Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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ChesterMiggiano [Michera]
 
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Chester
NGR: SJ 404 665

A city and county of itself, locally in the hundred of Broxton in the County Palatine of Chester, of which it is the capital. 17 miles south from Liverpool. The city comprises the parishes of St Bridget, St John Baptist, Little St John, St Martin, St Peter, St Michael and St Olave; all in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Chester, of which it is the seat.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Miggiano [Michera]

Lecce, Puglia, Italy

Coordinates: 39° 58' 0" N, 18° 18' 0" E

351 [328]

K. Henry. 3. The Popes army slaine. The K. resigneth the Dukedome of Normandy.

complaine. MarginaliaTwo Romain clarkes going to complaine were slaine by the way. This being knowne, certaine recluses pursued him, and so being compassed about, one in the thicknesse of the throng being neuer after knowne, sodenly rushing vpon him, a litle aboue his eies so pareth of his head, þt he fell downe dead. The same also was done to an other of his felowes in fleing away. This hainous murder being famed abroad, strait inquirie therof was made, but the deede doer could not be knowen. Although great suspition was laide vpon Crakhale the kings Chaplein, yet no proofe could be brought. But moste men thought, þt bloudy fact to be done by certaine ruffians, or other light persons about the City or the Court, disdaining belike, that the Romanes were so enriched wyth Englishmens liuings, by whome neyther came relief to any Englishman, nor any godly instruction to the flocke of Christ. And therefore, because they sawe the Church and realme of England in such subiection, and so much to be troden downe by the Romanes and the popes messengers: they thought therby somthing to bridle, as wt a snaffell, the Popes messengers, for their vntemperate ranging into this land. Ex Flor. Hist.

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MarginaliaThe story of Mat. Paris. here ceaseth.¶ Heere by the way is to be noted, that vnto the death of this foresayde Fulco Byshop of London, continueth the history of Mathew Paris. monk of S. Albons, which was to the yeare of grace 1260. The residue was continued by an other Monke of the same house, but not wyth such like commendation, worthy to make any autentike story, as I haue seene it noted in a written booke.

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It were to tedious and curious in order to prosecute what happened in euery yere, through this kings raigne: as how it was prouided by þe king, that whosoeuer coulde despend 15. li. land by yere, should be bound to make to the king a souldiour, that watch should be kept euery night in Cities: that who soeuer was robbed or otherwise damnified in any countrey, he that had the custody, shuld be compelled to make vp the losse againe, or els to pursue the malefactor, which was An. 1253. witnessing Flores hist. Item, how the king making his viage into Vascone, his expenses were reckened to mount 270000. marks, beside 30000. Markes bestowed vpon his brethren by the mother side, & beside other great gifts geuen abroad. By reason wherof, great taxes and tolonies and tenthes were required of his subiects, especially of the Churchmen: who were wont to receiue tithes of other, nowe were constrained to geue tithes to the laitie. Flores Hist. An. 1254. Item, howe in the yeare next following, the Londoners offring a 100. li. for a gift to the king with a precious cup of gold, at his returne out of Fraunce, were shortly after compelled by the King to pay 3000. Markes, for the scape of a certaine prisoner being a clerke condemned: which clerke being graunted of the King to the Bishop, and he hauing no prison sufficient for him, borrowed of the Londiners to haue him kept in the prison of Newgate, who escaping thereout, they as is sayde, were demaunded this recompence aforesaide. Anno 1255. Item, how the king greatly complaining of his debt, the same yeare required the whole tenthes, which shoulde be gathered in 3. yeres, to be takē vp all at once. To whose request, the nobles and commons agreed to straine themselues, so that the Charter of their liberties and customes might be ratified, & fully by him confirmed. And so for that yeare they were. Flores Hist. MarginaliaPope Alexander 3. maker warre.Item, howe Pope Alexander the 3. to destroy the city Michera, with king Menfrede the sonne of Fredericke the Emperor, sent foorth the same yere Octauianus his Cardinall with a puissant armie: who comming to the City with his siege, through the counsaile of Marchisius one of the chiefe Captaines, discharged a great part of his hoste, MarginaliaThe Popes army slaine.whereby the most of the Popes army was slaine and destroyed, almost all, saue onely the familie of Marchisius. An. 1255. Flor. Mat. Paris.

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Many other thynges during the time of thys King might be congested, MarginaliaLewlinus K. of Wales warreth against the kyng.as the rising of Lewlynus King of Wales and of the Welshmē against the king, and wasting the land vnto the towne of Chester, who destroyed diuers of the Englishmen horsemen, taken in the Marrys, MarginaliaLewlinus & the K. cōcorded.wyth whom at length they fel to agremēt by the meanes of Octobonus: that his successors should be called princes onely of Wales, and shuld do the king his homage. And the king of him to receaue 3000. Markes. And this being stablished in wryting, was confirmed by the Popes seale. An. 1257. Ex Polychron. MarginaliaEx Polychronico. lib. 7.

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About the same time, such famine oppressed the land and lacke of victuals, that a summe of corne was then solde for 26. shillings: MarginaliaEx autore Eulogij. Anno. 1257. in somuch, that the pouerty were forced to eat nettle rootes, thissell rootes, & whatsoeuer they could gette. Ex Eulogio. Although some refer this to the yere 1262.

