages; St. Aldate, St. Catherine, St. Mary de Grace and St. Nicholas are perpetual curacies

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Hereford [Herforde; Herford]

County town of Herefordshire; cathedral city

OS grid ref: SO 515 405

 
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Stamford
NGR: TF 033 073

A borough and market town, having separate jurisdiction, although locally in the wapentake of Ness, Parts of Kesteven, county of Lincoln. 46 miles south by east from Lincoln. Stamford originally contained 14 parish churches. By an act of parliament in 1547, five were allowed to remain, all in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Lincoln. The living of All Saints is a vicarage, with the rectory of St Peter consolidated. The living of St George is a discharged rectory, with that of St Paul consolidated. The living of St John the Baptist is a rectory, with that of St Clement consolidated. The living of St Mary is a discharged rectory. The living of St Michael is a discharged rectory, with the vicarage of St Andrew and the rectory of St Stephen consolidated.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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280 [257]

K. Iohns death. K. Henry. 3. crowned. Lewes the French K. sonne driuen out of England.

Castell of Newerke: where calling for Henry his sonne, gaue to him the succession of his crowne & kingdom, wryting to all his Lordes and nobles to receiue him for theyr king. And shortly after vpō S. Lucies euen, departed this life, being buried at Worcester. &c.

MarginaliaAn other description of kyng Iohns death Ex histor. Gualt. Hemyngford, Gisburnensi.In Gisburn, I finde otherwise, who dissenting from other, sayeth: that he was poysoned with a dish of Peares which the Monke had prepared for the king therewith to poison him. Who asking the king whether he would taste of his fruite, & being bid to bring them in, according to the kings bidding so did. At the bringing in whereof, saith the said story, the pretious stones about the K. began to swete. In somuch þt the king misdoubting some poyson, demanded of þe monke, what he had brought. He said: of his frute, and that very good, the best that he did euer tast. Eate, said þe king: and he toke one of the peares, which he did know, and did eate. Also being bid to take an other, did eate lykewise sauerly. And so likewise the third. Then the king refraining no longer, tooke one of the poysoned peares, and was therewith poysoned, as is before. &c.

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MarginaliaThe first Maior of Lōdon.In the raigne of this king Iohn the citizens of London, first obtained of the king to chose yerely a Maior. In whose time also the bridge of London was first builded of stone: which before was of woode. Rastall.

King Henry the third.

 

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Henry III's early reign

The account of Henry III's reign is full of evidence that the papacy was abusing its power and taking heavy taxes to the impoverishment of the country. Apart from a short paragraph on King John's children taken from The Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, ed. Harry Rothewell, Camden Society, 3rd Series, 89 (London, Camden Society, 1957), pp. 156-7 the account is a new addition to the 1570 edition partly added to from Guisborough, pp. 157-8 but also largely extracted from Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols, London, 1872-1884), vol. 3, pp. 1-6, 31, 43, 121-2. The account of the Viscount of Meluns on his deathbed confessing the French plans to the rebellious English Barons was taken from Guisborough, pp. 158-9 and Matthew Paris, Flores Historiarum, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (3 vols., London, 1890), vol. 2, p. 163. Foxe also accuses Legate Guala Bicchieri of using the situation to heavily tax the rebellious clerics once the rebellion had ended (taken from Chronica Majora III, pp. 31-2) extending the metaphor of 'gathering the harvest' from Matthew Paris' own words. This is a theme to which Foxe would continually return.

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The early reign of Henry III is completed with a premonition of Cencio (the future Pope Honorius III) that he would become Pope. Foxe denounces this premonition as a piece of propaganda to gain support for the fifth crusade taken from Konrad of Lichtenau, Burchardi et Cuonradi Urspergnsium Chronicon, ed. Abel H. Friedrich Otto and Ludwig Weiland (Hannoverae, 1874), pp. 104-6. The account of Honorius III's accession to the papal see is taken from Matthew Paris' Chronica Maiora, vol. 3, p. 529. A brief mention is also made to the canonisation of Thomas Becket, which is taken from Arundel MS 5, now in the Royal College of Arms. The 'Scala mundi' was the name Foxe gave for this manuscript.

