Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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Assisi (Asisium)Milan
 
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Assisi (Asisium)

Perugia, Italy

Coordinates: 43° 4' 0" N, 12° 37' 0" E

 
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Milan

(Mediolanum) [Mediolanensis; Millan; Millaine; Miliane; Millayne; Millen]

Lombardy, Italy

Coordinates: 45° 28' 0" N, 9° 10' 0" E

Cathedral city

282 [259]

H. Henry. 3. The actes and decrees of P. Innocent. The originoll of Friers.

hys bagges well stuffed, leauing Pandulphe behynde hym to supply that Baliwike of hys great graundfather the Pope.

MarginaliaPope Innocentius. The deedes and decrees of pope Innocent. 3.The lyfe and Actes of pope Innocentius the 3. are partly described before, how he intruded Stephē Langhtō against the kings wil into the archbishopricke of Canterbury, stirring vp also 64. Monkes of the same Church of Canterbury, priuily to work agaynst the king. Moreouer how he did excommunicate the sayd kyng as a publike enemy of the Church, so long as the sayd King withstoode his tirannicall doyngs: putting hym and his whole kingdome vnder interdiction, for the space of 5. yeares and 3. monthes. And at length deposed and depriued hym from hys scepter, keeping it in his owne handes for v. dayes. How he absolued hys subiectes from their due obedience & subiectiō vnto hym. How he gaue away his kingdōes & possesions vnto Lewes the Frenche kyngs sonne, commaunding the sayd Lewes to spoyle hym both of landes & lyfe. Whereupon, the K. (being forsakē of hys nobles, prelates, & commons) was enforced agaynst hys will to submit himself, and sware obedience vnto the P. paying vnto him a yearely tribute of a M. markes by yeare, for receauing hys kyngdome agayne, wherby both he & his succescessors after him, were vassals afterward vnto the P. And these were the Apostolicall actes of this holy Vicar in the realme of England. Moreouer he condemned Almericus a worthy learned man & a byshop, for an hereticke, for teaching & holding agaynst images. Also he condemned the doctrine of Ioachim Abbas (whō we spake of before) for heritical. MarginaliaAlmericus condemned. Ioachim Abbas condemned. This pope brought first into the church the paying of priuate tythes. He ordayned the receauing once a yeare at Easter. Vnto the papal decretals he added the decree. Omnis vtriusq; sexus. &c. Also the reseruation of the sacrament, and the goyng with the bell, and light before the Sacrament was by hym appoynted. MarginaliaPriuate riches brought in. Bell and cādle before the sacramēt In the sayd Counsell of Laterane, he also ordayned that the Canon of the Masse should be receaued wt equall authoritie as thoughe it had proceeded from the Apostles thēselues. MarginaliaCanon of the masse authorised. He brought in transubstantiation, looke in the decretals. Titulo 1. De summa Trinit & fide Catholica. cap. firmiter credimus.

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MarginaliaTransubstātiation. MarginaliaMariage in the 3. degree forbidden.Item, the sayd Innocentius the 3. ordayned that none should mary in the third degree, but only in the fourth degree, and so vnder.

The sayd Pope styrred vp Otho agaynst Phillip the Emperor, because the sayd Phillip was elected Emperor agaynst his will. Vpon þe occasion wherof followed much warre and slaughter in Germany. MarginaliaThe pope setteth kings and Emperours together by the eares. Philip the Emperour deposed. And afterward against the sayd Otho, whome he had made Emperour, he set vp Fredericke K. of Cicile, and caused the archb. of Mayence to pronounce hym excommunicate in all hys titles, and to be deposed of hys Empire. MarginaliaOtho the Emperour deposed. For the which cause the Princes of Germany did inuade hys byshopricke, spoyling and burning hys possessiōs. The cause why the pope so did accurse and depose hym, was for that the sayd Otho did take and occupy cittyes, townes, & castles, which the pope said appertayned to hym.

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Item, the sayd pope ordayned that if any prince offended one an other, the correction should appertayne vnto þe Pope. In thys Councell of Laterane were Archbishops and Primates 61. Byshops, 400. Abbots 12. Priors and Conuentuals 800. besides other Embassadors, Legates, Doctors and Lawyers an innumerable sort &c. MarginaliaThe councel of Lateran.

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In the history of Hermanus mutius, we read how in the yeare of our Lord. 1212. in thys popes tyme diuers noble men, and other in the countrey of Alsatia, contrary to the tradition of the Romish Popes dyd holde, that euery day was free for eating of flesh, so it be done soberly. Also that they did wickedly which restrayned Priests and ministers from their lawfull wyues, MarginaliaMartyrs of Alsatia, to the number of all. 100. burned in one day. Ex Herm. Mutio.for the which cause (as is in the foresayd author) by this pope Innocentius the 3. and hys byshops, an hundreth of them in one day were burned and Martyred.

