Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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345 [322]

K. Henry. 3. Resistance against the P. no new thing. Gulielmus de sancto amore.

uour the poore & needy man. 3. q. cap 1. When the authority Ecclesiasticall therfore shall be quite taken from them, and disposed to other, such as either by their order, or Apostolicall graūt, do challenge to haue the same: Then doubtles, shall neither the iurisdictiō of ciuile causes and pleadings, nor any authority that such Prelates haue yet remaining, neither yet the possessions of the temporall goodes of the Church, any longer remayne amongest them. Shall suche haue the temporall goods of the church which minister not the spirituall treasure thereof? 1. Cor. 9. Know ye not that they which kill the sacrifice ought to eate of the sacrifice, & they that serue at the aultar are partakers of þe aultar? For as the body without the soule cannot stand, so corporall thinges without spirituall things cannot continue. 1.q. 1. if any shall take away the same. Thus haue you had the 39 arguments, for the which both he was cōdemned, and his bookes burned.

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MarginaliaA detestable booke of the Fryers called Euangelium æternum.In the dayes of this Guilielmus, there was a most detestable and blasphemous booke set forth by the Friers, (mentioned also in Math. Parisiens.) which they called Euangelium æternum, or Euangelium spiritus sancti: That is, the euerlasting Gospell, or the Gospell of the holy Ghost. In which book, many abhominable errors of the Friers were conteyned, so that the Gospell of Iesus Christ was vtterly defaced: which this booke sayd, was not to be compared with this euerlasting Gospel, no more then the shell is to be cōpared with þe carnell: then darknes to light. &c. More ouer that the Gospell of Christ shal be preached no longer but fifty yeares, and then this euerlasting Gospell should rule the Church. &c. Item, þt whatsoeuer was in the whole Bible, was in the saide Gospell contayned. At length this Friers Gospell was accused to the Pope, and so 6. persons chosen of the whole vniuersitye to peruse and iudge of the booke: as MarginaliaThe eternall and spiritual Gospell of the Fryers condemned with much a do of the Pope.Christianus Canonicus, Baluacensis: Odo de Doaco: Nicholaus de Baro: Ioannes de Sicca Vella Anglus. Ioannes Belim, Gallus: Among whom, this Guilielmus was one, who mightely impugned this pestiferous and deuillish booke. These 6. after the perusing of the booke were sent vp to Rome. The Friers likewise sent their messengers withall: where they were refuted, and þe errors of the booke condemned: but so, that the Pope with the Cardinals commaunded the sayd booke to be abolished and condemned not publickly (tendering the estimation of the religious orders, as of his own most chiefe champions) but that they should be burned in secret wise: and the books of the foresayd Guilielmus to be burnt with all.

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Besides other his bookes, 2. Sermons we haue of his yet remayning, one vpon the Gospell of S. Luke, of the Pharisy and the Publicane: the other vpon the Epistle, redde in the Church on May day. Where in the first he resembleth the Phariseis to our Monkes, and that he proueth by all the properties of the Phariseis described in the Gospell. The Publicane he resembleth to the Laity, such as for because the sooner they are reduced to acknowledge their sinnes, the more hope they haue of mercy. The other, because they stand confident in their own righteousnesse, are therefore farther from their iustification. In the latter sermō he setteth forth and declareth what perils and daūders be like to fall vpon the Church by these religious orders of Monkes and Friers.

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MarginaliaLaurentius Anglicus cōdemned of the Pope.Among the other besides of that age which withstood the bishops of Rome & his Antechristian errors, was one Laurēce an Englishman, and maister of Paris. An other was Petrus Ioannes a Minorite. Of whome the foresayde Laurence was about the yeare of our Lord. 1260. Who in his teaching, preaching & writing, MarginaliaDefensio Guilielmi. Cauendum a spendoprophetis.did stoutly defēd þe part of the forsayd Guilielmus & the rest of his side agaynst the Friers. Against the which Friers he wrote 2. bookes: One in þe defence of William afore mētioned: the other vpō this argument and title: To beware of false prophets. &c. Certayn other things also he wrote, wherin by diuers proofes and testimonies he argued & proued, that Antichrist was not farre of to come.

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The other, Petrus Ioannes was about the yeare of our Lord. 1290. which taught and maintained many things agaynst the Pope: MarginaliaThe Pope Antichrist. The synagogue of Rome to be great Babylon.prouing that he was Antichrist, and that the sinagogue of Rome was great Babilon. He wrot vpon Mathew, vpon the Epistles, and vpon the Apocalips. Mention of this Petrus Ioannes is made in MarginaliaEx Nicolao Emerico in libro suarū inquisitionum.Nicholaus Emericus in Lib. Inquisitionum. &c. And sayth moreouer, that Mithael Cesenas (of whō Christ willing shall followe hereafter) took of him a great part of his opiniōs. MarginaliaPetrus Ioannes burned after his death.And because the pope could not burne him aliue, after his death he caused his bones to be taken vp and burned.

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MarginaliaRobertus Gallus prophesieth against the Pope.To these and with these aboue specified, is to be added Robertus Gallus, who being borne of a right noble parentage for deuotion sake, was made a Dominicke Frier, a-bout the same yeare of our Lord aboue touched, an. 1290. This man, as appeareth by his writing, had diuers and sundry visions: whereof part is annexed with the visions and prophecy of Hildegardis. His visions al tend against the spiritualty of Kome. Where in the fift chapter, he calleth playnely the Pope an Idoll: which hauing eyes seeth not, neither lusteth to see the abhominatiōs of his people, nor the excessiue enormity of ther voluptuousnes. But only to see to the heaping vp of his own treasure: & hauing a mouth, speaketh not, but sayth: I haue set good men ouer them, (which is sufficiēt for me) to do them good either by my selfe or by some other. And foloweth in the same chapter, Wo to that Idoll: woe to the might and proud, who shall be equall in all the earth to that Idoll? He that exalted vp his name in earth, saying: who shall bring me vnder? Is not my house compared with the mighty Potentates of the land? I am higher then Dukes: Knightes on their horsebacke do seruice vnto me. That which my Fathers had not before me, þt haue I done to me. My house is strowed with siluer: gold and pearle are the pauement of my palace. &c.

