Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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Winchester (Winton; Wenta; Wenton)
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Winchester (Winton; Wenta; Wenton)


OS grid ref: SU 485 295

Historic capital of Wessex; former capital of England; county town of Hampshire; cathedral city

307 [284]

K. Henry. 3. Schisme betwene the Greeke church,and church of Rome, with the causes therof.

of euerlasting trāquility. The grace of God be with you all. Amē. Ex Math. Parisiens. fol. 111.

Shortly after the sending of these letters, MarginaliaThe Pope proclaymeth war against the Greek Church.Pope Gregory prepared to send men of warre signed with the crosse to fight agaynst the Grecians. Wherupon the Archbishop of Antioch, with the said Germanus solemnly excommunicated the Pope, MarginaliaThe Archb. of Antioch & Cōstantinople excommunicate the Pope. after he first had excommunicated them, Par. fol. 118. In the meane time by the tenour of these letters of the Patriarch sent to the Pope and to the Cardinals, it is euident to all men that haue eies in their heads, to see: Marginalia5. Notes to be considered. The first Note.first how the whole vniuersall church of Christ, frō the east partes to the west, in auncient times were altogether vnited in one cōsent of doctrine, & lincked together in brotherly charity, one Church brotherly to helpe an other, both with temporall ayd & spirituall councell, as case required. Neither was then any one mother Church aboue other Churches, but the whole vniuersall Churche was the mother Church and spouse of the Lord, to euery faythfull beleuer. MarginaliaThe true Catholike church, where it was, and when. Vnder which vniuersall Church in generall, were comprehended all other particuler Churches in speciall, as sister churches together, not one greater thē an other, but all in like equality, as God gaue his giftes so seruing one another, euer holding together the vnity of fayth and Sisterly loue. And so long was it and rightlye might so be called the catholicke church, hauing in it true Marginalia1. Vnitie. 2. Vniuersalitie. 3. Consent.vnity, vniuersality, and free consent. Vnity in doctrine, vniuersality in cōmunicating and ioyning together of voyces, cōsent in spirit and iudgement. For what soeuer was taught at Rome touching fayth and saluation, it was no other then was taught at Antioch, Siria, &.

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MarginaliaThe second noteSecondly, how in processe of time, through occasion of the Bishop of Romes tyranny and violent oppressiō, this ring of equality being broken all flew in pieces, the East church from the West, the Greekes from the Latines, and that which was one before, now was made two: vnitye turned to diuision, vniuersality to singularity, and free cōsent to dissention.

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MarginaliaThe third note.Thirdly, here is also to be noted, after this pitiful breach of equality, how many & what great natiōs departed frō the communion of the Church of Rome, and especialy about this time aboue specified of pope Gregory 9. an. 1230 so that both before and after that time many coūcels were holden, and many thinges concluded in the Westchurche, wherunto the one halfe of Christendome lying in the east partes, did neuer agree: and contrary, many councelles holden with them, which in the Latine church were not receiued. MarginaliaThe church hath her name of Catholicke, wherby & whē.So that the church now as she lost the benefit of vniuersall consent, so also she lost the name Catholicke. Wherupon this question is to be asked, MarginaliaWhether the doctrine of trāsubstantiation, made without the free consent of the East churches, be Catholicke or no.that when the coūcell of Lateran vnder Pope Innocent 3. ordeined the doctrine of transubstantiation and auricular confession here in the westchurch, without þe free consent of the eastchurch whether the same doctrine is to be counted Catholicke or not?

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MarginaliaThe fourth noteFourthly, in the departing of these churches from the Bishop of Rome, here also is to be noted, that the same churches of the Greeks, notwithstanding they sequestred themselues and fel out with the church of Rome, and that iustly: yet they kept theyr vnity still with theyr God, and reteined stil the true xxx that is, the true and sincere cere doctrine of fayth. ready to debate and try the trueth of their religion by the scriptures, as they here in theyr own writings desire to haue the truth examined, according as ye haue heard. Wherefore the church of Rome hath done them open wrong, which being offred so gently to try and to be tryed by the trueth of Gods word, not onely would stand to no triall, nor abide conference, but also hath excōmunicated them as hertickes, whiche appeare here to be more orthodoxasticall christians, then they themselues.

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MarginaliaThe fifth note. The Church of Rome proued not to be Catholicke.Fiftly, these things thus standing, then haue we to cōclude that the church of Rome falsely pretendeth it selfe to be catholicke. For if the name of Catholicke must needes import an vniuersall consēt of the whole, MarginaliaThe procedings of Rome stand vpon no free consent, but are can that be catholick where the consent of so many famous and true christian churches hath bene lacking, & furthermore wher the consent that hath bene amongest themselues, hath rather bene coacted, then any true or free consent? Which is easy to be proued. For let these fires and fagottes cease, let kinges and princes leaue to presse theyr subiects with the popes obedience, but let the scripture, and the bishops alone euery one his own Dioces to gouerne their flock after the rule of Gods word, and how few be there in this west end of þe world (trow you) þt would not doe the same that these Greciās, Ethiopians, and Syrians haue done before vs? And thus much by the occasion of this Patriarches letters sēt to pope Gregory, cōcerning the Grecians.