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Some other historyes (as Nauclerus) recordeth also, þt at the same tyme many were in the Cittye of Millaine of the sayd doctrine, which vsed to send collects, vnto the foresayd sainctes of Alsatia. Ex Nauclero.

MarginaliaCollectes sent from the brethrē of Millane, to them of Alsatia.In the cronicle of Gualter Hemingford otherwise called Gisburnensis, it is recorded that in the dayes of this K. Iohn, and pope Innocent 

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Innocent III and the mendicant orders

Foxe moved the short tract on the life and acts of Innocent III from the end of the section on King John in the 1563 edition to the beginning of the section on Henry III's early reign in the 1570 edition. The account is almost entirely extracted out of John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae …Catalogus (Basel, 1557), pp. 234-5 but also supplemented with evidence from Innocent III's papal decretails, commonly called Corpus Juris Canonici. There were various manuscript versions in existence making it difficult to know which version is used here.

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From this summary Foxe indulges in anti-papal polemics from the thirteenth century as a framework for his rewriting of the Cathar heresy into agents of Christ's church. First Foxe attacked the increase of Monastic Orders as a sign that the Roman Church could not even agree from within itself. The text is largely lifted from John Bale's Catalogus pp. 234-5 and The Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, ed. Harry Rothewell, Camden Society, 3rd Series, 89 (London, Camden Society, 1957), pp. 150-1. The list of 101 Orders is interesting. Martin Luther did not produce any such list despite Foxe's reference to him. The unidentified English book that Foxe refers to is also unknown. It is possible that Foxe was relying on an unprinted list compiled by John Bale.

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Next follows the prophecy of the nun, Hildegard written down in her Scivias, Liber vitae meritorum and Liber divionorum operum, which represented a popular prophecy about the Antichrist from the early thirteenth century that had transmitted to the fourteenth-century primarily through Gebeno, Prior of Eberbach's Speculum Temporum Futurorum (1220). This text had attempted to link Hildegard's prophecy to the growing Cathar heresies. Hildegard was the abbess of Disibodenberg and Rupertsberg. In the 1563 edition Foxe took this account from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Strasbourg, 1556), pp. 650-655. However, in the 1570 edition Foxe has corrected the date of the prophecy from 1170 to 1146 and rearranged the prophecy itself. This suggests that he had either consulted Flacius' source, the Chronica Martini Poloni from Matthew Parker's collection (probably CCCC MS 372 or CCCC MS 59) or alternatively from a composite manuscript (CCCC MS 404) containing various prophesies including Hildegard.

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Once this prophecy is outlined Foxe begins his discussion of the Cathars (Albigenses). Foxe publishes a letter by the Pope's legate concerning the Cathars setting up of a rival Pope. This account was first printed in the 1563 edition but from the 1570 edition onwards would be followed by a larger account of the Albigensian crusade (1209-1229) after further discussion of England's financial plight. The inclusion of the 1563 account without change even though Foxe had discovered more details reveals something of Foxe's working practise for the second edition. The account is extracted from either Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols., London, 1872-1884), vol. 3, pp. 78-9 or Roger of Wendover, Flores Historiarum, ed. Henry G. Hewlett, Rolls Series (3 vols., London, 1886-9) vol. 2, pp. 272-3.

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This section is then completed by a full reproduction of a post-Wyclif Lollard tract attacking the practises and corruption of friars probably written in the early fifteenth century. Jack Upland was either mistaken as a work of Chaucer or for political and religious reasons attributed to the famous author of the fourteenth century to by-pass the ban on Lollard writings under the Six Articles. The popularity of Chaucer also made the association a powerful propaganda tool. In 1550 Robert Crawley had published a similar tract for reformist purposes entitled Piers Plowman, which had proved successful. See John N. King, 'Robert Crawley's editions of "Piers Plowman": A Tudor Apocalypse', Modern Philology, 73:4 (1976), pp. 342-352. If the reformists could show that Chaucer was a 'proto-Protestant' then this would help to popularise acceptance of the Elizabethan Church. P.L. Heyworth, 'The Earliest Black-letter editions of "Jack Upland"', The Huntingdon Library Quarterly, 30:4 (1967), pp. 307-314 has suggested that its original publication in the 1530s by John Gough and then again by John Day was to support the Henrician break from Rome and the subsequent dissolution of the monasteries. Jack Upland allowed Foxe to trace, through the association of Chaucer with Wyclif as 'faithful witnesses', the apostolic church at a time when the Antichrist was in full control of the church. The decision must also be, in part, related to John Day's earlier publication of the tract in the 1540s, which made its inclusion in the Acts and Monuments an easy addition to print. Its publication in the midst of Henry III's reign was to demonstrate the corruption of monkish orders, which Foxe had listed two pages earlier.