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MarginaliaThe Pope described.Agayn in the 12. chapter and also in the first, vnder the name of a Serpēt he paynteth out the Pope: whom he declareth to extoll himselfe aboue measure, and to oppresse þe few that be godly, and to haue many false prophets about him, which neglecting the word and the name of Christ, do preach & extoll him only, obscuring the name of Christ. The church of Rome and the Pope he describeth in these words: MarginaliaThe visions of Robertus Gallus.I was praying (sayd he) on my knees, looking vpward to heauen, nere to the aulter of S. Iames in Paris, on the right side of the aultar: & saw in the ayre before me the body of a certain high bishop all clothed in white silke, who turning his backe on the East, lift vp his hand toward the West, as the Priestes are wont in theyr Masse turning to the people, but his head was not seene. And as I was considering aduisedly whether he had any head or no: I perceiued a certyane head in him all dry, leane & withered, as though it had bene a head of wood. MarginaliaThe state of the Church of Rome described.And the spirit of the Lord sayd to me: This signifieth the state of the Church of Kome.

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Moreouer, the same author in his visions well describing the maner of the schole sophisters, and Sorbonists, addeth in this wise. MarginaliaThe scholemen and the friuolous questions described.An other day as I was in like contēplation as before, I beheld in spirit: and beholde I saw a man apparelled like to the other before: which wēt about, hauing fine berad, and excellent wine, that hanged about him on both sides. And the same hauing in his hand a lōg and an hard flint stone, was gnawing hungerly vpon the same, as one being hungry is wont to bite vpon a loafe of bread. Out of the which stone came two heads of two serpentes, the spirit of the Lord instructing me, and saying: This stone purporteth the friuilous, intricate, & curious questions, wherein the hungry do trauaile and labor, leauing the substauntiall foode of their soules. And I asked, what these two heads did meane. And he sayd, The name of the one is vaine glory, the name of the other is the marring and dissipation of religion.

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Also, concerning reformation of the church, this vision he declareth: MarginaliaThe reformation of the church presignified.It happened as I was (sayth he) in the same City in the house of a certaine noble man (a Britaine) and was there speaking with certayne: I saw a crosse of siluer very bright, much like to the Crosse of the Earl of Tholouse. But the 12. apples which did hang beside in the armes of the crosse, were very vile, like the apples which the sea is wont to cast vp. And I sayd: what is this Lord Iesu? and the spirit answered me: This crosse which thou seest is the church, which shal be cleare and bright in purenes of life, and shall be heard and known all ouer through the shrill voice of the preaching of sincere verity. Then being troubled with the apples, I asked, what these apples so vile did signify? and he said: it is the humiliation of the Church. &c.

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MarginaliaThe simonie and auarice of the clergie to be punished.This godly man did forewarne (as in a certain chronicle is declared) how God would punish the simony and auarice of the clergy with such a plague, that riuers should runne with bloud. &c. It is sayd, that there is remayning a great volume of his visions, whiche are not yet abroad: for these that be abroad, are but a briefe extract out of hys visions and reuelations.

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After þt we haue thus lōg straid in these forrein stories of Fredericke, and in the tractation of other matters pertayning to other countreys: Now after this sufficient disgression, it is time that we returne to our own country agayne. Where, in folowing þe continuatiō of time, & course of the Church: we will now adioyne to these good fathers and writers, the history of the learned Bishop of Lincolne 

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Robert Grosseteste

The account of Robert Grosseteste can be found almost identically in Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols., London, 1872-1884), vol. 5, pp. 389-401 and in the Matthew Paris, Flores Historiarum, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (3 vols., London, 1890), vol. II, pp. 379-393, however Foxe largely claims to follow the Chronica Majora for this account with the occasional nod to the Flores Historiarum. The letter from Innocent III was taken from Chronica Majora, vol. 6, pp. 229-31 while the learning of Robert Grosseteste was taken from Nicholas Trivet, Annalium continuatio; ut et Adami Murimuthensis Chronicon (Oxford, 1722), pp. 242-3. Grosseteste is an interesting figure for Foxe to mention at this point in his account. Although generally less popular with sixteenth century reformers, Grosseteste had been celebrated by Wyclif and the Lollards in the fifteenth century as a thirteenth century predecessor to their religious views. However, this was a misinterpretation and one which papal supporters were able to easily deconstruct. Grosseteste opposed Pope Innocent IV on his abuse of his pastoral office in which men incapable of carrying out their duties were often selected. He was not anti-papal. Therefore, Foxe's use of Grosseteste as another sign that the true church remained at the time when the Antichrist had taken control of the papacy was at odds with the general trends of reformist polemic. Grosseteste is probably here because of a particular interest in Lollard texts inspired by John Bale, who had lent Foxe his collection of Lollard papers (the Fasciculi Zizaniorum). Despite the difficulties in using Grosseteste's campaign against the papacy, within the context of other complainants, persecutions and papal abuses of power, Foxe felt that it was worth reinventing the Lollard view of this thirteenth century scholar for a sixteenth century audience. For more detail see R. W. Southern, 'Grosseteste, Robert (c. 1170-1253)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press (2004) and D. A. Callus, Robert Grosseteste: Scholar and Bishop (Oxford, 1955).

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Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

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