Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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340 [317]

K. Henry. 3. The Friers Gospell called Euangelium æternum. Robertus Gallus against the P.


Hostem esse inuisum, dedecoriq̀; Deo.

Rex tandem veniet cœlo delapsus ab alto

Tunc non defendent te, sacra, missa, cruces

Non in sublimi surgentes vertice cristæ,

Non diploma potens, non tua sacra cohors.

Nec diadema triplex, nec sedes sanguine parta,

Nullus honos solij, purpura nulla tui.

Triginta argenteis Christum vendebat Iudas,

Tu Christi vendis corpora plura tui.

Corpora tu vendis Christi paruo ære, polumq̀;,

Cælestes genios, sidera, Iura, deos.

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MarginaliaCertaine preachers in Sueuia.As ye haue heard of the iniquity & raging pride of the popish church against their lawfull Emperor: Now shall ye heare (Christ willing) how God beginneth to resist and withstand the corruption of that whorish Church, by stirring vp certaine faythfull teachers in sundry coūtries: 

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Opponents of the papacy

This section follows on from the detailed account of the pope's war with Frederick II, by using what is know called the antifraternal tradition to show that there were a variety of learned men writing against the papacy at this time. The antifraternal tradition concerns literary writings that were hostile to fraternal orders from the 1250s to the end of the Middle Ages. Chaucer is perhaps the most well known of these writers today although William of St. Amour is widely acclaimed as inaugurating the tradition. For more information on this form of writing and its connections to the Lollards see Penn R. Szittya, The Anti-fraternal Tradition in Medieval Literature (Princeton, 1986). It is significant that Foxe does not use Chaucer as a main source at any point in his account, and this suggests that Foxe was more interested in lesser-known but similar authors, which could act as a further confirmation of Chaucer as a proto-Protestant, widely accounted in other Elizabethan writings.

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For this particular account Foxe uses various examples from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Basil, 1556) such as the preachers of Svenia (pp. 856-7), a Spaniard named Arnold (pp. 799-801), and John Semeca in Germany (p. 801). These authors act as a context for the thirty-nine arguments (signs) of William of St. Amour, which Foxe presents in their entirety to show to the reader that his condemnation and the burning of his books were for beliefs that were in agreement with the reformed church in England. Although the background to William of St. Amour was derived either from Flacius, Catalogus Testium Veritatis pp. 801-5 or Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols., London, 1872-1884), vol. 5, pp. 598-600 the articles themselves probably came from a manuscript in the collection of Archbishop Matthew Parker. The Arnaldus Bonaevallensis et Aliorum Scripta (CCCC MS 103.8) as described in M.R. James, A descriptive catalogue of the manuscripts in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (2 vols., Cambridge, 1912) contained William's articles. Its relationship to the Fasciculi Zizaniorum, a collection of Lollard writings collected by John Bale and used by Foxe, suggests a connection also to Bale. Significantly Bale also published information on William of St. Amour in his Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae …Catalogus (Basel, 1557), pp. 308-9 from which Foxe might also have derived some of his information. The section ends with further examples of books and scholars who stood against the Pope in the thirteenth century taken from Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis, pp. 803-4, 806, 872-3 and a brief description of the prophecies of the Dominican friar, Robert Gallus who had similar visions as Hildegard against the spiritual authority of Rome (Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis, pp. 840-3). Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