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Whose doings when I consider, as I can not but cōmend their wisedome & iudge their state happy and blessed, in shaking off from their neckes the miserable yoke of the popes tyranny: so on the other side considering with my selfe MarginaliaThe miserable state of the West partes of christendom vnder the Pope.the wretched thraldome of these our churches here in the west part of the world, vnder the bishop of Rome, I can not tell, whether more to maruell or to lament their pitiful state, who were brought into such oppression & slauery vnder him, that neither they could abide him, nor yet durst cast him of. So vntollerable were his exactions, so terrible was his tyranny, his suspensions & excommunications MarginaliaThe Popes excommunications lyke to a fooles dagger.much like to a mad mans dagger, drawen at euery trifle, that no christen patience could suffer it, , nor natiō abide it. MarginaliaThe false perswasion of the popes supremacy, cause of much wretchednes.Again, so deep did he sit in their consciences, falsly beleuing him to haue the authority of S. Peter, that for cōscience sake neither king nor Cæsar durst withstand him, much lesse poore subiects once mute agaynst him. And although his takings and spoylings, namely in this realm of england were such, that neither the laity nor spiritualty could beare them: yet was there no remedy, beare thē they must, or els the Popes sentence was vpon them, to curse them blacke as pitch.

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In reading the historyes of these crimes, any good hart would lamēt and rue, to see the miserable captiuity of the people, what they suffered vnder this thraldome of the Bishop of rome, wherof part hath bene shewed before, more (God willing) shall follow hereafter, and some part here presently I mind to expresse. 

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Papal exactions from England

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

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A briefe table or declaration of the Popes vnreasonable gatherings, exactions, and oppressions in the Realme of England.

MarginaliaA briefe ta-table of the popes spoyling & getting of English money in the dayes of K Hen.. 3.ANd first to begin with the elections of the Byshops, Abbots, Deanes and Priors within this realme it can not be told what mas of mony grew to the popes coffers thereby, especially in this kinges dayes: for so much as in his time lightly no election hapned either of Archbishopp Bishop, Abbot, or any roome of dignity, but when the Couent or Chapter had chosen one to their minde, the king who had maried a stranger, and sought therfore to prefer strangers, would set vp an other. By reason wherof, whē the other part was fayne to appeale to Rome and there to plead the case, no small riuers of english mony besides expences and trauel by the way, went flowing to the popes sea. And though the election went neuer so cleare, yet the new elect must needes respect the holy father with some gentle reward, and further by his othe was bound euery 3. yeares, either in his owne person or by another to visit Limina Apostolorum.

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MarginaliaMoney comming to the pope by the election of Iohn Herford Abbot of S. Albans.So in the house of S. Albones, when Iohn Herford was elected Abbot, their publick electiō was not enough, but for the confirmation of the same, the Monkes were fayne to send Reynold the Phisitiō, & Nicholas a Monk, to Rome with a sufficient bag of mony, through the mediation wherof che election might stand, and the new Abbot sworne euery third yere by himself, or another to visit the doresels of the Apostles.

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MarginaliaEight thousand markes genen out of the Bishopricke of Wint. to the pope, about the election of William Rale. anno. 1243.An other such like contention happened betweene the king and monkes of Winchester about the election of W. Rale: whom the Monkes had chosen, but the king refused, willing to place a stranger, and therfore sent to Rome his messengers, Theobald a Monke of Westminster, and M. Alexāder a Lawyer with no small somme of mony: to euacuate the election of the foresayd W. Rale: Commaunding moreouer, that þe gates of Winchester should be shut against him, and no man so hardy there to receiue him in his house. Wherupon the sayd W. being excluded, after he had sayd his curse vpon the whole citty of Winchester, made his repayre to Rome, wherefor 8000. Markes being promised to the pope, his bishoprick spite of the kings hart, was confirmed and he receiued. Ex Mat. Parisiens. fol. 164. & 240.

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After the death of Stephen Langhton Archb. of Canterbury, ye heard before MarginaliaRead before pag. 277. how the monks had elected Walter a Monke of Caunterbury. But the king to stop that election, sent vp his Proctors, M. Alexander stanes, and M. Henry Sandford bishop of Rochester to the Pope, to euacuate that election, and to place Richard Chauncellor of Lincolne. Which Proctors perceiuing at first the Pope and Cardinals, how hard & vnwillingly they were therunto, & considering how all thinges might be bought for mony, rather then the king shoulde fayle of his purpose, they promised on the kinges behalfe to the pope for mainteining his warres agaynst Fredericke the Emperour MarginaliaThe tenth part of all moueables in England and Ireland geuē to the pope. 1229.a disme, or tenth part of all the moueables in the Realme of England and of Ireland. At the contemplation of which

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