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Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaK. Henry the third.AFter this king Iohn had raigned as some say 17. yeres, or as some say, though falsly 19. yeres was (as is abouesaid) poisoned & died. Thys king left behinde him 4. sonnes, and 3. daughters, first Henry, second Richard, and he was Earle of Cornwall: Third William of Valentia: Fourth, Guido Disenay. He had also an other sonne, who afterward was made bishop. Of his daughters first was Isabel, maried afterward to Fredericke the Empcrour. The second named Alinour, maried to William earl Marshal. The third to Mounfort the Earl of Leicester. &c. MarginaliaThe issue of king Iohn.An other story sayth that he had but two daughters, Isabel and Elionore, or as an other calleth her Ioane, which was after Queene of Scotland, Ex Chronico vetusto Anglic.

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This king Iohn being deceased, which had many enemies, both of Earles, Barons, & especially of the Popish Clergie, Henrie hys eldest sonne was then of the age of 9. yeares. At what time the most of the Lordes of England did adhere to Ludouike or Lewes þe French kings sonne, whom they had sent for before, in displeasure of king Iohn to be their king, and had sworne to him their allegeaunce. MarginaliaAn example of a worthy and faithfull CounsailourThen William Earle Marshall a noble man, and of great authority, and a graue and a sound coūseller, friendly and quietly called vnto him diuers Earles and Barons: and taking this Henry the young prince, sonne of king Iohn, setteth him before them, vsing these words: MarginaliaThe oration of the Earle Marshall for young kyng Henry.Behold (saith he) right honourable and well beloued: although we haue * Marginalia* Truly said, that you persecuted him, for persecutors ye were of a true mā & your own natural king But well might England cry out of your blind guides and setters on. persecuted the father of this yong Prince for his euil demeanour, & worthely: yet this yong childe, whome here ye see before you, as he is in yeres tender, so is he pure and innocent from these his fathers doings. Wherfore in as much as euery man is charged only with the burthen of his owne workes and transgressions: neither shall the chlde (as the Scripture teacheth vs) beare the iniquity of his father: we ought therefore of duetie and conscience to pardone this young and tender Prince, and take compassion of his age, as ye see. And now for so much as he is the kings natural and eldest sonne, and must be our soueraigne and king, and successor of this kingdom, come and let vs appoynt him our king and gouernour: and let vs remoue from vs this Lewes the French kings sonne, & suppresse his people which is a confusion and a shame to our nation, and the yoke of their seruitude let vs cast off from our shoulders. To these words spake & answered the Earle of Glocester. And by what reason or right (sayd he) can we so do, seeing we haue called him hether, & haue sworne to him our feaultie.

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Whereunto the Earle Marshall inferred againe and sayd: Good right and reason we haue, and ought of duety to do no lesse, for that he contrary to our minde and calling hath abused our affiance and feaulties. Truthe it is, we called him, & ment to prefer him to be our chieftaine and gouernor: but he eftsones surprised in pride, hath contemned and despised vs: and if we shal so suffer him, he will subuert and ouerthrow both vs and our nation, and so shall we remaine a spectacle of shame to all men, and be as outcastes of all the world.