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As in the countrey of Sueuia, about the time of this Emperour. an. 1240. or neare vpon the same, where were many preachers mētioned in the Chronicle of Vrspergēsis, and also in Crantzius Lib. 8. cap. 16. & 18. MarginaliaEx Chron. Aba. Vrsperg. Crātz lib. 8. cap. 10. which preached freelye against the Pope. These Preachers (as Crantzius sayth) ringing the Belles, and calling the Barons in Hallis of Sueuia: there preached that the Pope was an hereticke, & that his Bishops and Prelats were simoniacke and heretickes. And that the inferiour Priestes and Prelates had no authority to binde and loose, but were all seducers. Itē that no Pope, Bishop, or Priest, could restrayne mē from their duety of seruing and worshipping of God. And ther fore such cities or coūtries, as were then vnder the Popes curse, might notwithstanding lawfully resort to the receyuing of Sacraments, as well as before. Item that Friers Dominicke, and Franciscane, did subuert the church with their preaching. And as the iudulgence of the Pope, & his Popelings was of no regard, so that remissiō, which they did preach vnto them, they preached it not from the Pope but as from the Lord. MarginaliaResistance against the Pope no new thing in Christes churchAnd thus much I thought here to recite, whereby it may appeare, how the resisting of the Popes vsurped power and corrupt doctrine, is no newe thing in these dayes in the Church of Christ. &c.

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MarginaliaArnoldus de noua villa condemned of heresie.And not long after these aforesayd, rose vp Arnoldus De noua villa, a Spanyard, and a man famously learned & a great writer. an. 1250. whom the Pope with his spiritualty condemned among hereticks, for holding and writing agaynst the corrupt errors of the popish Church, His teaching was, that Sathā had seduced all the world from the truth of Christ Iesus. Item that the fayth (which then Christen men were commonly taught) was such a fayth as þe deuils had: meaning belike (as we now affirme) that the papistes do teach onely the horicall fayth, which is the fayth Historiæ non fiduciæ. Itē, that Christen people (meaning belike for the most part) are led by the pope vnto hel. Item, that all cloysters are voyd of charity, and damned: MarginaliaVide librum, de testibus veritatis.And that they all doe falsify the doctrine of Christ. Item, that the Diuines do euill in mixting Philosophy with diuinity. Item, that Masses are not to be celebrated. And that they ought not to sacrifice for the dead. Certaine other opinions there be, which the slaundrous sects of Monks and Friers do attribute vnto him: (but as they are wont in al other to do) rather vpon enuious taking, then of any iust cause geuen.

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And as this Arnoldus was condēned, so also the same time MarginaliaIoannes Semeca the glose writer to the Popes decrees excommunicated.Ioannes Semeca, the glose writer of the Popes decrees, and Prouost of Halberstate was excōmunicated, & depriued of his Prouostship, for resisting Pope Clement the fourth, gathering certain exactions in Germany. And therfore he appealed from the Pope to a generall councel, and had many great fauorers on his side, till at last the both the Pope and he dyed.

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Consequently in this order and number, foloweth the worthy and valiaunt champion of Christ & aduersarye of Antichrist MarginaliaGuilielmus de S. Amore.Guilielmus de S. Amore, a maister of Paris, and chiefe ruler then of that Vniuersity. This Guilielmus in his time had no small a do writing agaynst the Fryers, & their hipocrisy. But especially against the begging friers, both condemning their whole order, and also accusing thē as those that did disturbe & trouble al þe churches of Christ by their preaching in churches agaynst the will of the ordinaries and pastors, by their hearaing of confessions, and executing the charges of Curates and pastors in theyr Churches. All the testimonyes of Scripture that make agaynst Antichrist, he applyeth them against the Clergy of Prelates, and the Popes spiritualtye. The same Gulielmus is thought to be the author of the booke, which is attributed to the schole of Paris, and intituled: De periculis Ecclesiæ. Where he proueth by 39. arguments, that Friers be false Apostles.

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MarginaliaThe place of the Gospell expounded, Goe and sell all & come and folow me.Moreouer, he doth well expound this saying of Christ (if thou wilt be perfect, go and sell away all thou hast, and come follow me) declaring there pouerty to be inioyned vs of Christ, non actualem, sed habitualem: not in such sort as standeth in outward action, when no need requireth, but in inward affection of hart, when neede shall require: As though the meaning & precept of our Lord were not that we should cast away actually al þt we haue, but that when the confession of the name of God & the glory of christ shall so require: that then we be ready to leaue & reliquish what things soeuer, for þe sake of him. &c. As when he requireth vs, after like phrase, þe hatred of father & mother, and of our own liues: he biddeth vs not to dihonor father or mother, much lesse to hate thē: but that thē, when case shall require, we set all thinges behinde the loue of Christ. Many other worthy workes he compiled, wherin albeit he vttered nothing but what was truth, MarginaliaGuliel de S. Amore condemned of the pope for an hereticke.yet notwithstanding he was by Antichrist & his rable, condemned for an heritick, exiled, & his bookes burnt: Whose hereticall argumētes as they called them, that thou mayst better iudge therof, here vnder I thought good to place.

