Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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348 [325]

K. Henry. 3. Articles of Rob. Grosted against the P. The P. proued an hereticke.

secutor of Simony. These words spake L. Giles, a Spanish Cardinall to the Pope and other mo moued by theyr cōscience to speak. And this coūsell they gaue to the Pope, that he should dissemble and wincke at these thinges as one not seing or regarding them: least otherwise perhaps, some tumult might rise and spring thereof: Especially seing this is manifest and known to all men, that once must needes come a defection and parting from the Church of Rome.

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MarginaliaThe godly talke of R. Grosted in time of his sicknes.Not long after this (about the canicular dayes) thys reuerend & godly Robert bishop of Lincolne lying at his manor place in Bugden fell greuously sicke: and therupon within few dayes departed. In the time of his sickenes he called to him a certayne Frier, of the preaching order named M. Iohn Giles, a man expert & cunning both in phisick & Diuinity: partly to receiue of him some cōfort of his body, and partly to confer with him in spirituall matters. Thus vpō a certeine day, the said B. cōferring wt the foresayd M. Iohn, & riciting to him the doings & procedings of the Pope: did greuously rebuke & reprehend his fellow brethren the preaching Friers, and the other order also of the Minorites. That for so much as their order being plāted in wilfull pouerty of the spirit, to the intēt they should more frely carpe and reproue the vices of the mighty, & not to flatter or spare them, but sharply to rebuke & reprehend the same: The said Friers contrary to theyr profession did not boldly enough cry out and inuey against the abuses of their superiors and men of power, nor did vncouer nor detect their faults and wickednes. And therfore sayd the Bishop, I iudge them to be no better thē manifest hereticks: And addeth moreouer (demaunding of M. Iohn) what is heresy? and that he should geue him the true difinition therof. Wherat, when the Frier did stay and pause, not remembring the solemne difinition of that matter: the Byshop therupon inferreth, geuing this difinition in Latine, by the true interpretation of the Greek word: MarginaliaHeresis quid.Heresis Græce, electio Latine, est sententia humano sensu electa, Scripturæ sacræ contraria, palam docta, pertinaciter defensa. That is. MarginaliaDefinition of heresie.Heresy is a sentence taken and chosen of mans owne brayne, contrary to holy Scripture, openly mayntained, and stifly defended. And this difinitiō geuen consequently he inferred sharpely reprehending the Prelates of the church, but especially the Romaines: which commit the charge of soules vnto their kinsfolks being both in age vnworthy, and in learning vnsufficient. To geue sayth he, the charge of soules to a boy is a sentence of a prelate chosen and taken of mans own head, onely for carnall and earthly respect: & also is contrary to holy scripture the which forbiddeth any such to be made ministers or pastors, which are not sufficient to driue away the Wolues. MarginaliaThe P. proued here an heretickAnd moreouer it is also openly mayntayned, because it is manifestly borne abroad and cōmaunded, with chartes imbulled both with waxe & lead. And finally, it is stifly defended: for if any man shall dare to presume to withstand the same, he is suspensed and excommunicated and open warre cryed out agaynst him: Therfore to whom the whole definitiō of an heretick doth agree, he is a very heretick. But euery faythfull Christian man ought to set himselfe agaynst an heretick as much as he may: Wherefore he that can resist him and doth not, he sinneth and seemeth to be a fautor thereof according to the saying of Gregory. MarginaliaThe saying of Gregory.He lacketh not cōscience of secret societye which ceaseth to resist open impietye. But the Friers both Franciscanes and Dominicks, are most chiefly boūd to withstand such, seing both of them haue the gift of preaching cōmitted to them by their office, and be more apt to the sayd office, by reason of their pouerty: And therfore, do not onely offend in not resisting such, but also are to be coūted mayntayners of the same, according to the sentence of the Apostle to the Romains saying: Not only they which commit such things, but also they that consent are worthy of death. MarginaliaThe Pope accused of heresie.Wherefore it may be concluded, that as well the Pope (vnlesse he cease frō that vice) as also the same Friers, vnlesse they shew themselues more earnest and studious in repelling the same, are both worthy of death, that is, perpetuall damnation. Item sayth the Canon decretal, that vpon this vice of heresy the Pope both may & ought to be accused.

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After this, the vehemency of his disease more & more increasing and because the nightes were something lōger: the third night before his departure, the bishop feeling his infirmity to grow vpon him willed certaine of his clergy to be called vnto him, therby to be refreshed with some cōference or communicatiō: Vnto whom the bishop mourning and lamenting in his minde for the losse of soules through the auarice of the Popes court sayd on this wise, as by certayne Aphorismes. 

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Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste

The Aphorisms (or statements) of Grosseteste at the Council of Lyons remains the most important documents to illustrate Grosseteste's beliefs in how the church should act and reform itself. Grosseteste presented these documents in a series of rolls and by speeches to the Council. He placed the blame for the failures of the church on Antichrist's influence and that it was no good trying to ignore these problems. The arguments are described more fully in D. A. Callus, Robert Grosseteste: Scholar and Bishop (Oxford, 1955), pp. 209-215.