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Hereunto moreouer might be adioyned, how Pope Alexander abusing and mocking the kings simplicity, made him beleeue that he would make his sonne Edmund kingof Apulia, MarginaliaPope Alexander to make shifte for money maketh the king beleue his sonne should be kyng of Apulia. so that he would sustaine the charges and costes thereof, to maintaine the warre which thereto shoulde appertaine. Whereby the king cast in a sodaine hope, caused his sonne incōtinent to be proclaimed king of Apulia. And vpon the same sent vp to the pope all þe riches he could wel make in his realme. And thus was the realme manifolde waies miserably impouerished to enrich the pope. Ex Flor. Hist. MarginaliaRicharde the kings brother made king of Almaine.About which season, Rich. Earle of Exceter the kings brother, was made king of Almaine by the Electours.

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Here might be shewed moreouer, and added to the stories aboue, how the yere next following, which was 1259. (as Nicholas Triuet wryteth,) the King entering into France, required the restitution of such lands iu Normandie and Angiew, as of olde righte was due vnto him, and wrongfully withholden from him. But the French King againe alledged, saying: that the coūtrey of Normandie by old time was not geuē away from the crowne of France, but vsurped, and by force extorted by Rollo. &c. In cōclusion, the King fearing and suspecting the hearts of his nobles, and looking for none other but for rebellion at home, durst not try wt them, but was compelled to agree wt them vpon such peace & conditions as he coulde get, which was this. MarginaliaWhat ciuill discorde worketh worketh. That he shoulde haue of the French king xiij. C. M. of Turen poundes, with somuch lands els, as came to the value of xx. M. pound in yearely rent: so should he resigne fully and purely to the handes of the French king, all such landes and possessions which he had in Fraunce. MarginaliaResignation of the Earledome of Normandy and Angiew.Wherby the King geuen ouer his stile and titles which hee had in those partes, ceased then to be called Duke of Normandie, or Earle of Angiew.

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Albeit if it be true that Gisburn wryteth, MarginaliaEx Gual. Gisburn. the king afterward repenting of his deede, did neuer receaue the money in all his life, neither did hee cease during his life, to entitle himselfe Duke of Normandie. But after him, hys sonne Edward and his successour in their stile left out the title, to be called Duke of Normandie. &c. Ex Gisburn.

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MarginaliaThe conflict & skirmish betweene the Northern Welch men, and the Southern men in Oxford.Beside many other matters omitted, here I ouerpasse also the sore and vehement conflict, not betwene the frogs and the mise which Homer writeth of, but the mighty pitched field fought in the yeare of our Lorde 1259. betweene the young students and scholers of the Vniuersitie of Oxford, 

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Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

hauing no other occasion (as I read in Math. Pariens.) but onely the diuersitie of the Countrey where they were borne. For the Northern men ioyning with the Welshmē, to try their manhoode against the Southerne part: fel both parts together in such a broile, with their ensignes & warlike aray, þt in conclusion diuers on both sides were slaine. This heauy & bloudy cōflict during and increasing amōg them, the ende was this: that the Northern lads with the Welsh had the victorie. After that fury and fiery fiercenesse had done what it could, the victorers bethinking at length wt themselues, partly what they had done, partly howe it would be taken of the higher powers: and fearing due punishment to fall vpon them, especially feeing the brother of Leoline prince of Wales, and sonne of Giffine, was newly dead in prison, drawing their counsaile and helps together: they offer to king Henry 4000. markes, to Edwarde his sonne 300. and to the Queene 200. to be released of their trespasse. But the king answering them againe, that he set more price by the life of one true subiect, then by all, which by them was offered: would in no wise receiue their money. And so the studentes without hope of peace, went home wyth small triumphe, learning what the common Prouerbe meaneth: Dulce bellum inexpertis. Notwithstanding, the King being then occupied in great affaires and warres, partly with Leoline and þe Welshmen, partly inwrapped wyth discorde at home with his nobles, had no leisure to attend to the correction of these vniuersitie men, which was. An. 1259. Ex Mat. Pariens. Likewise concerning the dissention following the next yeare after, in the Vniuersitie of Paris, MarginaliaVariance betweene the studentes and the Friers in Paris.betwene the students there and the Friers: the number of whome then did somuch increase, that the commons vnneth was able to sustein them with their almes. MarginaliaVariance betweene the Vniuersitie of Oxforde and Cambridge.Also betwene the Vniuersities both of Oxford and Cambridge, for a certaine prisoner taken out of prisone by strength, and brought into sanctuarie the same yeare, as is testified in Mathewe Paris. An. 1259. In like maner, touching MarginaliaVariance betweene the Archb. of Cant. and the chapter of Lincolne.the variance betweene the Archbishop of Caunterb. and the Chapter of Lincolne. Againe, betweene the sayde Archbishop of Canterb. and the Chapter & bishop of London: MarginaliaVariance betweene the Archb. of Cant. and the chapter of London. and how the said Bishop at his consecration woulde not make his profession to the Archb. but wyth this exception, Saluis iure & libertate Ecclesiæ Londinens. quæ pro posse meo defendā in omnibus. &c. recorded in Flores Hist. MarginaliaEx Flor. hist. Al which wranglings and dissentiōs, with innumerable other raigning daily in the Churche at those dayes, if I had so much leasure to prosecute them, as I find them in stories remai-

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