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Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

, began þe two sectes & orders of Friers, one called the preachers order, or black Fryers of S. Dominike. The other called þe Minorites of S. Frances. MarginaliaObseruant Friers begā. The preachers or blacke Fryers order began of one MarginaliaDominick.Dominike a Spaniard, about the parts of Tholous, who after he had laboured 10. yeares in preaching agaynst the Albingenses, and such other as did hold agaynst þe churche of Rome: afterward comming vp to the Councell of Lateran with Fulco B. of Tholouse, desired of the foresayd Innocent the 3. to haue his order of preaching Fryers cōfirmed, which the pope a great while refused to graunt: at length he had a dreame, that the Church of Laterane was ready to fall. Which when he beheld, fearing & much sorrowing thereat, commeth in this Dominicke: who with his shouldiours vnderpropped the church, and so preserued þe building therof frō falling: &c. And right well this dreame may seeme verified, MarginaliaFriers vpholders of the popes Church.for þe Fryers haue bene alwayes the chief pillers & vpholders of þe popes church. Vpon this, þe pope (waking out of hys dreame) called Dominike to him and graunted his petition. And so came vp this Woluish order of the Dominickes. I call it Woluish, for that hys mother when she was great with this Dominicke, dreamed that she had in her wombe a wolfe, which had a burning torch in his mouth. The which dreame, the preachers of that order do greatly aduaunce, and expounded to their orders glory, as well as they can. Neuerthelesse, howsoe- they expound it: they can make a wolfe but to be a Wolfe, and this a Woluish order. The rule which they follow semeth to be taken out of S. Augustine, as who should say, that Christes rule were not inough to make a Christian man. Their profession standeth vpon 3. principall pointes as thus described. Charitatem habentes, humilitatem seruantes, & paupertatem voluntariam possidentes: That is, hauing charitie, holding humilitie, and possessing wilfull pouerty. Their habite and clothing is blacke.

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The order of the Minors or Minorite Friers descended from one Francis an Italian, of the city Asisiū. MarginaliaThe Minorite Friers discended from Sainct Fraunces. This Assisian Asse, whō I suppose was some simple and rude Idiot, hearing vpon a tyme how Christ sent forth his disciples to preach: thought to imitate the same in himself and his disciples, and so left of shoes, had but one coate, & that of a course clothe. In steade of a latchet to hys shoe, and of a girdle: he tooke about him a hempen corde, and so apparelled his disciples, teaching them to fulfil (for so he speaketh) the perfection of the gospell, to apprehend pouerty, & to walke in the way of holy simplicitie. He left in writing to hys disciples and followers, hys rule whiche he called Regulam Euangelicam. i. the rule of the Gospell, as though the Gospell of Christ were not a sufficient rule to all Christen men, but it must take hys perfection of Frantick Frācis. And yet for all that great presumtion of this Francis, and notwithstanding this hys rule, sounding to the derogation of Christes Gospell, he was cōfirmed by this pope Innocent. Yea and such fooles this Frauncis found abroad, that not onely he had followers of hys doltish religion (both of the nobles, and vnnobles of Rome) but also some there were, which builded mansions for hym & hys Fryers. This Frauncis, as he was superstitious in casting all things from hym as hys girdle, girding a corde about him, so in outwarde chastising of himselfe, so straight he was to hys fleshe (leauing the ordinary remedye appoynted by God) that in wynter season, he couered hys body with Ise and Snow. He called pouerty hys Lady, he kept nothing ouer night. So desirous he was of Martyrdome, that he went to Syria, to the Souldane, whiche receaued him honourably: wherby it may be thought, that (surely) he told him not the truth, as S. Iohn Baptist dyd in Herods house. For truth is seldome welcome in courts, aud in the world. But it is hard to make a martyr of hym which is no true confessor. I will here passe ouer the fable, howe Christ and hys sayntes dyd marke hym with fiue woundes. These Franciscane or beggyng Fryers, although they were all vnder one rule and clothing of S. Frauncis: MarginaliaDiuers sectes of Franciscans.yet they be deuided in many sectes, and orders: some go on treen shoes or Pattins, some barefooted, some regulare Franciscanes or obseruauntes, some Minors or Minorites, other be called Minimi, other of the Gospell, other de Caputio. They all differ in many things, but accord in superstitiō & hipocrisie. And for somuch as we haue here entered into the matter of these 2. orders of Friers: by the occasion hereof, I thought a little by the waye to digresse from our story, in reciting the whole catologue or rablement of Monkes, Fryers, and Nunnes, of al sectes rules, and orders set vp and confirmed by the Pope. The names of whome here in order of the Alphabet followe vnder written.

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