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These statements were obviously extremely useful to Foxe's argument and could be appropriated as both evidence that corruptions had crept into the church by the thirteenth century, that the Antichrist was a recognised presence and that, in the pope's disregard to Grosseteste, he was himself under the Devils spell. This interpretation was strengthened by the retelling of Innocent IV's (ruled 1243-1254) vision of Grosseteste striking the pope on the left side with a staff, which resulted in a real injury to his left side when he woke. This provided a rhetorically impressive tale of prophecy and retribution tied into the apocalyptic drama of Foxe's account. The Aphorisms were extracted from Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols., London, 1872-1884), vol. 5, pp. 402-407 while the tale of Gregory IX's vision was almost certainly taken from John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae …Catalogus (Basel, 1557), p. 288 buffered with added details from Matthew Paris' Chronica Majora, vol. 5, pp. 429-430, 471-2, and the Matthew Paris, Flores Historiarum, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (3 vols., London, 1890), vol. 2, pp. 391-2, 404. The death and vexation of the pope one year after Grosseteste's death in 1253 and the contention for Grosseteste's bishopric that same year was taken from the same sources coupled with Nicholas Trivet, Annalium continuatio; ut et Adami Murimuthensis Chronicon (Oxford, 1722), pp. 243-4.

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Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

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MarginaliaCertain Aphorismes or articles layd of R. Grosted against the B. of Rome.1. Christ came into the world to saue and win soules: Er-go, he that feareth not to destroy soules, may he not worthely be counted Antichrist?

2. The Lord created the whole world in sixe dayes, but in restoring of man he labored more then 30. yeres. Wherfore he that is a destroier of that, about which the Lord so long labored, is not he worthy to be coūted the enemy of God, and Antichrist?

3. The Pope shameth not impudently to adnihilate and disanull the priuileges of his holy predecessors of Romain Bishops, by this obstacle (Non obstante MarginaliaThe Pope accused for his wicked clause (non obstante.)) which is not done without the preiudice and manifest iniury of them, For in so doing, he doth reproue and destroy that which so many and so holy men haue builded vp before, and thus semeth he to be a contemner of the Saints: Worthely therefore he that contemneth shall be contemned, according to the saying of Esay: Woe to thee that doest despise, for shalt not þu thy selfe be despised? And who shall keepe his priuiledges which so breaketh the priuiledges of others.

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MarginaliaThe P. accused for arrogating more then is due to him, and proued not to be equall but inferiour to his predecessours.4. The Pope answering hereunto thus defēdeth perhaps his error. He that is equall, hath no superiority ouer his equall. Therfore, no Pope hath power to binde me being pope as well as he. To this I answere agayne (quoth the Bishop) It seemeth to me, that he that now presently is sayling in the daūgerous seas of this world: and he that is safely ariued in the hauen, hauing past all ieopardyes, are not both like and equall. Graūt that some Popes be saued (God forbid any should say contrary.) Then sayth our sauiour: He that is least in the kingdome of heauē, is greater then Iohn Baptist, a greater thē whom did neuer rise amongst the children of men. Is not therefore some Pope greater being a giuer and cōfirmer of priuileges then this that is aliue? Truely me thinkes he is greater. Therefore he hath dominion ouer his inferior.

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MarginaliaThe P. accused for vndoing the actes and foundations of his predecessors5. Doth not the Pope thus say, speaking of all his predecessours for the most part: This our predecessor, and thys our predecessor of most worthy memory. &c. And agayne. we (sayth he) cleauing to, or following the steppes of our predecessors. &c. And why then doe such Popes as come after, destroy these foundations which their predecessors haue layd?

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MarginaliaProued that the Pope aliue is inferiour to his predecessors before him. And therefore to haue no authoritie to infringe the priuilegies of other Popes.6. Many Apostolicke men comming after, haue confirmed some priuiledge being graunted by other before: And be not many Bishops being already saued by the grace of God, to be counted greater and better then one Byshopp which hath not yet atteined, but standeth in daūger to obtayne that which the other haue got already?

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7. Also our former fathers bishops of þe Apostolical sea, in prefermēt of time go before the other, which in time come after. And those whom the estimatiō of auncient time doth aduaunce, such are we boūd to esteme and to haue in more reuerence. MarginaliaProued by example of Benet that men more auncient in time ought to be preferred in higher reuerenceThis did the holy man Benedict well consider who in his rule preferreth such as came first in time, what so euer men they were, before them, which (albeit being more auncient in yeares) come after them into the order: & commaundeth them to be theyr superiors, and to haue the preheminence. Which being so (as it is) true and certayne: how commeth then this iniurious and rash presumption, which dare repeale and disanull, the old priuileges of many auncient holy Bishops, in time and in reuerence going before them.

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MarginaliaThe Pope accused for maintaining of vsury.8. Moreouer, and though many Popes haue bene grieuous to the Churche, yet this Pope most specially hath brought it most into seruitude & manifold wayes hath dānified the same. For these Caursini, these open vsurers, whō our holy forefathers and doctors (whom we haue seene) and namely our learned maister in Fraunce preacher: also the Abbot of Flay a Cistercian: maister Iacobus de veteri, and maister Steph. Archbishop of Cant. in the time of his banishment: And also maister Rob. Curcun, with his preaching, banished out of Fraunce (for before that time these kinde of Vsurers were neuer knowne in England) the same Caursini, these wicked vsurers (I say) were by thys Pope induced, supported and mayntayned: so that if any do speak against them, he is miserably tossed and trounsed for his labor, wherof partly Roger bishop of London hath some experience.

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MarginaliaAgainst vsurers.9. The world doth know, that vsury is counted a detestable thing in both the Testamēts, and is forbidden of God. But now the Popes Vsurers or Exchaungers (the very Iewes crying out agaynst them) being openly suffered in London to exercise their vsury, to the great damage & detrimēt of all ecclesiasticall persons (but especially houses of religion) compelling such as be in pouerty, to counterfeit, and to put to their seales vnto forged writinges: which is no lesse then to commit Idolatry, and to abrenoūce the veritye whiche is God himselfe. MarginaliaThe craftie practise of vsurers.As for example, I borow 100. Markes for a yeare, in stead of 100. Poundes. I am

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compelled
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