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At these words all they, as inspired from aboue, cried altogether with one voice: be it so, he shalbe our king. MarginaliaEx Chron. Monac. Gisburnens. And so the day was appoynted for his coronation, which was the day of Simon & Iude. This coronation was kept not at Westminster, for as much as Westminster þe same time was holden of the Frenchmen, but at Glocester: the safestplace (as was thought) at that time in the realme. an. 1216. by Swallow the Popes Legate MarginaliaK. Henry the 3. crowned. through counsel of all the Lords and Barons that held with his father king Iohn, to witte, the Bishop of Winchester, Bishop of Bath, Bishop of Chester, and Bishop of Worcester, the Earle Radulph of Chester, William Earle Marshal, William Earl of Pembroke, William Tren Earle of Feres, William de Bruer, Serle or Samarike de mal Baron. These were at the crowning of the king at Glocester. Many other lords and Barons there were, which as yet helde wyth Lewes the French kings sonne, to whom they had done their homage before. And immediatly after the crowning of thys king, he held his coūcell at Bristow at S. Martines feast: where were assembled 11. Byshops of England & Wales, with diuers Earles & Barons and knights of England. All which did sweare feaultie vnto the king. After which homage thus done to the king, the legate Swalo interdicted Wales because they held with the foresaid Lewes: and also the Barons & al other as many as gaue help or counsell to Lewes, or any other that moued or stirred any war against Henry the new king, he accursed them. All which notwithstanding, the sayde Lewes did not cease, but first laid siege to the Castel of Douer xv. daies: when he could not preuaile there, MarginaliaBerkhamstead and Hartford taken by Lewes.he tooke the castel of Berkhamsted, and also the castel of Hartford, doing much harme in the countreis, in spoiling & robbing the people where they went: by reason wherof, the Lordes and Commons which held wt the king, assembled thēselues together, to driue Lewes and his men out of the land. But some of the Barōs with the Frenchmen, MarginaliaLincolne taken by Lewes.in the meane season went to Lincoln and tooke the Citie, and held it to the vse of Lewes. Which being knowen, eftsoones a greate power of the kinges parte made thether, as the Earle Ranolfe of Chester, William Earle Marshal and William de le Brues, Earle of Feres, wt many other Lords, MarginaliaAnno. 1217.and gaue battaile vnto Lewes and his party: so that in conclusion Lewes lost the field, and of his side were slaine the Earle of Perchis, Saer de Quincy Earle of Winchester, Henry de la Bohon Erle of Herford, and syr Robert le Fizwater, with diuers other moe. Wherupon Lewes for succour fled to London, causing the gates there to be shut & kept, waiting there for more succour out of France. Which assoone as the king had knowledge off, immediatly sent to the Maior and Burges of the Citie, willing them to render them and their Citie to him as their chiefe lord and king, promising to graunt to them againe all their fraunchises and liberties as in times past, & to confirme the same by his great Charter and seale. In this meane time on Bartholmew euen, MarginaliaThis Eustace some say he was a Spanyard.Eustace a French Lord, accompanied with many other Lordes and nobles of Fraunce, came with a great power, to the nnmber of a 100. shippes, to aide and assist the sayd Lewes. MarginaliaA noble victory by Gods grace giuē to K. Iohns sonne.Who before they arriued, were encountred vppon the seas by Richard king Iohns bastarde sonne, who hauing no more but 18. shippes to kepe the Cinque portes, set egerly vpon them, and through Gods grace, ouercame them. Where presently he smote of the heade of Eustace, the rest of the Frenche Lordes to the number of 10. hee brought with him to the lande, where he imprisoned them in the Castell of Douer, and slewe almost all theyr men that came with them, and sonke their ships in the sea, onely 15. ships (sayeth some of my stories) escaped away. Ludouike or Lewes hearing this losse of his ships and men, and misdoubting his own life for the great mischief he had done to the realme, sought meanes by Swalo, and the Archbishop of Caunterburie, and by other Lordes, to be at accorde with the king. With whome at length it was so concluded and agreed, that for his costes and expenses he to haue a thousande pounde of siluer geuen. MarginaliaEx Math. Parisiensi.Paris. speaketh of 15. thousand markes (which he borowed of the Londiners) that he shoulde departe the realme, neuer to returne into England againe, neither he nor none of his.

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This done, and vppon the same, he with all the other Barons þt tooke his parte, was assoiled of Swalo the Legate. MarginaliaLewes the frēch kings sonne driuen out of Englande.And thus peace being confirmed at Merton, Lewes tooke his leaue, and being brought honorably to the Sea with the Bishop of Canterbury & other bishops, Earles, and Barons, returned home into Fraunce.

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And here sayth Gisburn. it was truly verified, that was before spokē of the Frēch king, father of Lewes: At what time þe said Lewes was in Englād, his father the French king demanded of his messengers comming into France, where his sonne was, and they said at Stamforde: And he asking againe, whether he had got the Castell of Douer, and they said no: MarginaliaThe answere of the French king concerning his sonne Lewes.Then the father swearing by the arme of s. Iames: My sonne (quoth he) hath not one foote in England, as afterward wel proued true. Ex Gisburn.

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But the chiefest help that repelled Lewes & the Frēch

men
Y.iii.
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