Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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Lecester, Leycester
NGR: SK 590 045

A borough, having separate jurisdiction, in the county of Leicester, of which it is the capital. 97 miles north-north-west from London. The borough comprises the parishes of All Saints, St Leonard, St Martin, St Nicholas, and parts of St Margaret and St Mary. St Margaret is within the peculiar jurisdiction of the prebend of that stall in Lincoln cathedral. The rest are in the Archdeaconry of Leicester, Diocese of Lincoln

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Monte Cassino [mount Casenum]


Site of Benedictine abbey founded by Benedict of Nursia

Coordinates: 41° 29' 24" N, 13° 48' 50" E

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Perugia [Perusium],Umbria


Coordinates: 43° 6' 43.56" N, 12° 23' 19.68" E

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[Vitarbe; Viterby; Viterbium]

Lazio, Italy

Coordinates: 42° 25' 0" N, 12° 6' 0" E

304 [281]

K. Henry. 3. Discention betwene P. Gregory. 9. and the Romanes.

doing his homage to the king and his seruice due for the same. To whom also was graunted the office of the high Marshall court, belonging before to his brother Richard.

In the same councell or communication continuing then at Glocester, the sayd Edmund Archbishop of caunterbury, bringing the forged letters, wherin was betraied the life of Richard Earle Marshall, MarginaliaFalshood & murder commeth out. sealed with the kings seale, and sent to the great mē of Ireland, read the same openly in the presence of the king and all the nobles. At the hearing wherof, the king greatly sorrowing and weeping confessed there in truth that MarginaliaKings many times abused by wicked counsaile.being forced by the Bishop of Winchester and Peter de Riuallis, he cōmanded his seale to be set to certayne letters presented vnto him, but the tenor thereof he said & sware he neuer heard. Whereunto the Archbishop aunswering agayn, desired the king to search well his conscience, & said, that all they which were procurers of knowledge of those letters, were gilty of the death of the Earle Marshall, no lesse then if they had murdered him with theyr owne handes.

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MarginaliaThe Bish. of Winchester called to his answere.Then the king calling a councell, sent his letters for the bishop of Winchester, for Peter Riuall, Stephen Segraue, and Robert Passelew to appere and yeld accoūt for his treasures to them committed and for his seale by them abused. But the Byshop and Riuall keeping themselues in the sanctuary of the minster Church of Winchester, neither durst nor would appeare. Stephē Segraue who succeded after Hubert the Iustice and was of the Clergy before, after became a layman, and now hiding himself in S. Maryes Church in the Abbey of Lecester, was turned to a Clerke agayne, Robert Passelew couertly hid himself in a certain celler of the new tēple, so secretly that none could tell where he was, but thought he was gone to Rome. At length through the foresaid Edmund Archbishop of Canterbury, meanes was made, þt a dilatory day was graunted by the king, for them to aunswere. At which day first appeared MarginaliaPeter Riual, Stephē Segraue, Rob. Passelew, called to their answerPeter de Riuallis, then Stephen Segraue, after him Robert Passelew, ech of them seuerally one after another shewed themselues, but not able to aunswere for themselues like traitors were reproued, and like villanes were sent away. Ex Mat. Parisiens. fol. 91.

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Variance betwene Pope Gregory the 9. and the Romanes. 
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Gregory IX

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

MarginaliaVariance betweene the Pope & Citizens of Rome.WHile peace thus betweene the king and the nobles was reconciled in England, dissension, and variance the same time and yere began in Rome, betwene the pope and the Citizens of Rome. The cause was, for that the citizens claymed by old custome and law, MarginaliaThe allegation of the Romanes.that the Byshop of Rome might not excommunicate any Citizen of the citie, nor suspend the said City with any interdiction for any maner excesse.

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To this the Pope answered agayne, MarginaliaThe Popes answere.Quòd minor Deo est, sed quolibet homine maior (to vse the very words of mine author) Ergo, Maior quolibet ciue, næ etiam rege, vel Imperatore. &c. that is, that he is lesse then God, but greater then any man. Ergo, greater then any Citizen, yea also greater then king, or Emperor. And for so much as he is theyr spirituall father, he both ought and lawfully may chastise his children when they offēd, as being subiected to him in the fayth of Christ, and reduce them into the way agayn, whē they stray out of course.

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MarginaliaThe 2. allegation of the Romanes. The Pope bound to pay to Rome yearely tribute.Moreouer, the citizens alledge againe for themselues, that the Potestates of the City and Senators do receiue of the Church of Rome yearely tribute, which the bishops of Rome were bound to pay vnto them, both by new and also auncient law. Of the which yerely tribute, they haue bene euer in possessiō before this present time of this pope Gregory 9.

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Hereunto the pope answered and sayd, MarginaliaThe Pope replyeth.that although the Church of Rome in time of persecution, for their defence and cause of peace was wont to respect the head rulers of the Citty with gentle rewardes, yet that ought not now to be taken for a custom: For that custom only ought to stand, which consisteth not vpon examples, but vpon right and reason.

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MarginaliaThe 3. cause & allegation of the Romanes.Further and besides, the Citizens sayd, that they at þe commandemēt of the Senatour would appropriate their couutrey with new and larger limits, and infranches the same being enlarged with fines and borders.