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Agaynst false Prophets with signes to know them by in these his wordes do follow. For because these seducers sayth he, name thēselues to be Apostles: and that they are sent of God to preach, to absolue & dispēse with the soules of men, by meanes of their ministery. Read the saying of þe Apostle in his second Epistle to the Corinthians, the xi. chap. For such Apostles are subtle and cratty workemen, disguising themselues to be like the Apostles of Christ: Therfore, we mean to shew some certaine infallible tokēs and probable, by the whic false Apostles may be discerned from the true preachers and Apostles of Christ.

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MarginaliaThe first signe & tokē to know a false Frier and prophet by.The 1. signe or marke is, that such as be true preachers do not enter into simple womens houses ladē with sinne and take them as it were captiue, as many of the false preachers do: as in the second Epistle of S. Paule to Timothy the 3. chapter is manifest, saying: Of those sortes are they, which enter into womens houses. &c. Therfore those preachers which come into womens houses, to the intent they may take thē captiue, be not true preachers, but false Apostles.

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MarginaliaTrue Preachers do not deceiue men with painted flattering words.The 2. signe and token is, that those that be true preachers do not deceiue simple men with painted and flattering wordes, whereby they preferre their owne trash and traditions, as all false Prophets do, as in the last Chapter to the Romaines appeareth, saying: By their pleasaunt & sugred talk. and by their blessing and crossing they deceiue and beguile the hartes of innocent men and women. Glo. With gay glorious words they extoll & set forth their traditions, wherby they deceiue simple mē. Very greatly doe they deceiue the soules of simple men, which cause them to enter into theyr sect, which they terme Religion. And they which before led a noughty life, by reasō of their ignorance or simplicity: after their entrance, become subtle false deceiuing hipocrites, entring together with the rest into poore mens houses: yea & oftentimes become worsse then the other. Wherupō Mat. 22. wo be vnto you Scribes & Phareseis, hypocrits which go about. &c. Therfore they which do this, are no true messengers but false Apostles.

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MarginaliaSigne 3. is, that true Apostles take in good part when they be reproued.The 3. signe is, that the true Apostles if they be reproued, suffer the same patiently. 2. Cor. 12. saying: the tokens of my Apostleship are accomplished among you, in all patience & sufferance, meaning that patience, which pertayneth to the maners of the preachers. Therfore they which suffer not correction or punishment, be no true Apostles, but rather shew themselues to be no Christians at all 1. Cor. 12. No man can say that Iesus is the Lord, but by the holy ghost. Glossa. It is meet that christians should be hūbled, to the intēt that they may suffer themselues to be reproued, and not be holden vp with yea and nay. And also such men do shew themfelues to be carnall, and not spirituall at all, although they fayne themselues to be spirituall. Gal. 3. Therefore am I become an enemye vnto you? Notwithstanding the Glossa sayth: no carnall man will be reproued although he erre. Wherefore, those preachers which suffer not coroection, seeme not to be true Apostles, but false Prophets.

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MarginaliaThe 4. signe is, that true preachers commend not themselues.The 4. signe is, that true Apostles commend not them selues. 2. Cor. 4. For we dare not ioyne our selues, nor yet compare our selues vnto others which commend & boast many of theyr actes, when God alloweth none of them at all. Also true preachers although they be in deede prayse worthy for theyr good desertes: In the consciences of men are they prayse worthy, & not to the outward shew alone. 2. Cor. 3. We commend our selues sayth the Apostle to the consciences of all men: Then they do not commend them selues in cōparison of other. Wherfore the glose saith vpon

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