To this the pope agayne made answere, MarginaliaThe Popes answere.that certayne Lordshyps and cities and castles be conteined within the compasse of the sayd limites, as the City Viterbium, and Montcaster, which they presume to appropriate within their precinct: but to ascribe to them and vsurp that which perteineth to other, is agaynst right and iustice.

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For these and such other controuersies rising betwenethe Pope and the Romaines, such dissention kindled, MarginaliaThe Pope flyeth the Citie of Rome.that the Pope with his Cardinals leauing the City of Rome, remoued to Perusiū (as partly before is recited) thinking there to remayne and to plant thēselues: but the Romans preuailing agaynst him, ouerthrew diuers of his houses in the city. For the which, he did excommunicate thē. MarginaliaExcommunication abused. The Romanes then flying to the Emperour, desired his ayd & succour: but he, belike to pleasure the Pope, gathering an army, went rather agaynst the Romanes. MarginaliaThe Pope warreth against the Romanes.Thē the popes army, whose Captaynes were the Earle of Tholouse (to purchase the Popes fauour) and Peter the foresayd Byshop of Winchester (whom the Pope for the same had sent for frō england, partly for his treasure, partly for his practise and skill in feates of warre) and the Emperours host ioyned together, and bordering about the Citty of Rome, cast downe the castelles or mansions belonging to the citizens round about the Suburbes, to the number of 18. and destroyed all theyr vines and vineyardes about the City. Wherat the Romanes being not a litle offended, brast out of the Cittye with more heat then order, to the number of 100000. (as the storye reporteth) to destroy Viterbium the Popes City, with sword and fire. MarginaliaA great slaughter of the Romanes by the Pope. Ex Pariensi. Pag. 92.But the multitude being vnordered and out of battaile ray, and vnprouided for ieoperdies which by the way might happen, fell into the handes of theyr enemies, who were in wayt for them, and of them destroid a great nūber, so that on both parts were slayne to the vew of 30000. but the most part was of the Citizens. And this dissention thus begun was not soone ended, but continued long after.

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By these and such other storyes, who seeth not, how farre MarginaliaThe Church of Rome degenerated from the image of the true Church.the church of Rome hath degenerated from the true Image of the right Church of Christ, which by the rule & example of the Gospell ought to be a daughter of peace, not a mother of debate, not a reuenger of her selfe, nor seeker of warres, but a forgeuer of iniuries, humbly and patiently referring all reuenge to the Lord, not a raker for riches, but a winner of soules, not contending for worldly maistership, but humbling themselues as seruantes, and not Vicars of the Lorde, but ioyntly like brethren seruing together, Bishops with Bishops, Ministers with Ministers, Deacons with Deacons, and not as Masters separating themselues by superiority one from an other, and briefly communicating together in one doctrine and coūsell, one particular church with an other, not as a monther one ouer an other, but rather as a sister Church one with an other, seking together the glory of Christ, and not their owne. MarginaliaDifference betweene the church of Rome that was, & the church of Rome that is now.And such was the Church of Rome first in the olde aunciēt beginning of her primitiue state, especially while the crosse of persecution yet kept the Bishops and Ministers vnder in humility of hart and feruent calling vpon the Lord for helpe: so that happy was that Christian then, which with liberty of conscience onely, might holde hys life, how barely soeuer he liued. And as for the pride and pompe of the world, striuiug for patrimonyes, buying of Bishoprickes, gaping for benefices, so far was this off frō them, that then they had litle leisure and lesse list yea once to thinke vpon them. Neither did the Bishoppes then of Rome fight to be Consuls of the City, but sought how to bring the Consuls vnto Christ, being glad if the Consuls would permit them to dwell by them in the city. Neither did they thē presume so hye, to bring the Emperors necks vnder theyr gyrdles, but were glad to saue theyr necks in any corner from the sword of Emperors. Thē lacked they outward peace, but abounded with inward consolation, Gods holy spirit mightely working in their harts. Then was one catholicke vnity of truth and doctrine amongest all churches, agaynst errors and sectes. Neither did þe east and west, nor distance of place deuide the church, but both the eastchurch and westchurch, MarginaliaEastchurch. Westchurch. the Geekes and Latynes made all one church. And albeit there were then 5. Patriarchall Seas appoynted for order sake, differing, in regions, & peraduenture also in some rites one from another, yet all these consenting together in one vnity of catholicke doctrine, hauing one God, one Christ, one fayth, one baptisme, one spirit, one head, and lincked together in one bōd of charity, and in one equality of honor, they made altogether, one body, one church, one communion, called one MarginaliaCatholike.catholicke, vniuersall, and Apostolicall church. And so long as this knot of charity and equality did ioyne them in one vnity together, so long the church of Christ florished and encreased, one redy to helpe and harbour another, in time of distresse, as Agapitus and Vigilius flying to Constantinople, were there ayded by the Patriarch. &c. so that all this while neither forrein enemye, neither Saracen nor Souldane, nor Sultane, nor Calipha, nor Corasmine, nor Turke had any power greatly to harme it.

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But through the malice of the enemy, this Catholicke

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